There was a time, half a century ago, when each new monthly issue of The Music Index  was eagerly sought and carefully inspected by researchers for new pieces of bibliographic information gleaned from such periodicals as the new American Musicological Society Journal (Music Index's terminology for the Journal of the American Musicological Society), Etude (now long gone), the Musical Quarterly (then with its familiar yellow cover), Notes (of course), and the Hospital Music Newsletter (a trimestral publication now nearly forgotten; the annual subscription fee was $1.00); there were eighty-one periodicals listed in the 1949 annual cumulation (presently about four hundred titles are indexed).
In 1949, the fifth edition of Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians had yet to appear; Baker's Biographical Dictionary of Musicians was in its fourth edition; the fifth edition of The International Cyclopedia of Music and Musicians was brand new; and the first fascicles of Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart (MGG) were being published. 
It took two decades to complete MGG in its basic fourteen volumes; another decade passed before the two supplemental volumes were issued, then seven more years for the appearance of the final volume, the index--seventeen volumes in all, 1949-86. General editor Friedrich Blume provided an account of those first twenty years in an article in Notes, in which he described some of the vicissitudes of such a lexicographical undertaking in wartime and postwar Germany as well as the very high ideals that were in fact realized.  Harold Samuel, the editor of Notes at that time, inserted an enthusiastic footnote, which began:
One of the most significant musicological undertakings of our time, if not of all time, is undoubtedly MGG. Nearly twenty years ago, as we studied the first fascicles of Volume I and were amazed at the scope of the undertaking, who among us did not have doubts about its ever being completed? But it has been completed and is probably the most widely used work on the library's and scholar's reference shelf. How could we possibly get along without it! 
Five years after the beginning of The Music Index and MGG, the fifth edition of Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians was issued in nine volumes--all at once.  A paperback reprint of this edition, which included the supplementary volume (1961) appeared in 1970. This was to remain the standard music encyclopedia for the English-speaking world for over a quarter century, even though it did not reach the high standard set by MGG. Vincent Duckles, in the first edition of his Music Reference and Research Materials, made this comment in the annotation for the Grove's entry:
Although the 5th ed. was completely reset, expanded, and brought up to date, it falls short of MGG as a tool for scholarship; however, it holds an undisputed place as the major music reference work in English. 
The balance of esteem between MGG and Grove's shifted when The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, greatly expanded in both physical size and geographical coverage, burst upon the scene on St. Cecilia's Day, 22 November 1980.  In a Notes review, the reference staff of the New York Public Library's Music Division collectively opined that "if the appearance of The New Grove looks like a star of the first magnitude to the musical world, it is surely a supernova to the music library one."  Some wondered if New Grove could (or should) be considered "Grove 6." Most intoned "New Grove," simply because it was so new.
It was new in physical size and ethnic coverage and also new in the sense that, under the general editorship of Stanley Sadie, it spawned a host of New Grove family members, such as The New Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (1984), The New Grove Dictionary of American Music (1986), The New Grove Dictionary of Jazz (1988), The New Grove Dictionary of Opera (1992), and The New Grove Dictionary of Women Composers (1994),  as well as a series on composers. It was also one of many "new" music reference works from other publishers, for example, The New Oxford Companion to Music (1983), The New Harvard Dictionary of Music (1986), and The New Country Music Encyclopedia (1993). 
Two "Harvards" had preceded The New Harvard: Willi Apel's Harvard Dictionary of Music (1944), followed after twenty-five years by the revised and enlarged edition (1969).  By the time The Music Index and MGG appeared in 1949, Harvard occupied a secure niche as the most useful one-volume music dictionary in English, at least for United States readers. It contained a wide variety of term definitions as well as authoritative historical essays, but no biographical entries. A complementary resource, The Harvard Biographical Dictionary of Music, edited by Don M. Randel (also the editor of New Harvard), appeared in 1996. In 1999, Randel's The Harvard Concise Dictionary of Music and Musicians, a distillation of The New Harvard and The Harvard Biographical, was published, building on over half a century of "Harvard" prominence in the one-volume category. 
In 1967, two years before the revision of the Harvard Dictionary, a remarkable new index covering not only journals but also books and even parts of books was launched: RILM Abstracts of Music Literature, published under the auspices of the International Musicological Society, the International Association of Music Libraries, and the American Council of Learned Societies.  "RILM," standing for "Repertoire international de litterature musicale," is one of four major music reference sources whose titles begin with "Repertoire international" and are known generally by acronyms; the others are RISM (Repertoire international des sources musicales; 1960-), RIPM (Repertoire international de la presse musicale: A Retrospective Index Series; 1988-), and RIdIM (Repertorie international d'iconographie musicale; 1975-). The prime mover behind RILM and RIdIM was the late Barry S. Brook, well known also for compiling the major source on thematic catalogs, Thematic Catalogues in Music: An Annotated Bibliography (1972, rev. 1997). 
The twenty-volume format of The New Grove, making it the largest of the music reference tools in English, was indicative of a general expansion of the cultural base of music reference resources in the last quarter of the twentieth century. This was due in part to the expansion (some would say "dissolution") of the traditional musicological canon with its well-known emphasis on European (or perhaps at least "Europeanized") art music.
Scholarly interest in ethnic music had been evident since around the turn of the twentieth century through the work of Erich von Hornbostel, Curt Sachs, Frances Densmore, and many others, but nearly the whole century passed before such a comprehensive series as The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music (1998-) was undertaken.  Similarly, for a long time popular music had its aficionados, but only recently was this general interest supported by commensurate publications--for example, The Encyclopedia of Popular Music, which went through three progressively iarger editions in the 1990s.  Nat Shapiro's and Bruce Pollock's definitive bibliography of popular songs, Popular Music, 1920-1979: A Revised Cumulation, appeared in 1985.  Patricia Havlice's Popular Song Index (1975)  remained the most useful guide for popular song anthologies. World popular music was covered admirably in World Music: The Rough Guide (2d ed., 1999).  Several Rough Guides now cover more delimited aspects of popular music (e.g., reggae, rock, and jazz) in greater detail, all with emphasis on recordings. 
Increased interest in gender studies has been reflected in a number of bibliographical and biographical sources on women's music, including Women in Music: An Encyclopedic Biobibliography, by Donald L. Hixon and Don A. Hennessee (2d ed., 1993), and the International Encyclopedia of Women Composers, by Aaron I. Cohen (2d ed., 1987).  Access to resources in African American music was vastly enhanced by A Bibliography of Black Music (1981-84), a four-volume publication edited by Dominique-Rene De Lerma, and Eileen Southern's Biographical Dictionary of Afro-American and African Musicians (1982). The Center for Black Music Research sponsored the publication in 1999 of the International Dictionary of Black Composers, which included 186 extended biographies. 
There was also an increase during the last quarter century in the sheer number of reference tides, particularly in bio-bibliography or composer series. Reference resources on music of the United States fared very well after the Bicentennial, with Resources of American Music History (1981), The Literature of American Music (1977), Bibliographical Handbook of American Music (1987), Periodical Literature on American Music, 1620-1920: A Classified Bibliography with Annotations (1988), Early American Music: A Research and Information Guide (1990), and American Sacred Imprints, 1698-1810: A Bibliography (1990),  all in addition to the aforementioned New Grove Dictionary of American Music. 
An increasing number of Gesamtausgaben and national monuments were described in the three editions of Heyer's Historical Sets, Collected Editions, and Monuments of Music: A Guide to Their Contents (1957, 1969, 1980),  which was succeeded by Hill and Stephens in the similarly tided bibliography, Collected Editions, Historical Series & Sets & Monuments of Music.  Other keys to the contents of these editions (indispensable for many music libraries) were the various thematic catalogs for J. S. Bach, Beethoven, Berlioz, Billings, Brahms, Handel, Mozart, Joseph Haydn, Schubert, Richard Strauss, and Vivaldi, among many others.
In the late 1990s, hymnological research received a great boost through the publication of Nicholas Temperley's Hymn Tune Index: A Census of English-Language Hymn Tunes in Printed Sources from 1535 to 1820, and the Hymntune Index and Related Hymn Materials, compiled by D. DeWitt Wasson. Earlier standard reference tools in this area, particularly Katherine Diehl's Hymns and Tunes: An Index and Leonard Ellinwood's Dictionary of American Hymnology, belong to an earlier generation of indexing technology. 
This general proliferation of resources is progressively mirrored in the five editions of Music Reference and Research Materials: An Annotated Bibliography (1964, 1967, 1974, 1988, 1997),  known to many as "Duckles," after the first compiler and editor, Vincent H. Duckles (1913-1985). The first edition covered 1,155 citations in 331 pages, including the index; the latest swelled to over 3,800 citations in 812 pages, about a three-fold increase in content altogether.
Chapter 12 in the latest edition of Duckles covers "Electronic Information Resources" and includes a variety of bibliographic utilities (OCLC and RLIN), databases, Web sites, and the like--forty citations in all.  There is no doubt that such resources require markedly increasing attention on the part of music reference specialists. This is not a new situation, but it was slow in arriving. The sciences and social sciences were highly visible in the world of electronic resources well before the humanities.
One of the most important of the present-day bibliographic resources is the online service of the Online Computer Library Center, Inc., located in Dublin, Ohio, near Columbus. Its history dates from 1967, when a group of Ohio colleges and universities formed a consortium--known then as the Ohio College Library Center, or OCLC (as it is known universally now)--to share resources electronically. Online links for shared cataloging were inaugurated in 1971. Today, OCLC is, according to its "What is OCLC?" Web page, "a nonprofit, membership, library computer service and research organization dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs."  Music scores and recordings presently account for more than two million of its over forty million bibliographic records, or over 5 percent. Online access to RILM Abstracts of Music Literature through OCLC's FirstSearch has been available since 1996; RILM's database is now approaching 250,000 records. OCLC's W orldCat, also available through FirstSearch, offers unparalleled access to its entire database of bibliographic records. Dissertation Abstracts Online is also offered through FirstSearch.
The Research Libraries Information Network, Inc., known as RLIN and sponsored by the Research Libraries Group (RLG), offers an alternative to OCLC through its services and access to over thirty million bibliographic records. Its sophisticated online bibliographic service, somewhat similar to OCLC's WorldCat, is called Eureka.
OCLC and RLIN are described as bibliographic utilities, from which comprehensive services (cataloging and authority files, interlibrary loan, and reference databases, for example) are available. Together with other resources accessible through the World Wide Web, they comprise an immense and bewilderingly diverse array of resources that is continually expanding. Viewing the Web through any of several powerful search engines seems remotely similar to viewing the expanding universe through the lens of the Hubble telescope.
Resources available through the Web are challenging the primacy of printed materials available on the shelves of our libraries. Certain kinds of reference information can be identified much more quickly and efficiently through the Web, and, furthermore, certain kinds of reference information are now available only through the Web. Experienced researchers may be cognizant of the limitations of the Web in terms of the authority, reliability, and completeness of the information provided at some sites, while students may not be so discriminating,  even as resources for evaluating Web sites grow in numbers and sophistication. 
Digitization and transmission techniques have been improved to the point that there is little reason beyond the most esoteric to consult the original if its image in full color is available through the Web.  Digital or "virtual" libraries are certainly more than a dream at this point. But they have not yet supplanted the print collections of most libraries for research purposes.
What is the present state of electronic sources? Most are gravitating toward the Web if they are not already there. The limitations of the standalone CD-ROM in terms of access and distribution, not to speak of revision and updates, are obvious to those accustomed to online research. There are thousands of homepages related to music--perhaps tens of thousands--some compiled by enthusiastic amateurs, and others under the sponsorship of, for example, music departments, music libraries, national archives, or well-known scholars. Many homepages are themselves bristling with links to further resources, so that exploration along a particular cyber trail could continue indefinitely. There are, to be sure, many redundancies, and an extensive search in a defined subject area can lead one again and again to the same home page. This deja vu syndrome, familiar to online researchers, may try the patience of some, but on the other hand may indicate sites of significance, somewhat like the repeated references in citation in dexes such as the Arts & Humanities Citation Index.
The past is only partly (and often inaccurately) known, the present is fleeting and occasionally difficult to interpret, and the future is unknown but sometimes predictable. Despite these uncertainties, it is useful to consider the future in the short run for tentative planning purposes. If we should predict correctly and have our temporal telescope pointed in the right direction, we may be advantageously situated, eventually. Here are some areas of concern to keep under surveillance:
Comprehensive online resources. The New Grove Dictionary of Opera recently became available in an online format. This is the first significant encyclopedia of music with an online version, and its searching and revision capabilities will be closely scrutinized. The second. edition of The New Grove will become available in 2000 in both print and online formats, according to the publisher. For some researchers, the ability to search for names and terms in various combinations across the entire text, plus the continuous revision of the text and bibliographies, will no doubt render the related print publication obsolete. Continuous revision will on the one hand be a great boon to efficiency for those who use online reference sources but may be frustrating for those seeking "the last word" for their scholarly work. When, indeed, should they cease for the latest data or interpretation before committing an original article or book to some state of permanency? Will anything, under these circumstances, ever be "finish ed?" The date stamp will become an essential element of a bibliographic citation, no doubt.
Access through classification and cataloging of online resources. As Web sites proliferate, some sort of general classification or hierarchical system of organization will become imperative. (The efficiency of random access is inversely proportional to the magnitude of the collective resources.) Web materials will continue to be sifted, selected, and sorted out in various ways, through imbedded metadata construction and by various search engines and portals, with Yahoo so far being one of the more sophisticated portals in presenting an organized report with collective hierarchical groupings in response to keywords submitted by the user. It will probably be up to libraries to provide necessary enhancements for efficient access to selected materials.
Linked resources. Newer software for digitizing and compressing audio and video (such as MP3) facilitates the linking of reference and other texts to media resources. Thus, an article in an online encyclopedia could well link a sound source with a music example and allow the user to bypass a trip to a playback station. This kind of efficiency and easy access to sound in greater or lesser "bites" will heavily influence the content of reference sources and will further influence techniques for research as well as teaching and learning. Similarly, the full text of bibliographical source materials could in some cases be provided along with online versions of scholarly publications. This would allow an "on-the-spot" comparison of the text and footnote sources.
Universal access. With more widespread access to both the text about and the sound of musics of various kinds plotted along the ethnic/pop/art music spectrum, it is conceivable that Western art music may enjoy something of a renaissance in the most unexpected places, well off the highways and byways of Western or Westernized culture. In this case, the need to explicate this music within cultures far outside those of Europe and North America may develop. New kinds of reference works and new finding aids will be needed, and interdisciplinary, cross-cultural expertise plus technical savvy will become premium qualifications for those who will write and compile them.
Music in general seems to be undergoing a swiftly moving process of "microculturalization" with shifting boundaries and enclaves within enclaves, and with lifestyle, age, gender, geography, history, and ethnicity all factored into this rich mix. Most of the music reference resources able to thrive in this cultural climate will doubtlessly be online.
John E. Druesedow is music librarian at Duke University.
(1.) The Music Index (Detroit: Information Service, 1949-87; Harmonie Park Press, 1987-). Until 1964, Music Index was subtitled "The Key to Current Music Periodical Literature."
(2.) Eric Blom, ed., Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 9 vols. (London: Macmillan, 1954; suppl. vol., 1961); Theodore Baker, Baker's Biographical Dictionary of Musicians, 4th ed. (New York: G. Schirmer, 1940); Oscar Thompson, ed., The International Cyclopedia of Music and Musicians. 5th ed., ed. Nicolas Slonimsky (New York: Dodd, Mead, 1949); Friedrich Blume, ed., Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart: Allgemeine Enzycklopadie der Musik, 17 vols. (Kassel: Barenreiter, 1949-86).
(3.) Friedrich Blume, "Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart: A Postlude," Notes 24 (1967): 217-44.
(4.) Ibid., 217.
(5.) See n. 2.
(6.) Vincent Duckles, comp., Music Reference and Research Materials: An Annotated-Bib1iography (New York: Free Press of Glencoe, 1964), 8.
(7.) Stanley Sadie, ed., The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 20 vols. (London: Macmillan, 1980).
(8.) Notes 38 (1981): 55.
(9.) Stanley Sadie, ed., The New Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments, 3 vols. (New York: Macmillan, 1984); Wiley H. Hitchcock and Stanley Sadie, eds., The New Grove Dictionary of American Music, 4 vols. (London: Macmillan, 1986); Barry Kernfeld, ed., The New Grove Dictionary of Jazz, 2 vols. (London: Macmillan, 1988); Stanley Sadie, ed., The New Grove Dictionary of Opera, 4 vols. (London: Macmillan, 1992);Julie Anne Sadie and Rhian Samuel, eds., The New Grove Dictionary of Women Composers (London: Macmillan, 1994; American ed. publ. as The Norton/Grove Dictionary of Women Composers [New York: W. W. Norton, 1994]).
(10.) Denis Arnold, ed., The New Oxford Companion to Music, 2 vols. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1983); Don Michael Randel, ed., The New Harvard Dictionary of Music (Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. 1986); Tad Richards and Melvin B. Shestack. The New Country Music Encyclopedia (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1993).
(11.) Willi Apel, Harvard Dictionary of Music (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1944); 2d ed. (Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1969).
(12.) Don Michael Randel, ed., The Harvard Biographical Dictionary of Music (Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1996); idem, The Harvard Concise Dictionary of Music and Musicians (Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1999).
(13.) Repertorie international de litterature musicale/RILM Abstracts of Music Literature (New York: International RILM Center, 1967-).
(14.) Barry S. Brook, Thematic Catalogues in Music: An Annotated Bibliography, RILM Retrospectives, no. 1 (Hillsdale, N.Y.: Pendragon Press. 1972); Barry S. Brook and Richard Viano, Thematic Catalogues in Music: An Annotated Bibliography, 2d ed., Annotated Reference Tools in Music, no. 5 (Stuyvesant, N.Y.: Pendragon Press, 1997).
(15.) The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music (New York: Garland Publishing, 1998-); 10 vols. projected.
(16.) Colin Larkin, ed.. The Guinness Encyclopedia of Popular Music, 4 vols. (Enfield, Middlesex: Guinness Publishing, 1992); Colin Larkin, ed., The Guinness Encyclopedia of Popular Music, 2d ed., 6 vols. (Enfield, Middlesex: Guinness Publishing, 1995); Colin Larkin, comp. and ed., The Encyclopedia of Popular Music, 3d ed., 8 vols. (London: MUZE UK, 1998).
(17.) Nat Shapiro and Bruce Pollock, eds., Popular Music, 1920-1979: A Revised Cumulation, 3 vols. (Detroit: Gale Research, 1985).
(18.) Patricia Pate Havlice, Popular Song Index (Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1975); 1st suppl. (1978); 2d suppl. (1984); 3d suppl. (1989).
(19.) Simon Broughton, World Music: The Rough Guide, 2d ed. (London: Rough Guides, 1999).
(20.) Reggae: The Rough Guide (London: Rough Guides, 1997); Rock: The Rough Guide, 2d. ed (London: Rough Guides, 1999); Jazz: The Rough Guide (London: Rough Guides, 1995). Two other musical Rough Guide titles are Classical Music: The Rough Guide, 2d ed. (London: Rough Guides, 1998) and Opera: The Rough Guide, 2d ed. (London: Rough Guides, 1999).
(21.) Donald L. Hixon and Don A. Hennessee, Women in Music: An Encyclopedic Bisbibliography, 2d ed., 2 vols. (Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1993); Aaron I. Cohen, International Encyclopedia of Women Composers, 2d ed. (New York: Books & Music, 1987).
(22.) Dominique-Rene De Lerma, Bibliography of Black Music, 4 vols., The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Black Music (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1981-84); Eileen Southern, Biographical Dictionary of Afro-American and African Musicians, The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Black Music (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1982); Samuel A. Floyd Jr., ed., International Dictionary of Black Composers, 2 vols. (Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn, 1999).
(23.) D. W. Krummel, Jean Geil, Doris J. Dyen, and Deane L. Root, eds., Resources of American Music History: A Directory of Source Materials from Colonial Times to World War II (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1987); David Horn, The Literature of American Music in Books and Folk Music Collections: A Fully Annotated Bibliography (Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1977), supplemented by David Horn with Richard Jackson, The Literature of American Music in Books and Folk Music Collections: A Fully Annotated Bibliography, Supplement 1 (Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1988), Guy A. Marco, Literature of American Music III, 1983-1992 (Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press, 1996), and Guy A. Marco, Checklist of Writings on American Music, 1640-1992 (Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press, 1996); D. W. Krummel, Bibliographical Handbook of American Music (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1987); Thomas E. Warner, Periodical Literature on American Music, 1620-1920: A Classified Bibliography with Annotations, Bibliographies in Am erican Music, no. 12 (Warren, Mich.: Harmonie Park Press, 1988): James R. Heintze, Early American Music: A Research and Information Guide, Research and Information Guides, no. 13 (New York: Garland Publishing, 1990); Allen Perdue Britton, Irving Lowens, and Richard Crawford, American Sacred Imprints, 1698-1820: A Bibliography (Worcester, Mass.: American Antiquarian Society, 1990).
(24.) See n. 9.
(25.) Anna Harriet Heyer, Historical Sets, Collected Editions, and Monuments of Music: A Guide to Their Contents, 3d ed., 2 vols. (Chicago: American Library Association, 1980).
(26.) George R. Hill and Norris L. Stephens, Collected Editions. Historical Series & Sets & Monuments of Music: A Bibliography. Fallen Leaf Reference Books in Music, no. 14 (Berkeley, Calif.: Fallen Leaf Press, 1997).
(27.) Nicholas Temperley, The Hymn Tune Index. A census of English-Language Hymn Tunes in Printed Sources from 1535 to 1820, 4 vols. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998); D. DeWitt Wasson, comp., Hymntune Index and Related Hymn Materials (Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press, 1998); Katharine S. Diehl, Hymns and Tunes: An Index (Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow Press, 1966); Leonard Ellinwood, ed., Dictionary of American Hymnology, 179 microfilm reels (New York: University Music Editions, 1984).
(28.) Vincent Duckles, comp., Music Reference and Research Materials: An Annotated Bibliography (New York: Free Press of Glencoe, 1964); ibid., 2d ed. (New York: Free Press, 1967); ibid., 3d ed. (New York: Free Press, 1974); Vincent H. Duckles and Michael A. Keller, Music Reference and Research Materials: An Annotated Bibliography, 4th ed. (New York: Schirmer Books, 1988); ibid., 4th ed. rev. (New York: Schirmer Books, 1994); Vincent H. Duckles and Ida Reed, Music Reference and Research Materials: An Annotated Bibliography, 5th ed. (New York: Schirmer Books, 1997).
(29.) Duckles and Reed, 5th ed., 613-22.
(31.) See Richard C. Rockwell, "The World Wide Web as a Resource for Scholars and Students," American Council of Learned Societies Newsletter 4, no. 4 (February 1997), 9-10, 21: also available via the Web at http://www.acls.org/n44rock.htm.
(32.) See, for example, Indiana University's "Guide to Research: Evaluating World Wide Web Resources" at http://www.indiana.edu/libugls/lnstruction/Guide/self_guide6.html. The Web search service Yahoo, in conjunction with ZDNet, offers an online site for classical music: http://www3.zdnet.com/yil/content/roundups/ classical_music.html.
(33.) Two good examples are Duke University's Digital Scriptorium at http://scriptorium.lib.duke.edu/scriptorium and its Historic American Sheet Music Project at http://scriptorium.lib.duke.edu/sheetmusic.
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|Author:||DRUESEDOW, JOHN E.|
|Date:||Mar 1, 2000|
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