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Quantitative evaluation of German research output in business administration.

* Evaluation of journals as an instrument of university controlling is still rather novel in Europe.

* This paper presents a quantitative analysis of publications by scholars and institutions in the major German-speaking academic business journals over the period 1982 to 1991. Results suggest that the share of academics who contribute substantially to the major German-speaking business periodicals is fairly high though the number of one-time authors is high, too.

Key Results

* As a common feature of the journals covered their international exposure is low. There are, however, variations between them first in terms of research bias or balanced practical orientation, second their role of serving as a publication outlet for the academic establishment or junior academics, and third with respect to the degree of concentration of appearances by authors and institutions.

Evaluation of Academic Journals as an Element of University Controlling

German-speaking universities and academic disciplines, in particular growth disciplines such as Business Administration(1) are increasingly confronted with public and political interest with respect to their efficiency and productivity in research and teaching. In contrast to the US-American system, however, are rankings of business schools or student evaluation of teachers still novel instruments(2). Hence, it is not surprising that there is little documented evidence of the measured output of university research in business(3). Yet it is surprising from the standpoint that such evidence would only represent a natural translation of a basic paradigm of economic thought into appropriate forms of evaluation of contributions to business research.

In the North-American context this kind of analysis can be considered as standard practice of public university controlling(4). The latter's results do, however, imply certain problems when it comes to their influence on individual career development and salary levels of academicians. Inspite of this such practice is widely accepted also because of its effect on achieving more transparency with respect to the state and developments on faculty or school level. Of major importance in this respect are evaluations which periodically inform about published research output in academic journals. Apart from their general information function those journals should, however, not only aim at an "enjoyable form of navel gazing for those within a given discipline"(5); rather their assessment should allow for "useful information about scholarly productivity in that discipline"(6).

Actual developments such as the European integration and the gloomy economic outlook with the resulting deep cuts in university budgets may well lead to increasing competition for scarce resources and clients, i.e. students(7). As a consequence resources and public financial support for universities will in future not only be allocated based on reported demand or student population figures but rather on the quality of teaching or productivity of research. With respect to the latter it seems to be useful to take further steps(8) at measuring research output in business also in the German academic context. Such an attempt which is presented by way of quantitative analysis of published research in academic journals should be regarded as a possible suggestion among several feasible methods of evaluation. Apart from the interested community it may also be helpful for the academicians concerned with a view of assessing research oriented performance potential. Besides, this kind of analysis can be useful in critically examining and comparing the respective journals in terms of their editorial policy, profile, and spread or concentration as regards authors and institutions. The Management International Review (mir) journal which has been ranked first in the area of International Management by 1,380 US-scholars in 1990(9) has only recently been evaluated by way of such an analysis(10).

Methodology and Data Base

The concept of research output has been approached from the qualitative and quantitative angle(11). The qualitative evaluation is based on the subjective perception or judgment of journals by fellow-academicians. The journals are being compared using criteria such as status, image or prestige; then the quality of contributions in a journal is assessed based on this perception. This method, however, suffers from the problem of a circular conclusion, because the prestige of a journal as a rule is the result of the quality of contributions published in this journal. Another approach is a quality oriented quantitative analysis related to individual authors. This method which measures the frequency of an author's citations by other authors in a certain period is similar to the functioning of the social science citation index. The more frequent the citations the higher the assumption of the quality of the respective contribution of an author. Apart from critized weaknesses of this method which are related to citation cartels, the (self-)citation-chain effect and the tendency of loosing property-rights in knowledge(12), experience tells that sometimes contributions of highest quality take a rather long time until appropriate recognition by way of citation as is shown by the example of R. Coase's "The Nature of the Firm"(13).

The deficiencies of the qualitative concept can be overcome by way of measuring research output quantitatively calculating the number of contributions of authors in academic journals over a certain period of time. This method has the advantage of numerical objectivity and helps to avoid subjective biases and individual perception deficits. Moreover, the qualitative dimension is taken into account implicitly when assuming that the (anonymous) reviewing process of prestigious journals guarantees to a certain extent the quality of publications. In the present analysis this method is applied in order to measure the German research output in Business Administration. Another quantitative method rests on the computation of the number of pages of an article(14). The performance measure of length of a contribution was, however, neglected because of its weakness as a reliable indicator particularly when comparing journals with different editorial policy and style, e.g. recommended length of an article. The data were collected computing the contributions in the six major business research journals(15) in Germany, Austria and Switzerland over a period of ten years from 1982 to 1991. These journals are

-- Betriebswirtschaftliche Forschung und Praxis (BFuP) [Business Research and Practice], edited by G. Sieben, M. J. Matschke, Th. Schildbach; 6 issues per volume, founded in 1949.

-- Die Betriebswirtschaft (DBW) [The Business], edited by K. Chmielewicz, A. G. Coenenberg, A. Kieser, R. Kohler, H. Meffert, G. Reber, N. Szyperski; 6 issues per volume, founded in 1908.

-- Die Unternehmung (DU) [The Firm], edited by J. Krulis-Randa, B. Staffelbach; 6 issues per volume, founded in 1974.

-- Journal fur Betriebswirtschaft (JfB) [Journal of Business], edited by H. Stremitzer, R. Bratschitsch, O. Grun, E. Loitlsberger, J. Mugler, G. Schweiger, G. Seicht, P. Swoboda, E. Topritzhofer, K. Vodrazka; 5 issues per volume, founded in 1951.

-- Zeitschrift fur Betriebswirtschaft (ZfB) [Review of Business], edited by H. Albach, K.-H. Baumann*, H. E. Buschgen, K.-H. Forster* E. Heinen, H. Henzler*, H. Jacob, W. Roller*, H. Sabel, D. Schneidewind*, H. Sihler*; 12 issues per volume, founded in 1924.

-- Zeitschrift fur betriebswirtschaftliche Forschung (ZfbF) [Review of Business Research], edited by M. Bierich*, W. Busse von Colbe, E. Frese, R. Gumbel, H. Hax, G. Lassmann, A. Picot, D. Schneider, H. G. Stein*, K. von Wysocki, 12 issues per volume, founded in 1949.

These journals were analyzed by individual author, by institution (university location), and by professional group and academic qualification (doctorate/non-doctorate).

The data base comprises a total of 2,229 articles. Book reviews, short notes and comments were not included in the calculations. The distribution of the total number of contributions across all journals is shown in Exhibit 1. The variations between journals can be explained by the number of issues per year (5, 6 or 12 issues) and by the number of pages issue.


Evaluation by Authors

In German academic business journals there is the peculiarity that based upon the desire to bridge the gap between theory and practice executives are invited to contribute also. As academicians (university scholars) are supposed to publish more than non-academic authors (practitioners + other non-university authors) both groups were classified separately. Table 1 reports on adjusted appearances; total appearances are neglected. Adjusted appearances were computed such that when a contribution was written by one author the latter received one point. Co-authored articles were given 0.5 points for each author in case of two authors, 0.33 points each in case of three authors etc. Authors were ranked by journal and across all journals. For the reasons of space only the "top 100" ranks are shown. One author clearly stands out, Professor Albach with 23.66 points followed by Professors Brockhoff and Buhner with 15.5 and 15 points respectively, followed by a second group with 11--8 points, and a third with 7--4 points which cuts off at rank 66. The remaining group received less than 4 down to 3.16 points. Among the "top 100" there are 93 professors and 7 junior academics. Among those not included in the list there are 119 professors plus 36 junior academics who received between 3.08 and 2 points. 191 professors received more than 0 but less than 2 points. There are many one-time authors among them. In total 400 professors from the German-speaking area have contributed to the body of knowledge published in the journals under cover, only 11 academics from non-German-speaking countries have contributed. If one holds against this an estimated average of about 486 as the total population of professors out of an average of 560 professional posts available(16) still about 82% have appeared.


Table 1 reveals that there seems to be a strong connection between certain authors and certain journals; only very few contributors show a(n) (even) spread over several journals. A smaller degree of concentration is shown by non-academic contributors. They publish less but in more journals mainly on a competitive basis by way of invitation. Table 2 reports on adjusted appearances of non-academics across all journals.


Clear leader in this group is Dr. Gerpott who achieved 2 points out of 9.33 while still a university research assistant. Drs. Funk, Bierich, and Profs. Schneidewind, Zander, Kollhofer, Dr. Powelz, and Mr. Reuter are top executives in German companies, and still appear considerably in research outlets.

Evaluation by Institutions

From the standpoint of increasing competition among universities, schools and faculties respectively it is interesting to look at the research output by institutions. Following the above procedure the calculations were performed across all journals. As is revealed in Table 3 Cologne faculty of business and Business Economics University of Vienna top the ranks in terms of the volume of published research, followed by Mannheim, Munster, and St. Gall. When interpreting the ranking list of universities those who are not familiar with the German framework should consider the difference in size of faculties which has not been accounted for in this analysis. While the leaders include in the order of over 20 professorial staff other faculties only include about 8 -- 10 Professors on average. Also, as is shown from Table 3 the rankings are strongly influenced by ethnocentric features. Non-German-speaking institutions are still a minority in terms of appearances as is the case with authors.

Table 3. Adjusted Appearances of Institutions
Rank Location Institutions Appearances
 1 Koln Universitat 82.75
 2 Wien/A Wirtschaftsuniversitat 73.33
 3 Mannheim Universitat 58.16
 4 Munster Universitat 56.25
 5 St. Gallen/CH Hochschule 52.83
 6 Frankfurt Universitat 52.15
 7 Erlangen-Nurnberg Universitat 46.27
 8 Zurich/CH Universitat 46.0
 9 Bochum Universitat 42.08
 10 Munchen Universitat 41.99
 11 Kiel Universitat 41.16
 12 Passau Universitat 39.0
 13 Bonn Universitat 30.5
 14 Regensburg Universitat 30.0
 15 Graz/A Universitat 29,0
 16 Berlin Freie Universitat 27.66
 17 Hamburg Universitat der
 Bundeswehr 27.49
 18 Saarbrucken Universitat 27.0
 19 Darmstadt TU 24.83
 20 Hannover Universitat 24.25
 21 Trier Universitat 24.0
 22 Augsburg Universitat 23.0
 23 Linz/A Universitat 22.66
 24 Basel/CH Universitat 21.0
 25 Fribourg/CH Universitat 19.5
 26 Bielefeld Universitat 18.82
 27 Koblenz Wissenschaftliche
 Hochschule 18.66
 28 Hamburg Universitat 18.5
 29 Giessen Universitat 18.16
 30 Wien/A Universitat 18.0
 31 Aachen RW Technische
 Hochschule 17.33
 32 Bamberg Universitat 16.5
 33 Tubingen Universitat 15.66
 34 Dortmund Universitat 15.0
 35 Hagen Fernuniversitat 14.82
 36 Stuttgart Universitat
 Hohenheim 14.5
 36 Stuttgart Universitat 14.5
 38 Gottingen Universitat 14.33
 39 Konstanz Universitat 14.0
 40 Berlin TU 13.83
 41 Paderborn Universitat GHS 13.5
 42 Innsbruck/A Universitat 13.0
 43 Siegen Universitat GHS 12.83
 44 Munchen Universitat der
 Bundeswehr 11.58
 45 Lausanne/CH Universitat 10.5
 46 Luneburg Universitat 9.5
 47 Bern/CH Universitat 9.41
 48 Ulm Universitat 9.0
 49 Oldenburg Universitat 8.5
 50 Munchen TU 8.16
 51 Braunschweig Universitat 8.0
 51 Osnabruck Universitat 8.0
 53 Berlin Wissenschaftszentrum 7.5
 53 Duisburg Universitat GHS 7.5
 55 Essen Universitat GHS 7.25
 56 Wien/A TU 7.16
 57 Bayreuth Universitat 7.0
 58 Hamburg Hochschule f. Wirtschaft
 u. Politik 6.82
 59 Mainz Universitat 6.0
 60 Bremen Universitat 5.5
 60 Karlsruhe Universitat 5.5
 60 Marburg Universitat 5.5
 63 Freiburg Universitat 5.0
 63 Kaiserslautern Universitat 5.0
 63 Tokio/J Hitotsubashi University 5.0
 66 Wurzburg Universitat 4.33
 67 Clausthal TU 4.0
 67 Genf/CH Universitat 4.0
 67 Helsinki/SF School of Economics 4.0
 67 Speyer HS f.
 Verwaltungswissenschaften 4.0
 71 Kobe/J University 3.5
 72 Goteborg/S University 3.0
 72 Klagenfurt/A Universitat 3.0
 72 Odense/DK University 3.0
 72 Tokio/J Keio University 3.0
 72 Toronto/CND University 3.0
 72 Urbana-Champ./USA University 3.0
 72 Warschau/PL HS fur Planung und
 Statistik 3.0
 72 Wroclaw/PL TU 3.0
 80 Boston/USA Harvard University 2.66
 81 Evanston/USA Northwestern University 2.5
 81 Groningen/NL University 2.5
 83 Krakow/PL Bergakademie 2.0
 83 Shanghai/VRC University 2.0
 83 Stockholm/S School of Economics 2.0
 83 Strassburg/F University 2.0
 83 Wuppertal Universitat GHS 2.0
 88 Oestrich-Winkel European Business School 1.75
 89 New Haven/USA Yale University 1.5
 90 Ingolstadt Kath. Universitat Eichstatt 1.5
 91 Berkeley/USA University of California 1.33
 91 Kassel Universitat GHS 1.33
 93 Zagreb/YU University 1.0
 93 Amsterdam/NL University 1.0
 93 Bergen/N Norw. Wirtschaftshochschule 1.0
 93 Binghampton/USA NY State University 1.0
 93 Bratislava/CS Slovak TU 1.0
 93 Chicago/USA University 1.0
 93 DeKalb/USA Northern Illinois
 University 1.0
 93 Dresden TU 1.0
 93 Dusseldorf Universitat 1.0
 93 Edinburgh/GB University 1.0
 93 Halle Universitat 1.0
 93 Hamilton/CND McMaster University 1.0
 93 Heidelberg Universitat 1.0
 93 Jena Universitat 1.0
 93 Lancaster/GB University 1.0
 93 Lodz/PL University 1.0
 93 Los Angeles/USA UCLA 1.0
 93 Montreal/CND McGill University 1.0
 93 Namur/B University 1.0
 93 Newcastle/AUS University 1.0
 93 New York/USA City University 1.0
 93 Norwich/GB University 1.0
 93 Pennsylvania/USA State University 1.0
 93 Philadelphia/USA Wharton School 1.0
 93 Prag/CS University 1.0
 93 Rostock Universitat 1.0
 93 Columbia/USA University SC 1.0
 93 Stanford/USA University 1.0
 93 Strathclyde/GB University 1.0
 93 Swansea/GB University of Wales 1.0
 93 Tampere/SF University 1.0
 93 Tokio/J Gakushuin University 1.0
 93 Tokio/J Meiji University 1.0
 93 Tokio/J Seinan Gaku University 1.0
 93 Tokio/J Sophia University 1.0
 93 Tokio/J St. Paul's University 1.0
 93 Warschau/PL Haupthochschule 1.0
 93 Wellesley/USA Babson College 1.0
131 Houston/USA University 0.83
132 Belfast/GB University 0.66
132 Bologna/I University 0.66
134 Aarhus/DK University 0.5
134 Atlanta/USA Emory University 0.5
134 Vancouver/CND University of Br. Col. 0.5
134 New York/USA Columbia University 0.5
134 Eindhoven/NL TU 0.5
134 Fukuoka/J Kyushu S. University 0.5
134 Waterloo/CND W.Laurier University 0.5
134 Paris/F University Dauphine 0.5
134 Virginia/USA University 0.5
143 Baton Rouge/USA University 0.33
143 Berlin Akademie der Wissenschaften 0.33
143 New Hampshire/USA University 0.33
143 Potsdam/USA University 0.33
143 Salt Lake City/USA University 0.33

TU denotes Technical University, GHS Comprehensive University, HS (Hochschule) school with university status.

Evaluation by Professional Affiliation

The phrasing of titles of journals such as "research and practice" or "business research", or explicit statements in the editorial program convey the basic philosophy of the respective journal's editorial policy. In order to find out whether the collection of contributors is in accord with the editorial philosophy the appearances were analyzed by professional affiliation of authors, university (professors, research assistants) vs. non-university (industry, others). As a second step authors were classified by academic qualification, doctorate vs. nondoctorate(17). The analysis resulted in a high degree of variations between journals. As can be seen from Exhibits 2 and 3 the DBW and ZfB show a clear profile of research-oriented journals mainly geared towards the academic establishment; also with respect to the non-university contributors both journals are fairly homogenous and compare quite well. The high share of contributors from industry in the BFuP suggests that this journal does seem to follow successfully the philosophy expressed in its title. A similarly marked result can be reported for the JfB with respect to the high share of authors who belong to the group of research assistants. Also the small participation of practitioners can be taken as an inverse indicator for research orientation of the journal. That means that this journal fulfills an important function in terms of an outlet for junior academics.


In the ZfbF as the organ of the Schmalenbach-Gesellschaft/Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Betriebswirtschaft e.V. [German Society of Business] whose membership comprises mainly executives (about 80%) there is an obvious conflict built in the editorial policy of this journal because it has to cater for both parties. The description in the title of the journal, however, signals an emphasis towards "business research". This emphasis was corroborated by a rather high share of academicians among the contributors. At the same time appearances of practitioners are reported such that the ZfbF achieves the second highest value of contributions of practitioners among all journals. For the DU journal there is no marked peak position to be reported for any of the groups of authors; yet there is also a majority of university affiliated contributors in the professorial and research assistants groups. The group of contributors qualified by a doctorate prevails as is the case with the other journals.

Connection of Appearances with University Location of Editors

It is suggested that the function of a scholar as (co-)editor or member of an editorial board may have a positive impact on the publication of research of the academic staff in the university an editor is affiliated with. It is assumed that editors actively encourage and solicit manuscripts for their journal. In order to find out whether there is such a connection a coefficient was constructed:

[C.sub.1] = points of contributors affiliated with editors' universities x 100/total of appearances As there are different numbers of editor-related universities per journal this difference was eliminated by dividing the ratio by the total number of editor-related universities. As is shown in Table 4 the weakest correlation rests with the ZfB. The high ratio of 61% for JfB can be explained by the central role which Vienna Business Economics University plays in Austrian business education.


Concentration of Authors in Journals

With respect to longevity as a controlling variable of the frequency of appearances there is contraditory evidence. While it has been found that in some journals authors contribute either once or twice(18) over a long period for such reasons as low acceptance rate or discouraging length of the review process there are other findings which suggest that the number of one-time authors is inversely related with the age of a journal(19). Apart from longevity there may be other reasons such as prestige and editorial policy which attract authors to submit contributions to a particular journal. Would such contributions be accepted again and again this could lead to a few authors influencing the profile of a journal considerably. In economic terms this phenomenon could be described as the degree of concentration of a journal. The more (scarce) space is occupied by a few the lesser the chance for others to get in, too. The degree of concentration of German-speaking business journals was measured by two ratios

[C.sub.2] = points of the 3 most frequent authors x 100/total of appearances

[C.sub.3] = points of the 10 most frequent authors x 100/total of appearances

The degrees of concentration for the German-speaking journals are given in Table 5. Measured by [C.sub.2] the highest degrees are shown for JfB, followed by ZfB and DU, while BFuP and ZfbF seem to cater for a wider spread of contributions from many different authors. Measured by [C.sub.3] the highest degrees are shown for JfB, followed by DU and ZfB; DBW, BFuP and ZfbF show relatively low degrees of concentration.

Table 5. Concentration of Journals
[C.sub.2] 3.65% 4.84% 6.07% 13.44% 6.34% 3.32%
[C.sub.3] 9.05% 9.75% 15.36% 24.58% 12.31% 8.92%


Results of the quantitative evaluation suggest that about 82% of the Germanspeaking university professors of Business Administration have contributed albeit on different productivity levels to the major German business periodicals over the last ten years. Obviously the productivity of business research measured by the number of published articles of authors cannot be taken as a reliable indicator of the quality of their academic work also. On the other hand we can assume that any journal attempts to achieve implicitly or explicitly a certain minimum level of quality of contributions(20). The variance of quality above this level cannot be evaluated by the instrument applied in the present analysis. Inspite of this weakness the latter's results can be useful in order to contribute to more transparency in the framework of an increasingly competitive academic market, and with respect to the information function of journals and the achievement of editorial objectives in that market. Moreover, they can serve as a benchmark for evaluation and standard-setting in scholarly research.


(1)In West Germany Business Administration attracts the highest number of students among all university programmes with a total of about 110,000 students in 1991 dispersed over 61 universities with freshmen accounting for about 8% of all beginners. In Austria there are 8 and in the German-speaking part of Switzerland 6 universities where this subject is taught; in the Eastern part of Germany there will be 9 faculties according to present plans. Right now there are about 700 Professors of Business Administration in the three countries.

(2)Cf. also Koetz, A. G., Lohnherr, G. (1992), p. 11.

(3)As examples see Heiber, H. (1983); Hufner, K., Hummel, Th., Rau, E. (1987); Daniel, H.-D., Fisch, R. (1988).

(4)Cf. for instance Barry, Th. E. (1990), p. 52; Fields, D. M., Swayne, L. E. (1991), p. 33; Zivney, T. L., Bertin, W. J. (1992), p. 295.

(5)Liebowitz, S. J., Palmer, J. P. (1984), p. 77.

(6)Barry, Th. E. (1990), p. 52.

(7)Cf. Simon, H. (1985), p. 827.

(8)Cf. Hufner, K., Rau, E. (1989).

(9)Cf. Okoroafo, S. C. (1990), p. 49.

(10)Cf. Chandy, P. R., Gopalakrishna, P. (1992), p. 273 et seq.

(11)Cf. Barry, Th. E. (1990), p. 53 et seq.

(12)Cf. Vandermeulen, A. (1972), p. 466; Stigler, G. J., Friedland, C. (1979), p. 1 et seq.; Pommerehne, W. W., Renggli, M. F. P. (1986), p. 96; Hufner, K., Hummel, T., Rau, E. (1987), p. 53.

(13)Cf. Coase, R. H. (1937).

(14)Cf. Lerbinger, P. (1985), p. 848 et seq.; Hufner, K., Rau, E. (1989), p. 728 et seq.

(15)There are other journals specializing in areas such as marketing, organization, personnel, management accounting or taxation which are not included in this analysis.

(16)Cf. Gaugler, E., Koppert, W. (1990), p. 486.

(17)Note that in the German context a doctor's degree is the necessary entry qualification for an academic career; a second major research qualification ("Habilitation") is the precondition for the career of a university professor (professorial ranks C2, C3, C4 are equivalent to Assistant, Associate, Full Professor). Also note that unlike in the Anglo-American contest many executives carry a doctor's degree.

(18)E. g. Chandy, P. R., Gopalakrishna, P. (1992) for mir.

(19)E. g. Heck, J. L., Cooley, Ph. L. (1988) for finance journals.

(20.)Cf. Glogoff, St. (1988), p. 400 et seq.; Extejt, M. M., Smith, J. E. (1990), p. 539.

(*)Indicates practitioners


Barry, Th. E. (1990), Publication Productivity in the Three Leading U.S. Advertising Journals, Inaugural Issues through 1988, Journal of Advertising, 19, 1, 1990, pp. 52--60.

Chandy, P. R., Gopalakrishna, P. (1992), A Content Analysis of Contributions to the Management International Review Journal, Management International Review, 32, 3, 1992, pp. 273--283.

Coase, R. H. (1937), The Nature of the Firm, Economica, 4, 4, 1937, pp. 386--405.

Daniel, H.-D., Fisch, R. (Eds.) (1988), Evaluation von Forschung. Methoden -- Ergebnisse -- Stellungnahmen. Universitatsverlag Konstanz, Konstanz 1988.

Extejt, M. M., Smith, J. E. (1990), The Behavioral Sciences and Management: An Evaluation of Relevant Journals, Journal of Management, 16, 3, 1990, pp. 539--551.

Fields, D. M., Swayne, L. E. (1991), Contribution of Southern Authors in Major Marketing Publications, Journal of Business Research, 22, 1, 1991, pp. 33--45.

Gaugler, E., Koppert, W. (1990), Die Entwicklung der Hochschullehrerstellen und des wissenschaftlichen Nachwuchses in der Betriebswirtschaftslehre an den wissenschaftlichen Hochschulen im deutschsprachigen Raum, Die Betriebswirtschaft, 50, 4, 1990, pp. 471--490.

Glogoff, St. (1988), Reviewing the Gatekeepers: A Survey of Referees of Library Journals, Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 39, 6, 1988, pp. 400--407.

Heck, J. L., Cooley, Ph. L. (1988), Most Frequent Contributors to the Finance Literature, Financial Management, 17, 3, 1988, pp. 100--108.

Heiber, H. (1983), Messung von Forschungsleistungen der Hochschulen. Ein empirischer Ansatz auf der Basis von Zitatenanalysen. Nomos, Baden-Baden 1983.

Hufner, K., Rau, E. (1989), Publikationsbedingungen in den Wirtschaftswissenschaften. Die Eignung des Zeitschriftenmarktes zur Beurteilung wissenschaftlicher Leistungen, Die Betriebswirtschaft, 49, 6, 1989, pp. 727--741.

Hufner, K., Hummel, Th., Rau, E. (1987), Forschungsproduktivitat in den Wirtschaftswissenschaften. Eine Analyse wirtschaftswissenschaftlicher Fachbereiche in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1970--1984. Campus, Frankfurt/New York 1987.

Koetz, A. G., Lohnherr, G. (1992), Hochschulmanagement: Probleme, Notwendigkeiten, Strukturen. Unpublished Working Paper. Kienbaum-Unternehmensberatung GmbH, pp. 1--14.

Lerbinger, P. (1985), Der Studentenberg als Hemmschuh der Forschung. Eine empirische Untersuchung der Beitrage deutscher Hochschulen in betriebswirtschaftlichen Zeitschriften, Zeitschrift fur Betriebswirtschaft, 55, 8, 1985, pp. 848--858.

Liebowitz, S. J., Palmer, J. P. (1984), Assessing the Relative Impacts of Economics Journals, Journal of Economic Literature, 22, 3, 1984, pp. 77--88.

Okoroafo, S. C. (1990), Quality of International Business Journals: Do Differential Perceptions by Areas of Research Interest Make a Difference?, Journal of Teaching in International Business, 2, 1, 1990, pp. 43--54.

Pommerehne, W. W., Renggli, M. F. P. (1986), Die Messung universitarer Forschungsleistung am Beispiel der Wirtschaftswissenschaften. In: Fisch, R., Daniel, H.-D. (Eds.), Messung und Forderung von Forschungsleistung. Person -- Team -- Institution. Universitatsverlag Konstanz, Konstanz 1986, pp. 89--134.

Simon, H. (1985), Die Positionierung von wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Fachbereichen. Eine Grundlagenstudie zum strategischen Universitatsmarketing, Zeitschrift fur Betriebswirtschaft, 55, 8, 1985, pp. 827--847.

Stigler, G. J., Friedland, C. (1979), The Pattern of Citation Practices in Economics, History of Political Economy, 11, 1, 1979, pp. 1--20.

Vandermeulen, A. (1972), Editor's Note, Western Economic Journal, 10, 4, 1972, p. 466.

Zivney, T. L., Bertin, W. J. (1992), Publish or Perish: What the Competition is Really Doing, The Journal of Finance, 47, 1, 1992, pp. 295--329.
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Author:Macharzina, Klaus; Wolf, Joachim; Oesterle, Michael-J.
Publication:Management International Review
Date:Jan 1, 1993
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