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REALITY-CONSTRUCTION PROCESSES IN INFORMATION SOCIETIES: ALGORITHMIC REGULATION, AUTOMATED DECISION-MAKING, AND NETWORKED GOVERNANCE.

1. Introduction

Broad arrays of routine activities on the whole and media consumption especially are progressively influenced by automated algorithmic selection (algorithms represent problem-solving processes) that is chiefly characterized by the programmed assignment compatible with particularly designated pieces of information. Algorithms on the Internet are governance mechanisms as catalysts employed to exert power and as growingly independent participants with capacity to advance political and economic concerns (Enderstein, 2017; Klierova and Kutik, 2017; Moghtader, 2017; Peters, 2017a; Sponte (Pistalu), 2018; Yeo, Carter, and Chezulhaimee, 2018) on the separate and on the public/shared level. (Just and Latzer, 2017)

2. Literature Review

In whatever sphere algorithms are adopted, they have troublesome and transformative consequence, both to how that area is regulated and functions, and to the related labor market. Algorithms are instrumental in the practice of power, an instrument via which to automate the educating and monitoring of societies (Argenton, 2017; Fox, 2017; Lazaroiu, 2017; Nagel, 2016; Peters, 2017b; Strielkowski, Gryshova, and Kalyugina, 2017) and to raise the performance of capital accumulation. Albeit algorithms are permeated with the capacity to put data into effect and make farreaching decisions, they are predominantly black boxed and beyond reservation. At issue with the advance of algorithm mechanisms are cutting-edge types of computational power that are redesigning how social and economic systems operate. Algorithms are conceived to produce value and capital (Belas et al., 2017; Fox, 2018; Life, 2016; Nica and Bonciu, 2017; Popescu Ljungholm, 2016; Tanankem Voufo, Uchenna, and Atata, 2017), to nudge conduct and configure choices in a particular manner (Chapman, 2016; Hurd, 2016; Life, 2017; Park, 2017; Rauch, 2016; Tulloch, 2016), and to single out, systematize, and categorize individuals. Algorithms are relational, provisional, circumstantial in nature, and fashioned within the broader framework of their socio-technical convergence. (Kitchin, 2017)

3. Methodology

Using data from BI Intelligence, Forbes, HfS Research, Ipsos, Medium, Statista, etc., I performed analyses and made estimates regarding reasons for using algorithms in trading, size of the robotic process automation market worldwide, and fastest growing marketing technologies.

4. Results and Discussion

Algorithmic selection influences the architecture of people's experiences, and thus shapes culture, knowledge, standards, values, and meanings of societies, regulating the current social order. Social reality is progressively defined and organized by algorithmic selection on the Internet. Established services that essentially use algorithmic selection are instrumental in objective and subjective reality explanations (Cimatti, 2016; Hyers and Kovacova, 2018; Machan, 2017; Pearson, 2017; Rowlands and Kabongi, 2017), but also to symbolic actualities. Automated algorithmic selection on the Internet determines a broad array of separate undertakings, and is massively employed for diverse societal roles. Algorithmic selection typically coadministers the advancement and utilization of the Internet by shaping the behavior of distinct producers and users, influencing the configuration of choices and judgments in the creation and consumption of products and services. Algorithmic selection plays a part in reality construction, a type of governance characterized by the choice or exclusion of data. Multifarious societal roles of algorithmic selection on the Internet are factors in cutting-edge aspects and articulations of transfigured reality (Davidson-Harden, 2017; Ibrahim, 2017; Means, 2017; Peters, 2016; Silverman and Lewis, 2017; Weeks and Smith, 2018) in information societies. The experiences regulated by automated algorithmic selections co-define human beings' harmonization and combined effort on and beyond the Internet, thus constituting social order. (Just and Latzer, 2017) (Figures 1-6)
Figure 1 Global Internet user distribution (%)

Oceania/Australia             1%
Middle East                   4%
North America                10%
Africa                       11%
Latin America/Carribean      12%
Europe                       14%
Asia                         48%

Sources: Medium. My 2018 estimates.

Note: Table made from pie chart.

Figure 2 Share of respondents who cannot imagine life without the
Internet

India                          84%
United Kingdom                 78%
China                          78%
Germany                        75%
United States                  76%
Russia                         67%
Spain                          66%
France                         65%
Italy                          63%
Japan                          63%

Sources: Ipsos; Forbes; Statista. My survey among 2,700 individuals
conducted November 2017.

Note: Table made from bar graph.


Big data and algorithmic choice are coexisting. Information societies are typified by an increasing flow of big digital data that supply the evidence and generate an intensifying need for automated algorithmic selection with the purpose of managing and deciphering such substantially gathered data. (Just and Latzer, 2017) Algorithms have disruptive and transformative consequences, rearranging how systems function, determining innovative types of algorithmic governance and activating fashionable kinds of capital accumulation. (Kitchin, 2017)
Figure 3 Algorithmic trading systems are present in

40%                   Agricultural futures volumes
49%                   Metals and energy product volumes
65%                   Equity futures volumes
69%                   Interest rate futures volumes
83%                   Foreign exchange futures volumes

Sources: Commodity Futures Trading Commission. My 2018 estimates.

Note: Table made from pie chart.

Figure 4 Reasons for using algorithms in trading

Cost                       19%
Other                       4%
Speed                      12%
Ease of use                 6%
Customization               4%
Reduced market impact      14%
Execution consistency       5%
Trader productivity        15%
Anonymity                  21%

Sources: The TRADE Annual Algorithmic Survey. My survey among 1,800
individuals conducted October 2017.

Note: Table made from pie chart.

Figure 5 Size of the robotic process automation market worldwide

2016                   271
2017                   547
2018                   907
2019                  1308
2020                  1722
2021                  2182

Sources: HfS Research; Statista. My estimates.

Note: Table made from bar graph.

Figure 6 Fastest growing marketing technologies

                        Currently use       Plan to use   Anticipated
                                                         YoY Growth:

Al                      53%                   28%          +54%
loT/connected devices   68%                   25%          +36%
Marketing automation    69%                   22%          +32%
Social listening tools  69%                   21%          +33%
Customer identity and
access management       70%                   21%          +31%

Sources: BI Intelligence; Salesforce, State of Marketing.
My survey among 2,200 companies conducted December 2017.

Note: Table made from bar graph.


5. Conclusions

In this algorithmic epoch, mathematics and computer science are joining forces in distinct fashionable manners to regulate individuals' behavior and the social governance. Intricacy and an absence of unambiguousness concerning algorithms are frequently considered to be impediments to justifiable governance. Algorithmic governance systems may include particular types of predisposition and may unreasonably influence members of minority groups. (Danaher et al., 2018)

Author Contributions

The author confirms being the sole contributor of this work and approved it for publication.

Conflict of Interest Statement

The author declares that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

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DOINA POPESCU LJUNGHOLM

dopopescu@yahoo.com

University of Pitesti

Received 4 April 2018 * Received in revised form 11 June 2018

Accepted 17 June 2018 * Available online 3 July 2018

doi:10.22381/RCP1720188
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Author:Ljungholm, Doina Popescu
Publication:Review of Contemporary Philosophy
Article Type:Essay
Date:Jan 1, 2018
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