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RELIGIOUS ORIENTATION AND LOCUS OF CONTROL AMONG MADRASSA AND UNIVERSITY STUDENTS.

Byline: Syeda Tafseer Zahra and Rabia Muqtadir - (email: tafseer985@yahoo.com)

ABSTRACT

Present study explored the relationship between Religious orientation and Locus of control among Madrassa and University students. Urdu translations of 14 items Age Universal Religious Orientation Scale (Gorsuch Mc-Pherson, 1989) and 65 items Belief in Personal Control Scale (Berrenberg, 1987) was used to measure religious orientation and the Locus of control respectively. Scales were administered on a sample of 120 students (60 men and 60 women) whose age range was from 18-28 years, belonging to four private Madrassas and four government sector Universities of Islamabad and Rawalpindi.

The study found support for the hypotheses that there is positive relationship between intrinsic religious orientation and God mediated locus of control (pLess then.05), extrinsic religious orientation (extrinsic social extrinsic personal) and external locus of control (pLess then.01, pLess then.05, respectively) in Madrassa students, while positive relationship was found between extrinsic religious orientation (extrinsic personal and extrinsic social) and external locus of control in university students (pLess then.01, pLess then.05, respectively). The present study gives illustration of the students of both institutes on the religiosity and personality constructs and relationship found between some subscales of Religious orientation and Locus of control.

Key Words: Religion, Religious Orientation, Control, Locus of Control, university students, Madrassa students

INTRODUCTION

Religion is one of the most influential forces that drive the life of its followers. There are various motives behind the notion to be religious. It is widely accepted that every religion serve different functions which strengthen the bond established between religion and its followers. All religions suggest that to rise above a self-serving animal level; human being must recognize and work toward higher, self-transcendence values (Batson Ventis, 1982).

Allport (1966) cited that 'all Religions are motivated by the individual's desire to conserve vale'. Religion is practiced with different orientations and motives and it mostly fulfill their different utilitarian as well as egocentric needs. In this regard, Allport's (1966) approach to religious motivation has had the greatest impact on empirical studies of psycho religious variables (Kirkpatrick Hood, 1990). He conceptualized the underlying motivation for religiousness in terms of a differentiation between intrinsic (I) and extrinsic (E) religiousness (Batson Ventis, 1982).

Allport's (1966) defined the religious orientation as the extent to which a person lives out his/her religious beliefs. A person with a strong intrinsic religious orientation tends to seek to live day-to-day life according to his/her religion. On the other hand, a person with strong extrinsic religious orientation may be more influenced by other social forces and tend to participate in religious activities to meet personal needs, for example, social affiliation, or for personal advantage (Allport Ross, 1967).

Gorsuch and McPherson (1989) further elaborated extrinsic religious orientation as Extrinsic Social (Es); the use of religion for social benefits and Extrinsic Personal (Ep); use of religion for personal comfort and gain. For the present research mean scores were taken as a criteria for terming individuals as intrinsic (I), extrinsic social (Es) and extrinsic personal (Ep).

For the past several decades, the concept of religion and religious orientation was extensively explored in Juedo-Christian religion while few empirical researches available that focus on religion of Islam and its teachings. Islam is different in its ideology from many religions like Hinduism etc. while near to Christianity. What makes it unique is its belief of one, supreme and incomparable God (Maqsood, 2003). Along with it, Muslims need to accept in the heart and say, 'there is no other god but Allah and Muhammad (PBUH) is the prophet of God' (Hedaya-Diba, 1999). Faith is also necessary on the five pillars of Islam; shahadah (bearing witness to the faith), salat (prayer), zakat (almsgiving), siyam (fasting) and hajj (the pilgrimage to Mecca), also the belief on the day-of-Judgment is the part of Islamic teachings (Hedaya-Diba, 1999).

Islam preach to practice that orientation of religion, that based on its pillars like the holy Quran and the teachings of The Holy Prophet (PBUH) as Hazrat Abu Musa Ashari (R.A.A) stated, 'the Holy Prophet (S.A.W) was once asked: 'which of three persons carrier on jihad for the sake of Allah, one who fight to show chivalry, or fights for the sake of self- respect and honor, or one who fights ostentatiously? 'He (S.A.W) replied: 'one who fights to uphold the message of Allah, is the person who carries on jihad in the cause of Allah' (Khan, 1977). The person, who is pointed out in this hadith, is a person with intrinsic religious orientation but the other two have extrinsic religious orientation.

According to the western literature, the behavioral characteristics of individuals with external religious orientation are as infrequent attendees of religious activities and prejudiced toward out-group, while those with internal religious orientation have less prejudiced behavior and more tolerant toward out-group and more frequent attendees of religious activities (Allport Ross, 1967). Similarly, Allport (1966) suggests that extrinsic religious orientation describes persons who pursue self-focused goals and use religion to gain social standing and endorsement. Allport (1966) saw extrinsic religiosity as a less mature Religious orientation than intrinsic religiosity.

Religion was widely studied with different psychological constructs like mental and emotional well-being, self-esteem as well as with personality characteristics as locus of control. Among the different aspects of personality, Locus of Control is considered to be an important construct and is extensively explored in Sociology and Psychology. Rotter (1966) originally developed the concept in the 1950s and defined it as, 'the degree to which the individual perceives that the reward (obtained) follows from or is contingent upon his own behavior or attributes'. According to Locus of Control theory there are two types of people, "Internals" who has internal locus of control, who believe that they have a firm control over life and they behave accordingly. Second types of people are "Externals", who attribute events in their lives to external circumstances (Schultz Schultz, 2005).

Empirical research findings have implied the following differences between Internals and Externals: Internals are more likely to work for achievements, to tolerate delays in rewards and to plan for long-term goals, whereas externals are more likely to lesser their goals. After failing a task, internals re-evaluate future performances and lower their expectations of success, whereas externals may elevate their expectations. Internals are less willing to take risks, to work on self-improvement and to improve themselves through corrective work than externals. Internals obtain greater benefits from social supports and make better mental health recovery in the long-term adjustment to physical disability. Internals are more likely to prefer games based on skill, while externals prefer games based on chance or luck (Benassi, Sweeney, Dufour, 1988).

Different scales were used in the literature to measure the locus of control construct while for the present research; the belief in personal control scale (Berrenberg, 1987) was used. Berrenberg developed and validated this self-report measure based on a Multidimensional model by combining and extending previous conceptions of the construct of perceived control. The proposed model is a combination of old and new concepts of the concerned construct, as Belief in personal control has been traditionally viewed as consisting of internal and external locus while the proposed model added the concept of God mediated locus of control. According to this model, Belief in personal control consist of general External control, general internal control and God mediated control. General External Control reflects the belief that outcomes are the result of some external force (e.g., luck, fate, powerful others).

Exaggerated Internal Control reflects the belief that outcomes are direct result of one's own actions, abilities, efforts, etc., disregarding the contribution of other factors, that helps or act as mediators in achieving whatever one achieves. God-mediated Control reflects the belief that outcomes are indirectly produced by one's own actions, abilities and efforts. There is an external causal agent mediating between the self and the outcome. The mediator may be some supernatural force (e.g., a God). God mediator factor is a form of external control in which the individual make responsible God for what ever is happening in his life.

First effort to study the relationship between religious orientation and locus of control was possibly done by Strickland and Shaffer (1971) on the students of religiously conservative and liberal churches. They found that Locus of Control, measured as extent of externality, and internal religious orientation were modestly, but significantly, negatively correlated. Pargament and his colleagues (1988) posit that the locus of responsibility for problem solving can rest with self (self directing style), with God (differing style) or with both (collaborative style). These authors suggest that self directing style may be consonant with deistic beliefs and humanistic religion, while the deferring style may be more consonant with authoritarian religion. They found that deferring style correlated positively with God control and more extrinsic Religious commitment.

The self directing problem solving style is negatively correlated with God control, while collaborative style has no relationship with God control, while related to intrinsic Religious Orientation. Similarly McCormick, Katherine and Denis (2000) revealed that the more external the locus of control, the less intrinsic the religious orientation, and vice versa. In another study done by Stanke (2004), results showed that high religiosity was found to be negatively correlated with an internal locus of control. In many other researches, Belief in God control has been positively correlated with intrinsic religious commitment, (Kopplin, 1976; McIntosh, Kojetin Spilka, 1985), high religiosity (Pargament Sullivan, 1981) and frequency of church attendance (Pargament, Steele Tyler, 1979; Kopplin, 1976).

Literature shows that there are many factors behind the development of religious motivation and personal control. The most influential factor is culture which is a way of life, shared by group of humans and transmitted to the upcoming generations. It has some values, belief, customs and traditions that distinguish it from other cultures. The implications of Muslim beliefs and practices vary with motivational factors operating within the background culture (Khan, Watson Habib, 2005). In a Pakistan, there is one national culture, but different subcultures are also prevailing in the country that is based on the regional traditions. Despite these variations based on traditions, religion is the main dominating common force, which gives these subcultures the form of one national culture (Javed, 2008).

On the world globe we differentiate among cultures based on its dimensions like individualistic and collectivistic. In Pakistan, collectivism is considered as the prominent part of its culture. In our collective society, group needs dominate over the individual needs and desires and more importance is given to the groupthink, group effectiveness, group decision-making and group cohesiveness. This emphasis on collectivism and great value attached to significant others' role promote the feelings of lesser control in one's own life as compare to the western individualistic society that promote the feelings of one's own control on life (Khan et al., 2005). Hierarchy in the family system is another unique aspect of our culture. Our society is the conformist society where youngsters obey the elders and value their opinions. Difference in opinions with elders is discouraged. This conformity in the family system encourages a child to hold external belief about control in life (Javed, 2008).

Islam is a predominant religion in Pakistan and majority of the community is Muslim. Strong emotional ties with religion are based on insecurities deeply embedded in the psyche of indo-pak Muslims. Pakistan's creation in the name of religion is another factor that might alter the meaning of ties attach to religion. Thus the dynamics of religious orientation in this part of the world may seem to be quite different then in any other Muslim society.

To live in an Islamic state and being Muslim provide similar religious basis and ways of life but it is also necessary to see that what is the role of institutions in building the personalities of adults as we know that religious orientation and locus of control are both personality variables that can be leaned and unlearned. Researches proved the different impacts of academic institutions (e.g. liberal and conservative churches) on the basis of their curriculum, priority given to religious teachings and the mind sets that both kind of institutions develop (Strickland Shaffer, 1971).

The main purpose of this research is to see that what is the prime motivation in use of religion (intrinsic, extrinsic or God mediated) for Pakistani madrassa students and university students and how this religious motivation is related to their locus of control (either internal, external or God mediated) especially in the time of blame that Madrassas are producing terrorists and extremists, so following hypotheses were tested in the present study.

1) There is positive relationship between intrinsic religious orientation and God mediated locus of control in Madrassa students.

2) There is positive relationship between extrinsic religious orientation (extrinsic personal and extrinsic social) and external locus of control in university students.

3) University students have high extrinsic religious orientation as well as high internal locus of control than Madrassa students.

4) Madrassa students have high intrinsic religious orientation, external Locus of Control and high God mediated locus of control than University students.

METHOD

Participants

120 men and women students participated in the study whose age range was 18-28 years and their minimum education level was Bachelor. The sample was selected from four different Universities (age range: 18-28 years, Mage=24.5 years) and Madrassas (age range: 18-28 years, Mage=25 years) through convenience sampling from Rawalpindi and Islamabad. All selected universities were public universities. University Students are those who enrolled in a college, seminary or an academy where the primary emphasis is on the modern disciplines that are taught by highly trained faculty. Universities contacted were National University of Modern Languages (n = 15 men), Allama Iqbal Open University (n = 15 women), Fatima Jinnah University (n = 15 women) and University of Arid Agriculture Rawalpindi (n = 15 men).

The sample for religious institutes was taken from four Madrassas of Islamabad. Madrassa Students are those who are enrolled in a college, seminary or an academy where the primary emphasis is on the broad spectrum Islamic religious disciplines which are taught by Religious Scholars. However students also learn such subjects as Arabic, Persian, Logic, and Philosophy etc. For present study, two well reputed Madrassas were contacted for women sample n= 30 while the men sample n=30 was also taken from the two other well-reputed Madrassas. The names of the Madrassas are not mentioned here on the request of administration of Madrassas. The students coming to these Madrassas usually constitute middle and upper middle class of the society.

Measures

Following two scales were used in the present study:

Age Universal Religious Orientation Scale Revised (I/E-R Scale)

Gorsuch and Mc-Pherson (1989) originally developed the scale while Urdu translated and adapted version of Age Universal Religious Orientation Scale was used for the present study (Ghous, 2003). This scale is 14 items, self-report Likert type scale. It has five response set categories ranging from 'Strongly disagree' for the lowest score (1) to 'Strongly Agree' for the highest score (5). The intrinsic (I) items are 1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10, 12 14; extrinsic social (Es) items are 2, 11 13 while extrinsic personal (Ep) items are 6, 8 9. Reliabilities of these subscales are I = .83 and Es = .58 and Ep = .83.

Belief in Personal Control Scale (BPCS)

This scale was originally developed by Berrenberg (1987) while Urdu translated version of Belief in Personal Control Scale (Batool, 2003) was used in the present study. It consists of 65 items, divided into three factors i.e., the external control factor (item 1-34), internal control (item 35-58), and God-mediated control (item 59-65). It is five points rating scale, ranging from 'Always (5)' to 'Never (1)'. Reliability for the general external control factor is .80, for internal control factor is .87 and for the God mediated control factor is .90.

Procedure

Study was conducted on Madrassa and University students. Researcher introduced herself to the students and briefed them about the purpose of the study. Those Students who qualified for pre decided criteria were only selected from main gathering places as cafeteria, library and central ground after getting their informed consent. They were also assured that the provided information would be kept confidential according to the APA ethical codes.

It was instructed to fill the demographic sheet and respond one of the five response options of both the scales. Researcher was present during the completion of the questionnaires and invited the participants to ask questions, but informed that limited information could be given regarding content and hypotheses of the present study. Participants were told that they could give verbal or written comments regarding their impressions of the items or questionnaires. It was told them that their feedback would be taken into account for interpretations.

Total completion time for all questionnaires was approximately 20-35 minutes. The completed scales were checked for omitted items at the time they were handed back to researcher. The scores were calculated collectively.

RESULTS

Present research was analyzed to study the relationship between Religious Orientation and Locus of Control between Madrassa and University students, therefore along with descriptive statistics (M SD) correlation was carried out to find out the relationship between these variables and t- test was applied to see the differences between university and Madrassa students.

Table 1 Means scores for Subscales of Age-Universal Religious Orientation Scale Revised and Belief in Personal Control Scale

Variables###No. of Items###M###SD

Locus of Control###

Internal (I)###24###85.0###12.2

External (E)###34###99.0###16.5

God mediated (Gm)###7###33.0###4.6

Belief in Personal Control###

Intrinsic (I)###8###30.7###3.8

Extrinsic Social (Es)###3###7.8###3.6

Extrinsic Personal (Ep)###3###12.8###2.6

Table 1 indicates the mean value for each subscale of Age-Universal Religious Orientation Scale, and the mean value for each subscale of Belief in Personal Control Scale.

Table 2 Correlation between subscales of Religious Orientation and Locus of control among University and Madrassa Students

Variables###Locus of Control

###Internal###External###God mediated

###Madrassa studentsa

Intrinsic###.870###.248###.265

Extrinsic social###.576###.521###.338

Extrinsic personal###.135###.272###.135

###University studentsb

Intrinsic###.419###.400###.215

Extrinsic social###.966###.303###.532

Extrinsic personal###.456###.471###.246

p Less then .05, p Less then .01 Note. a n = 60, b n = 60

Table 2 shows that the hypothesis assuming, "There is positive relationship between intrinsic religious orientation and God mediated locus of control in Madrassa students", is accepted as there is a significant positive relationship found between intrinsic religious orientation and God mediated locus of control scale on the sample of Madrassa students. Results also show the significant positive relationship found between the intrinsic religious orientation and internal locus of control, extrinsic social religious orientation and internal locus of control, and extrinsic personal and internal locus of control on the sample of Madrassa students. Similarly it is clear from the table- 2 that significant positive correlation found between the extrinsic social religious orientation scale and external locus of control, extrinsic personal religious orientation scale and external locus of control scale and extrinsic social subscale and God mediated locus of control on Madrassa students.

Results in Table 2 indicate that there is non-significant relationship exist between and extrinsic personal and internal locus of control, intrinsic religious orientation and external locus of control, and extrinsic personal religious orientation and God mediated locus of control on the sample of Madrassa students. While results about the university students show the significant positive relationship is present between the intrinsic religious orientation and internal locus of control, extrinsic religious orientation (extrinsic social and extrinsic personal) and internal locus of control, intrinsic religious orientation and external locus of control. Hypothesis assuming that the positive relationship found between the extrinsic religious orientation (extrinsic social and extrinsic personal) and external locus of control in university students has been approved. Similarly significant positive relationship found between extrinsic social religious orientation and God mediated locus of control.

Table 3 Comparison of Madrassa (N=60) and University students (N=60) on the subscales of Religious orientation scale and Locus of Control subscales

Variables###Madrassa###University

###Students###Students

###M###SD###M###SD###t (118)

Intrinsic###(I)###29.86###2.64###33.42###3.63###6.144

Extrinsic Social (Es)###7.60###3.54###8.09###3.32###.782

Extrinsic Personal (Ep)###13.66###.97###14.24###1.62###2.379

Internal LOC###81.26 12.22###84.84###13.32###.885

External LOC###96.86 13.26###105.09###18.94###2.750

God Mediated LOC###34.53###.510###34.84###.360###2.196

p Less then .05, p Less then .01 (LOC= Locus of Control)

Table 3 shows the non significant difference between the Madrassa and university students on the intrinsic religious orientation subscale that reject our hypothesis that 'Madrassa students have high intrinsic religious orientation than university students' as the mean scores of Madrassa students are lower from the university students which show that University students have high intrinsic religious orientation than the Madrassa students. Results also show the significant difference between the Madrassa and University students on the extrinsic personal religious orientation subscale while the non significant difference found on the subscale of extrinsic social religious orientation.

Table 3 shows that there is a significant difference found between Madrassa and University students on external locus of control and God mediated locus of control while the mean scores show that hypotheses assuming that Madrassa students have high external locus of control than university students', and 'Madrassa students have high God mediated locus of control than university students' are not accepted. Similarly the hypotheses assuming that 'university students have high internal locus of control than Madrassa students is rejected.

DISCUSSION

In the present study, two questions were addressed regarding the sample of Madrassa and university students. First, what is the relationship between religious orientation and locus of control on two samples? Second, what is the role of institutions (either university or Madrassa) in religious orientation and locus of control?

Results proved most of the hypotheses and showed strong relationship among many subscales of religious orientation and locus of control, as the positive relationship found between Extrinsic Religious Orientation subscales (extrinsic personal and extrinsic social) and External Locus of Control subscale (PLess then.05, PLess then.01) on the sample of Madrassa as well as university students which suggest that religious students for whom religion's goal is to gain social standing and endorsement also be inclined to believe that what occurred in their lives is the result of external circumstances. They are more inclined to do rituals but very few follow the underlying meaning of those practices (Janjua, 2005) and this approach is same for both samples that show that the role of institution is not as important at the time of adolescence, as what they learnt from society in the previous years, influenced them in the same way.

It is obvious that people in our culture use religion mostly for their personal interest rather than intrinsic gains. This outcome support Ghous (2003) conclusion that in our culture "motivation for being religious is primarily personal".

Results confirmed our hypothesis that there is significant positive correlation (PLess then.05) found between God mediated locus of control and intrinsic religious orientation subscale on the sample of Madrassa students. Those who have internal orientation to their religion also inclined towards God. This can be due to their training in Madrassa where such environment is provided in which they are more close to the religion with the sole spirit to obey its teachings, as well as they learn this belief that God is the supreme power who has all kind of controls. Many other researches also support this result that the Belief in God Control has also been positively correlated with intrinsic religious commitment, (Kojetin Spika, 1985), high religiosity (Pargament Sullivan, 1981) and frequency of attendance to the religious places (Pargament, Style Tyler, 1979).

There was found to be non-significant correlation (Pgreater then.05) between the intrinsic religious orientation and external locus of control on the sample of Madrassa students. As the previous findings also compliment it that when students with the high religiosity believe that whatever is happening in their lives is not in the control of society or persons who are himself dependent to some super power as God (Pargament Sullivan, 1981).

There was found to be significant correlation (PLess then.01) between the intrinsic religious orientation and internal locus of control on the sample of Madrassa and University students. As the followers of religion Islam, it is stated in its philosophy that those who had true trust on God also believe that he is the one who controls all therefore they lack believe on external factors other than Allah (Khan et al., 2005).

Similarly significant positive correlation (PLess then.01) appears between the extrinsic social religious orientation and internal locus of control on the sample of Madrassa and University students. When the religious practice are performed due to the social approval and preference, as in our society religious people are more liked and accepted, therefore the external social orientation towards the religion is evident that inhibit them to seek internal locus of control (Batool, 2003).

There is non-significant correlation (Pgreater then.05) found between extrinsic personal religious orientation and internal locus of control on the Madrassa students' sample. These results show that people in our culture use religion mostly for their personal interest rather than intrinsic gains (Ghous, 2003). Similar results were also reported by Khan et al. (2005) that the Pakistani graduate students displayed higher Extrinsic-Personal than Intrinsic scores, whereas Iranians and Americans had exhibited the opposite pattern.

In our culture, role of shrines and visit to holy places is common that make us more socially oriented towards religion and we get social approval in this way (Batool, 2003) and build this trust that God will be happy from our acts and fulfill our prays and help us in our deeds, which reflect the significant positive relationship between extrinsic social religious orientation and God mediated locus of control (pLess then.01) in both Madrassa and university students.

Non-significant relationship (pgreater then.01) found between the extrinsic personal religious orientation and God mediated locus of control on both Madrassa and university students which show that those who perform religious practices for their personal gains generally lack the confidence on God that he is the creator of all things and our fate is determined by him and he is who control us. Therefore they are more oriented towards their personal gains through religiosity; this is also supported by Stanke (2004).

Moreover, significant positive correlation was found between the intrinsic religious orientation and external locus of control on the sample of University students which suggest that university students tend to seek to live day-to-day life according to her/his religion and attribute events in their lives to external circumstances. These results are the depiction of our Pakistani culture; where university students do not have the social pressure to be more religious so their religious orientation come their within. While the hierarchical family system and collectivistic society promotes to hold external belief about control in life (Javed, 2008).

Results also show that those university students for whom the religion is for their personal gain (Ghous, 2003), reputation and appreciation are also associated with the belief that their results and outcomes are also in their own hands which can lead them to personal accomplishments as obvious in the strong relationship between extrinsic personal and internal control (pLess then.01).

On the sample of university students, results suggest non-significant relationship (pgreater then.05) found between intrinsic religious orientation and God mediated locus of control which is the illustration that there are the university students who are the real preachers of religion while they do not belief that God is the supreme power who control the consequences of their endeavors but they think that he born us free to do efforts and based on these efforts, one will be praised and gifted by Allah, so untimely our destiny and success is in our own hands.

Comparative analysis was also carried out between Madrassa Students and University students on the Religious Orientation subscales as Intrinsic, Extrinsic social (Es) and Extrinsic personal (Ep). Result indicated that significant difference occur between the two samples on the intrinsic religious orientation scale (t=6.144, pLess then.001) and extrinsic personal religious orientation scale (t=2.379, pLess then.05) while the hypothesis that Madrassa students will have high intrinsic religious orientation than the university students is not accepted as the mean score of university students (M=33.42) are greater than the Madrassa students (M=29.86).

Religious motivation for University students are found at the very core of their heart in comparison to Madrassa students, this finding reflect our society that restrict the masdrassa students to remain religious all the time and society cannot approve their worldly desires therefore they are compelled to hide their internal motives and natural desires while university students are free from such inhibitions therefore they do what they think right without the completion of society (Batool, 2003).

While the university students also scored better (M=14.24) than the Madrassa students (M=13.66) on the extrinsic personal subscale that is although the smaller difference but as the significant one therefore it proves the hypothesis that university students have high extrinsic personal religious orientation than the Madrassa students, this shows that university students are more involve in religious practices for their personal gain e.g. the pressure from the parents or peers can compel them to be religious and involve in religious activities (Ghous, 2003).

While the non-significant differences appeared between the two samples on the extrinsic social religious orientation subscale (Pgreater then.05), which rejected our assumption that university students have high extrinsic social religious orientation than the madrassa students which shows that both groups are not very different in their orientation towards their religion and involve in the social approval through religious practices irrespective of their institutional affiliations (Javed, 2008).

Results indicated that there is non-significance (Pgreater then.05) difference between the two samples on the Internal Locus of Control which rejected our hypothesis that the university students have high internal locus of control than the madrassa students. Behind these results can be the culture in our country that ingrained in us through many sources as parents, religion, society, peer group and Pakistani media (Javed, 2008).

Different socializing agents affect people from childhood therefore when a student reaches at the university or Madrassa level until then he had developed their locus of control and these institutes have less significant role in the development of internal locus of control therefore non-significant difference occur between the Madrassa and university students.

Our that the Madrassa students have high external and God mediated locus of control than university students is rejected as the university students mean scores are higher than the Madrassa students on both the variables. These results suggest that, due to our cultural practices of collectivism, we are more obliged towards the external orientation of control (Ghous, 2003), where also included the control of God, secondly at the institutional level, our achievement and success is mostly reliant on teachers and their view about us that also convey the importance of authority figures regarding our future.

Overall results show that the significant difference occurs in some dimensions of religious orientation and locus of control among masdrassa and university students because the influence of the institution is more apparent in some domains while their brought up in the same society teach them similar belief systems in their early adolescence that cannot be completely ruled out when they reach in their respective institutions.

Conclusion

The present study gives the current picture of the Madrassas and Universities and gives depiction of the students of both institutes on the religiosity and personality construct of locus of control. It is a unique effort in the sense that it is a first one in its kind in which relationship between religious orientation and locus of control is studied on the comparative sample-Madrassa and University students. It is specially a hard struggle on the part of researcher to approach the population of Madrassa because they hesitate and mostly refuse to participate in the research due to adverse criticism and political circumstances regarding Religious Institutes and education at the time of research.

Findings of the present research suggested that there is a significant positive relationship found between intrinsic religious orientation and God mediated locus of control scale, the intrinsic religious orientation and internal locus of control, extrinsic social religious orientation and internal locus of control, extrinsic personal and internal locus of control, extrinsic social religious orientation scale and external locus of control, extrinsic personal religious orientation scale and external locus of control scale and extrinsic social subscale and God mediated locus of control on Madrassa students. While Results indicated non-significant relationship exist between and extrinsic personal and internal locus of control, intrinsic religious orientation and external locus of control, and extrinsic personal religious orientation and God mediated locus of control on the sample of Madrassa students.

While results about the university students show the significant positive relationship found between the intrinsic religious orientation and internal locus of control, extrinsic religious orientation (extrinsic social and extrinsic personal) and internal locus of control, intrinsic religious orientation and external locus of control, extrinsic social religious orientation and God mediated locus of control.

Significant differences found between the university and Madrassa students on intrinsic religious orientation, extrinsic personal subscale, external and God mediated locus of control but the non-significant differences appeared on all other subscales of religious orientation and locus of control.

Research indicated that Madrassa students are less likely to have religious faith for the sake of faith but are more concerned to the social aspects of the religion and have believe that outcomes are more likely the result of external factors as circumstances, life events etc as apparent from their comparison with the university students. Similarly, findings indicate that both Madrassa and university students are more concerned toward religious faith for personal and social benefits and believe that outcomes of their lives are more in the hands of others.

Limitations and Suggestions

Like any research in the social sciences, present research has also encountered with number of limitations. The sample of the study is when broken into segments is not large enough to yield fruitful results and thus will not help in generalization of the findings. Selected Madrassas are mostly well established, highly reputed and well known in the area. It is suggested to explore small level Madrassas too where 95 % students get religious education. Similarly University students were taken from public Universities while Madrassa students were sampled from private Madrassas and same comparative criteria could not establish because there was not any public Madrassa in Rawalpindi and Islamabad except Jamia Hifsa that was closed in those days because of political crash down of the Madrassa.

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Syeda Tafseer Zahra and Rabia Muqtadir, National Institute of Psychology Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Correspondence address: Ms. Syeda Tafseer Zahra, National Institute of Psychology, Quaid-i- Azam University, Islamabad
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Author:Zahra, Syeda Tafseer; Muqtadir, Rabia
Publication:Pakistan Journal of Psychology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9PAKI
Date:Jun 30, 2011
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