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REFUGEE ECONOMIES: A MULTIFOCI THEORETICAL EXTENSION.

1. Introduction

Refugee economies is the resource distribution systems (Taylor et al., 2016) with regard to a displaced community. Whether in the formal or informal spheres (Betts, 2015), refugee populations are frequently assimilated within dynamic and intricate economic systems. Interventions should endeavor to either enhance current markets or to enable refugees to more adequately involve with the latter. (Betts et al., 2016)

2. Literature Review

Refugees supply a considerable betterment to the host country (Taylor et al., 2016) in the involvement they make via their own human capital as a source of labor. When refugees are granted the right to work and freedom of action (Wood Mah and Lynn Rivers, 2016), they can be instrumental in the national economy. Refugee families are likely to branch out their source of revenue portfolio via diverse income-generating undertakings, spreading risk instead of depending on a particular member's returns. Refugees activate mostly as independent managers in their economic operations. In addition to mobile phones and the internet, numerous refugees produce and employ suitable technologies (Betts, 2015), established on regionally accessible resources, and economically and socially applicable to the setting in which it is utilized, as intrinsic components of their means of support. (Betts et al., 2016)

3. Methodology

Using data from Bloomberg, the European Commission, the International Organization for Migration, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, and the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, I performed analyses and made estimates regarding the economic operations of refugees and displaced communities.

4. Results and Discussion

Humanitarian assistance for refugees is not constantly provided: as refugee cases become prolonged, donor groups may diminish their concern in furthering protracted refugee caseloads and degrees of global aid for them are considerably decreased or completely discontinued. Interventions that intend to advance refugees' feasible sources of revenue should be contingent on a rigorous and far-reaching grasp of current markets (Betts, 2015) and the private business spheres within which refugees are earning enough to support themselves. (Betts et al., 2016) (Figures 1-7)

5. Conclusions

My findings significantly extend the literature on the economic operations of refugees and displaced communities, general and particular characteristics of refugees' economic undertakings with regard to their socioeconomic standing, and refugees' participation in worldwide value chains. Consistent with the prevailing theoretical framework, my research demonstrates the important role of variety in the economic operations of refugees, unconventional financial and social protection processes which refugees establish within their own groups, and the mechanisms of economic risk management embraced by refugee families and communities.

REFERENCES

Betts, Alexander (2015). "The Normative Terrain of the Global Refugee Regime," Ethics & International Affairs 29(4): 363-375.

Betts, Alexander, Louise Bloom, Josiah Kaplan, and Naohiko Omata (2016). Refugee Economies: Forced Displacement and Development. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Taylor, Edward J., Mateusz J. Filipski, Mohamad Alloush, Anubhab Gupta, Ruben Irvin Rojas Valdes, and Ernesto Gonzalez-Estrada (2016). "Economic Impact of Refugees," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. doi:10.1073/pnas. 1604566113

Wood Mah, Kai, and Patrick Lynn Rivers (2016). "Refugee Housing without Exception," Space and Culture 19(4): 390-405.

GHEORGHE H. POPESCU

popescu_ucdc@yahoo.com

Center for Applied Macroeconomic Analysis at AAER, New York; Dimitrie Cantemir Christian University, Bucharest

Caption: Figure 2 Number of Syrian refugees in neighboring countries

Caption: Figure 3 Registered Syrian refugees

Caption: Figure 4 Refugees and internally displaced people in Sub-Saharan Africa, 1998-2017

Caption: Figure 5 The number of refugees resettled to the United States

Caption: Figure 6 Cost-benefit: Economic impact of migration to Germany

Caption: Figure 7 Europe's refugee bulge
Figure 1 Where are Europe's refugees coming from?

Other countries    6%
Somalia            1%
Pakistan           3%
Iraq               9%
Afganistan        23%
Syria             58%

Sources: The Regional Refugee and Migrant Response Plan for Europe,
published by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and the
International Organization for Migration, Bloomberg; and my estimates.

Note: Table made from pie chart.
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Author:Popescu, Gheorghe H.
Publication:Economics, Management, and Financial Markets
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:4E
Date:Sep 1, 2018
Words:641
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