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RESPONSE OF BROILER CHICKS TO DIETS CONTAINING GRADED LEVELS OF CLAY.

Byline: A. O. Ani C.C. Ogbu and E.A. Iloh _: ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT

A total of 360 two weeks old broiler chicks were used to investigate the effect of varying dietary levels of clay on growth performance of broiler chicks. The birds were randomly divided into six groups of 60 birds each and the groups were randomly assigned to six diets containing six levels (0 1 2 3 4 and 5%) of clay. Each treatment was replicated two times with 30 birds per replicate. The study lasted for four weeks. The response parameters studied were body weight feed intake body weight gain feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio. Results showed that dietary clay inclusion significantly (Pless than 0.05) improved weight gain and efficiency of feed utilization. There was significant (Pless than 0.05) reduction in feed cost per kg weight gain and overall cost of production. The results indicated that up to 5% clay may be included in the diet of broiler chicks to enhance growth performance and to reduce the cost of production.

Key words: Arbor Acre feed conversion ratio feed intake growth performance.

INTRODUCTION

The importance of feed in livestock production cannot be overemphasized as it supplies livestock with nutrients necessary for their body functions as well as for the yield of valuable products. Natural feeds could contain non nutritional contaminants that may reduce their nutritional value or even exert adverse health effect on animals (Fink-Gremmels 2004). Fungal contamination affects both the organoleptic characteristics and the alimentary value of feeds and thus poses a risk of toxicosis to animals that consume them. Moulds utilize readily available and vital nutrients in the materials they grow upon and spoilage may result in the loss of 5 to 100% of the nutrients in the feed (EC 2009). Such contamination is widespread especially in tropical countries where high ambient temperature and humidity as well as poor sanitary and processing technology favour the survival multiplication spread infectivity and pathogenicity of these organisms.Poultry are highly susceptible to mycotoxins such as aflatoxins (Denli and Okan 2004; Mabbett 2004; Magnoli et al. 2011). Mycotoxins have negative effects on feed intake and animal performance. Their presence in edible animal products such as milk meat and egg may have detrimental effects on human health too. Mycotoxins have been shown to be carcinogenic immunogenic tremorgenic (cause tremor or excitation of the central nervous system) teratogenic hepatotoxic and also cause damage to the kidney (Ratcliff 2002). Currently mycotoxin binders such as clay minerals aluminosilicates esterifieid glucomannan and modified mannoligosaccharides have received ample scientific and industrial attention as effective tools for the elimination of mycotoxins from feeds. The use of clay supplements in the manufacture of livestock and poultry feeds is well established. Dietary clay supplements (bentonites and kaolinite) have been used as binding and lubricating agents in the production of pelleted feeds for chickens (Owen et al. 2012). Recent studies have shown that the addition of hydrated sodium calcium aluminium silicate (HSCAS) and bentonite clays to corn decreased the effect of aflatoxin when fed to swine. These compounds work probably by nonspecific binding to the mycotoxin and reduction of the passage time through the gut. The effect of toxins in broiler feeds can therefore be reduced to a minimal level by the manipulation of macro and micro nutrients and inclusion of clay toxin binders. However these commercial clays are hardly available to rural farmers in Nigeria. Locally available clay could serve similar purposes especially in rural poultry production where the environment favour mould infectivity and the presence of mycotoxins may not be readily detected by the farmer. Against this backdrop the present study was conducted to investigate the effect of diets containing graded levels of local clay on growth performance of broiler chicks.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The study was carried out at the Department of Animal Science Teaching and Research Farm University of Nigeria Nsukka. The experiment lasted for four weeks.

Formulation of Experimental Diets: Six (6) starter diets were formulated to contain 0 1% 2% 3% 4% and 5%

levels of clay respectively. The ingredients and chemical composition of the diets is shown in Table 1.

Experimental Birds and Experimental Design: A total of 360 two weeks old broiler chicks (Arbor Acre strain) with initial body weight of 217 - 233 g were used for the study. The birds were randomly divided into six treatment groups of 60 birds each in a completely randomized design (CRD). Each treatment was replicated2 times with 30 birds per replicate and housed in 4.6m x6.4m deep litter pens (0.98m2/bird) with fresh wood shavings to cover the floor.The birds were properly vaccinated as and when due following the vaccination protocol for broiler birds by the National Veterinary Research Institute (NVRI) Vom Plateau State Nigeria (unpublished). Anti-coccidialdrugs were also administered at intervals to prevent theoutbreak of coccidiosis in the birds. Feed and water were offered ad libitum and fresh every morning between07:00 and 08:00 hrs. The weight of feed offered minus the weight of left over feed was recorded as the daily feed intake. The birds were weighed at the beginning of the experiment to determine their initial body weights and subsequently on weekly basis to determine their live body weights. Feed conversion ratio was then calculated from these data as gram feed consumed per gram weight gained over the same period.

Proximate composition of feed and Statistical Analysis of data: Experimental diets were subjected to proximate analysis according to AOAC (2006). The chemical composition of the clay sample was determined at the Soil Science Departmental Teaching Laboratory University of Nigeria Nsukka Nigeria. Experimental data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) for CRD using SPSS (2007). Significantly different means were separated using the Duncan option of SPSS (2007).

RESULTS

Data on the growth response of the broiler chicks to the experimental diets are shown in Table 4. The effect of treatment on final body weight and daily weight gain were significant (Pless than 0.05). Birds fed 5% clay diet had significantly (Pless than 0.05) higher final body weight than those fed other diets. Broilers fed the control diet (0% clay) and those of 1 and 2 % clay were similar in final body weight while those on 3 and 4 % clay had the least (Pless than 0.05) growth performance. The same trend was observed for average daily weight gain. Broilers on 5 % clay consumed significantly (P less than 0.01) higher amount of average daily feed than those fed other diets. These were followed by those of the control (no clay) 1 and 2 % clay. Again birds on 3 and 4 % clay consumed the least amount of feed per day. Feed conversion ratio daily protein intake and protein efficiency did not differ significantly (P less than 0.05) between treatments. Cost Implication of Feeding Varying Dietary Levels of Clay to Broiler Starter Birds. Dietary treatments had significant effect on the cost of feed per kg weight gain (Pless than 0.05; Table 4). Birds fed 0 4 and 5 % clay had the highest feed cost per kg gain in body weight. The least feed cost per kg gain was observed with 2 % dietary clay. Birds on 5 % clay equally had the highest total cost of feed consumed over the experimental period followed by those of the control and 4 % clay supplementation. Birds fed 1 2 and 3 % clay recorded the least total cost of feed consumed. The above trend was repeated for cost of daily feed intake. However broilers on 5% clay had overall highest cost of daily feed intake (P = 0.05).

DISCUSSION

Growth Performance of Broiler Chicks Fed Diets Containing Graded Levels of Clay: The significantly higher growth performance (final body weight and average daily weight gain) observed for birds fed 5 % dietary clay compared to those on other diets and the similarity between birds in the control and those of other treatments in these traits suggest that inclusion of clay in the diet improved the performance of the birds. Previous reports on growth performance of broilers fed varying levels of dietary clay agree considerably with the findings of the present study. Nasir and Haq (2001) fed sodium bentonite to broilers at 0-4 % levels and reported improved average weight gain at 1% supplementation. Eser et al. (2012) reported improved body weight and overall weight gain in broilers fed Sepiolite clay. The significantly higher feed intake by broiler chicks fed 5 % clay could result from the higher rate of growth. Animals feed in proportion to their body weight and general metabolic requirement which increases with growth rate. The need for more nutrients caused by nutrient dilution with higher levels of clay may have also contributed to the significant increase in feed intake by birds in this group. As such the birds had to consume more feed in order to meet their basic dietary needs. Nasir and Haq (2001) reported a similar association between improved growth rate and feed intake. Feed intake was depressed under 2 to 4 % inclusion of clay. These birds also had the least growth performance. Acosta et al. (2005) reported that the addition of 1% zeolite in diet of broilers decreased feed intake while Eser et al. (2012) found no apparent relationship between doses of Sepiolite and feed intake in broilers. Feed conversion ration (FCR) was not significantly influenced by clay supplementation which agrees with the findings of Nasir and Haq (2001) Damiri et al. (2010) and Eser et al. (2012). However Pasha et al. (2008) and Katouli et al. (2010) reported significant effect of bentonite kaolin and zeolite on the FCR of broiler chicks. Katouli et al. (2010) reported that FCR ofbirds fed 3 % Kaolin in their 1st and 2nd weeks of life and3 % zeolite in their 1st week differed significantly (P less than

0.05) from the control. The superiority of birds fed 5 % clay diet over the control group in body weight gain and the similarity of the control group to other treatment groups in this trait and in feed conversion ratio indicate that clay treated groups (especially at 1 and 2 %) yielded more value of output per unit value of feed consumed.

Table 1. Ingredient and chemical composition of starter diets

###Diets

###Clay levels (%)###0###1###2###3###4###5

###Ingredients/Treatment###A###B###C###D###E###F

Maize###45.00###44.00###43.00###42.00###41.00###40.00

Wheat offal###6.00###6.00###6.00###6.00###6.00###6.00

Groundnut cake###24.00###24.00###25.00###25.00###26.00###30.00

Soybean meal###13.00###13.00###13.00###13.00###13.00###13.00

Palm kernel cake###6.00###6.00###6.00###6.00###6.00###6.00

Fishmeal###2.00###2.00###2.00###2.00###2.00###2.00

Clay###-###1.00###2.00###3.00###4.00###5.00

Salt###0.20###0.20###0.20###0.20###0.20###0.20

Bone meal###2.80###2.80###2.80###2.80###2.80###2.80

Vitamin/min. premix###0.20###0.20###0.20###0.20###0.20###0.20

Lysine###0.20###0.20###0.20###0.20###0.20###0.20

Methionine###0.20###0.20###0.20###0.20###0.20###0.20

Calculated composition

Crude protein (%)###24.20###24.10###24.00###23.90###23.80###23.70

Energy (Kcal/Kg ME)###2828###2794###2759###2725###2691###2657

Fibre###4.75###4.73###4.70###4.68###4.65###4.63

Cost of feed/Kg ()###82.12###81.40###80.68###79.96###79.24###78.52

Proximate composition

Dry matter###95.00###95.00###95.00###95.00###90.00###95.00

Crude protein###24.16###24.09###24.00###23.68###23.68###23.58

Ether extract###5.00###5.00###5.00###5.00###5.00###5.00

Ash###15.00###10.00###15.00###15.00###15.00###10.00

Crude fibre###4.55###5.75###5.75###5.30###5.00###4.05

Nitrogen free extract###46.29###50.16###45.25###45.80###41.32###52.37

Table 2. Physical and chemical properties of the###

###experimental clay.###

Particle size (%)###

Clay###63.00###

Total sand###37.00###

pH value (H2O)###4.10###

Organic matter (%)###0.35###

Nitrogen (%)###0.056###

Exch. cations (Me/100g)###

Na+###0.32###

K+###0.14###

Ca+###1.20

Mg+###0.80

Cation exchange capacity Me/100g###24.00

Base saturation (%)###10.25

Exch. Acidity (Me/100g)###

Al3+###-

H+###6.80

P (ppm)###4.66

Cost Implications of Feeding Clay: The cost of feed per kg gain in body weight cost of daily feed intake and cost of total feed consumed were least at 2 3 1 and 4 (in ascending order) % inclusion of natural clay on account of the lowest feed intake in these groups (Table 4). Thus higher feed costs were incurred by feeding birds on 5 and0 % clay as expected from their higher feed consumption. In terms of cost of daily feed intake 1% and 2% clay supplementation gave savings of N1.51 and N3.17 respectively over the control group and savings of N3.43 and N5.09 respectively over other treatment groups. The economic benefits of including clay in the diet is mademore obvious by consideration of the total cost of feedconsumed per treatment. Compared to control savings of N302.4 and N675.77 were made with 1 and 2% clay supplementations respectively while savings of N770.53 and N1143.9 were made respectively compared to the5% clay diet. Generally birds fed diets with clay incurred overall least cost of feed consumed compared to the control (1682.73 vs 1868.46). It is obvious therefore

that inclusion of clay in broiler ration can enhance not only performance but also the profitability of broiler enterprise. This contradicts the report by Damiri et al. (2010) who reported no effect of sodium bentonite clay on the economic value of broiler chicken. In the present research feeding birds with diets containing 1 to 5% clay resulted in significant reduction in the cost of daily feed intake as opposed to feeding the birds with the control diet. This is of great economic advantage to the farmer.

Table 3. Growth performance of broiler starters fed diets with varying levels of clay

###Clay level (%)

###0###1###2###3###4###5###SEM###P value

Parameter/treatment###A###B###C###D###E###F

Initial body weight (g)###233.00###233.00###232.50###227.00###221.5###233.00###3.11###0.65

Final body weight (g)###921.50bc###934.00bc###889.00c###831.00d###865.50cd###1011.00a###19.13###0.05

ADFI (g)###50.50b###45.50bc###38.50c###42.00c###48.00b###59.50a###2.03###0.01

ADWG(g)###24.50b###24.50b###23.00 bc

###21.50c###22.50c###27.00a###0.61###0.04

FCR###2.10###1.89###1.68###1.95###2.13###2.20###0.57###0.68

Daily protein intake (g)###12.20###10.97###9.24###10.14###11.70###14.03###4.68###0.74

Protein efficiency ratio###2.10###2.23###2.49###2.12###1.92###1.92###0.98###0.82

Table 4. Cost implications of feeding varying dietary levels of clay to broiler chicks

###Clay level (%)

###0###1###2###3###4###5###SEM###P value

Parameter/treatment###A###B###C###D###E###F

Feed cost/Kg ()###82.13###81.41###80.68###79.97###79.23###78.53###-

Feed cost/Kg gain ()###172.50a###153.86b###135.54c###155.94b###168.76a###172.66a###4.16###0.05

Total feed cost ()###1868.46b###1566.06c###1192.69d 1485.51c###1832.79b###2336.59a###110.24###0.00

Cost of daily intake ()###8.39b###6.88c###5.22d###6.55c###8.11b###10.31a###0.49###0.04

REFERENCES

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Magnoli A.P. M.P. Monge R.D. Miazzo L.R.Cavaglier A.M. Dalcero and S.M. Chiacchiera (2011). Effect of low levels of aflatoxin B1 on performance biochemical parameters and aflatoxin B1 in broilerliver tissues in the presence of monensin and sodium bentonite. Poultry Sci. 90: 48-58.Nasir A.T. and N. Haq (2001). Performance and economics of broiler chicks fed on rations supplemented with different levels of sodium bentanite. Intl J. Agri. Biology 3 (1): 149-150.Owen O. J. M. B. Nodu U. A. Dike and H. M. Ideozu (2012). The effects of dietary kaolin (clay) as feed additive on the growth performance of broiler chickens. Greener J. Agric. Sci. 2 (6):233-236.Pasha T. N. A. Mahmood F. M. Khattak M. A. Jabbar and A. D. Khan (2008). The effect of feed supplemented with different sodium treatments on broiler performance. Turk. J. Vet. Anim. Sci.32:245-248.Ratcliff J. (2002). The Role of Mycotoxins in Food and Feed Safety. Technical paper Animal Feed Manufacturers Association (AFMA) accessed from http://www.facs.org.ukSPSS (2007). Statistical Package for Social Sciences.SPSS Incorporated 444 Michigan Ave. Chicago IL60611 USA.
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Publication:Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences
Date:Feb 28, 2014
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