REALITY-CONSTRUCTION PROCESSES IN INFORMATION SOCIETIES: ALGORITHMIC REGULATION, AUTOMATED DECISION-MAKING, AND NETWORKED GOVERNANCE.
Broad arrays of routine activities on the whole and media consumption especially are progressively influenced by automated algorithmic selection (algorithms represent problem-solving processes) that is chiefly characterized by the programmed assignment compatible with particularly designated pieces of information. Algorithms on the Internet are governance mechanisms as catalysts employed to exert power and as growingly independent participants with capacity to advance political and economic concerns (Enderstein, 2017; Klierova and Kutik, 2017; Moghtader, 2017; Peters, 2017a; Sponte (Pistalu), 2018; Yeo, Carter, and Chezulhaimee, 2018) on the separate and on the public/shared level. (Just and Latzer, 2017)
2. Literature Review
In whatever sphere algorithms are adopted, they have troublesome and transformative consequence, both to how that area is regulated and functions, and to the related labor market. Algorithms are instrumental in the practice of power, an instrument via which to automate the educating and monitoring of societies (Argenton, 2017; Fox, 2017; Lazaroiu, 2017; Nagel, 2016; Peters, 2017b; Strielkowski, Gryshova, and Kalyugina, 2017) and to raise the performance of capital accumulation. Albeit algorithms are permeated with the capacity to put data into effect and make farreaching decisions, they are predominantly black boxed and beyond reservation. At issue with the advance of algorithm mechanisms are cutting-edge types of computational power that are redesigning how social and economic systems operate. Algorithms are conceived to produce value and capital (Belas et al., 2017; Fox, 2018; Life, 2016; Nica and Bonciu, 2017; Popescu Ljungholm, 2016; Tanankem Voufo, Uchenna, and Atata, 2017), to nudge conduct and configure choices in a particular manner (Chapman, 2016; Hurd, 2016; Life, 2017; Park, 2017; Rauch, 2016; Tulloch, 2016), and to single out, systematize, and categorize individuals. Algorithms are relational, provisional, circumstantial in nature, and fashioned within the broader framework of their socio-technical convergence. (Kitchin, 2017)
Using data from BI Intelligence, Forbes, HfS Research, Ipsos, Medium, Statista, etc., I performed analyses and made estimates regarding reasons for using algorithms in trading, size of the robotic process automation market worldwide, and fastest growing marketing technologies.
4. Results and Discussion
Algorithmic selection influences the architecture of people's experiences, and thus shapes culture, knowledge, standards, values, and meanings of societies, regulating the current social order. Social reality is progressively defined and organized by algorithmic selection on the Internet. Established services that essentially use algorithmic selection are instrumental in objective and subjective reality explanations (Cimatti, 2016; Hyers and Kovacova, 2018; Machan, 2017; Pearson, 2017; Rowlands and Kabongi, 2017), but also to symbolic actualities. Automated algorithmic selection on the Internet determines a broad array of separate undertakings, and is massively employed for diverse societal roles. Algorithmic selection typically coadministers the advancement and utilization of the Internet by shaping the behavior of distinct producers and users, influencing the configuration of choices and judgments in the creation and consumption of products and services. Algorithmic selection plays a part in reality construction, a type of governance characterized by the choice or exclusion of data. Multifarious societal roles of algorithmic selection on the Internet are factors in cutting-edge aspects and articulations of transfigured reality (Davidson-Harden, 2017; Ibrahim, 2017; Means, 2017; Peters, 2016; Silverman and Lewis, 2017; Weeks and Smith, 2018) in information societies. The experiences regulated by automated algorithmic selections co-define human beings' harmonization and combined effort on and beyond the Internet, thus constituting social order. (Just and Latzer, 2017) (Figures 1-6)
Figure 1 Global Internet user distribution (%) Oceania/Australia 1% Middle East 4% North America 10% Africa 11% Latin America/Carribean 12% Europe 14% Asia 48% Sources: Medium. My 2018 estimates. Note: Table made from pie chart. Figure 2 Share of respondents who cannot imagine life without the Internet India 84% United Kingdom 78% China 78% Germany 75% United States 76% Russia 67% Spain 66% France 65% Italy 63% Japan 63% Sources: Ipsos; Forbes; Statista. My survey among 2,700 individuals conducted November 2017. Note: Table made from bar graph.
Big data and algorithmic choice are coexisting. Information societies are typified by an increasing flow of big digital data that supply the evidence and generate an intensifying need for automated algorithmic selection with the purpose of managing and deciphering such substantially gathered data. (Just and Latzer, 2017) Algorithms have disruptive and transformative consequences, rearranging how systems function, determining innovative types of algorithmic governance and activating fashionable kinds of capital accumulation. (Kitchin, 2017)
Figure 3 Algorithmic trading systems are present in 40% Agricultural futures volumes 49% Metals and energy product volumes 65% Equity futures volumes 69% Interest rate futures volumes 83% Foreign exchange futures volumes Sources: Commodity Futures Trading Commission. My 2018 estimates. Note: Table made from pie chart. Figure 4 Reasons for using algorithms in trading Cost 19% Other 4% Speed 12% Ease of use 6% Customization 4% Reduced market impact 14% Execution consistency 5% Trader productivity 15% Anonymity 21% Sources: The TRADE Annual Algorithmic Survey. My survey among 1,800 individuals conducted October 2017. Note: Table made from pie chart. Figure 5 Size of the robotic process automation market worldwide 2016 271 2017 547 2018 907 2019 1308 2020 1722 2021 2182 Sources: HfS Research; Statista. My estimates. Note: Table made from bar graph. Figure 6 Fastest growing marketing technologies Currently use Plan to use Anticipated YoY Growth: Al 53% 28% +54% loT/connected devices 68% 25% +36% Marketing automation 69% 22% +32% Social listening tools 69% 21% +33% Customer identity and access management 70% 21% +31% Sources: BI Intelligence; Salesforce, State of Marketing. My survey among 2,200 companies conducted December 2017. Note: Table made from bar graph.
In this algorithmic epoch, mathematics and computer science are joining forces in distinct fashionable manners to regulate individuals' behavior and the social governance. Intricacy and an absence of unambiguousness concerning algorithms are frequently considered to be impediments to justifiable governance. Algorithmic governance systems may include particular types of predisposition and may unreasonably influence members of minority groups. (Danaher et al., 2018)
The author confirms being the sole contributor of this work and approved it for publication.
Conflict of Interest Statement
The author declares that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
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DOINA POPESCU LJUNGHOLM
University of Pitesti
Received 4 April 2018 * Received in revised form 11 June 2018
Accepted 17 June 2018 * Available online 3 July 2018
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|Author:||Ljungholm, Doina Popescu|
|Publication:||Review of Contemporary Philosophy|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2018|
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