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Quality of Estonian science estimated through bibliometric indicators (1997-2007)/eesti teaduse kvaliteet hinnatuna bibliomeetriliste indikaatorite vahendusel (1997-2007).

INTRODUCTION

The idea of bibliometric analysis has transformed from an intriguing possibility (de Solla Price, 1965) into a regular tool for evaluation of the scientific quality of countries and institutions (European Commission, 2005; Moed, 2005; Must, 2006). Estonia, like its two neighbours, Latvia and Lithuania, is an interesting historical case. Before regaining independence in 1991, they belonged to one of the most inefficient scientific systems in the world. At that time 5.5% of all indexed scientific publications in the world were produced by scientists working in the former Soviet Union. At the same time, only 1.7% of all citations were on works authored by Soviet scientists. This rate was about 10 times less than, for example, citations of Dutch scientists. In terms of bibliometric performance one Dutchman alone was equal to the impact of a small research institute in Moscow (Allik, 1998). Although the quality of science has certainly improved in Russia, according to a recent press release (24 February 2008) the percentage of Russia's share of all papers published in the world is about 2.8% while less than 1% of all citations are on works authored by Russian scientists (http://sciencewatch.com/dr/sci/08/feb24-08_1/). Therefore it is not only interesting but also significant to see what has happened to Estonian science after almost two decades of autonomous development.

Bibliometric indicators have shown that although Estonian science has considerably improved during the years of independence, it is still less intensive than science in the most scientifically advanced countries such as Switzerland, Sweden, or Finland (Allik, 1998, 2003). However, nearly two decades is a sufficient period for looking back how political decisions and administrative reforms have influenced the development of scientific research systems in Estonia in comparison to two other Baltic countries, Latvia and Lithuania, with similar historical experience (Kristapsons et al., 2003). This analysis is particularly relevant because the weakness of a set of policies crucial for longer-term development, such as innovation and technology policies, has led in the last decade to a deterioration rather than strengthening of the competitive advantages of Eastern European economies including Estonia (Tiits et al., 2008).

The main goal of this paper is to provide an analysis of bibliometric indicators of the quality of science in Estonia in comparison to its neighbours, Latvia, Lithuania, and Finland, during the 11-year period from 1997 to 2007.

METHODS

The analysis is based on the Internet version of the Thomson Reuters Web of Science (WoS) databases covering the period from 1997 to 2007. The WoS includes about 11 000 of the most influential research journals in the world. It contains three citation indices: Science Citation Index (1900-present), Social Sciences Citation Index (1956-present), and Arts & Humanities Citation Index (1975-present). The WoS also provides different analytical tools for the analysis of countries/ territories and research institutions.

The Essential Science Indicators (ESI) is a resource that provides analytical tools for ranking scientists, institutions, countries, and journals. It is based on journal article publication counts and citation data from the WoS and analyses a ten-year and plus n-months rolling period. ESI covers 10 million articles in 22 specified fields of research (excluding humanities), and is updated every two months. ESI provides both total citation counts and cites per paper scores for different countries or territories. ESI is limited to the journal articles indexed in the WoS only. No books, book chapters, or articles published in journals not indexed by the WoS are taken into account in ESI, either in terms of publication or citation counts.

RESULTS AND ANALYSIS

Productivity from 1990 to 2007

In 1990, just before the collapse of the Soviet Union, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania had very similar starting positions. Scientists in each of these three Baltic countries published approximately 300 papers per year in journals indexed by the WoS. Seventeen years later, in 2007, Estonians, Lithuanians, and Latvians published 1295, 1067, and 426 articles, respectively. Figure 1 demonstrates the growth of publication in the three Baltic countries from 1990 to 2007. (1) Estonian and Lithuanian contributions to the world science more than tripled even after taking into account the about 60% increase in the total number of publications in the 17-year period. The relative contribution of Latvia, however, even decreased from 0.036% in 1990 to 0.029% in 2007. Thus, Estonia and particularly Lithuania increased their publication activity considerably during the last two decades while Latvia stagnated in the number of publications. Nevertheless, in both absolute and relative terms the intensity of scientific publication in the Baltic countries is still low. Even after taking into account population size Estonian scientists managed to reach 34% level compared to Finnish productivity normalized per one million of population. For comparison, Latvia and Lithuania produced 10% and 13% of the number of papers that Finnish scientists produced per capita of their country.

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

The impact of Estonian science (1997-2007)

Table 1 presents the ranking of countries/territories on the basis of their impact, i.e. the number of citations per article. Only these countries/territories are listed that were able to exceed the 50% threshold of the essential science established for countries/territories and to publish 2000 or more articles during the last 11-year period, from 1 January 1997 to 31 December 2007. As it can be seen by the impact, Estonia (31) is ahead of all former Communist bloc countries including Hungary (32) and the Czech Republic (44), also ahead of some older EU members like Portugal (37) and Greece (40). Nevertheless, the impact of Estonian articles is still 17.2% below the world average.

Papers published by Estonian scientists attracted 22% of citations compared to the total number of Finnish citations normalized per capita. Latvian and Lithuanian publications received both approximately 5% of the comparable Finnish citation intensity. This is only slightly more citations per capita (4%) than papers authored by Russian scientists.

Estonia occupies the 61st place in the ranking of papers and the 52nd place in the ranking of citations. This indicates that Estonian scientists are not especially prolific but if they publish their papers they have a relatively high impact. One of the possible reasons for the relatively high impact is that until 2008 only one local Estonian journal, Oil Shale with the impact factor [IF.sub.2006] = 0.371, was indexed by the WOS. (2) It seems to be a general rule that local national journals have lower impact than the mainstream international publications. For example, Lithuania has several journals indexed by the WoS (Medicina-Lithuania, Veterinarija it Zootechnika, Transformations in Business & Economics, Lithuanian Journal of Physics, Baltic Forestry, etc.) but its 11-year impact is 4.95 (65th), which is even lower than 5.92 of Latvia (46th). Another example is Croatia with 13 journals indexed by the WoS (Andreis & Jokic, 2008) and the impact factor of 4.61 (68th).

Growth rate in different fields

Table 2 compares two ESI 11-year periods, 1994-2004 and 1997-2007, for Estonian science. In the ESI the whole area (except Humanities) is divided into 22 categories. For the period 1997-2007, Estonia exceeded the threshold for countries/territories (50%) in all areas except Economics & Business. All fields are ranked according to the increase of their impact (citation per paper) from 2004 to 2007 (the last column).

On average, the impact of Estonian science increased by 24.4% during the last three years. The most remarkable increase was achieved in Agricultural Sciences, which was unable to surpass the threshold of essential science in 2004 but did it in 2007. The largest increase (+68.8%) was in Molecular Biology & Genetics followed by Social Sciences general (+38.8%), Geosciences (+35.8%), and Environment/Ecology (+32.5%). The only field whose impact declined was Space Science (-1.8%). Pharmacology & Toxicology managed to stay close to the world average level and its increase was marginal (0.3%).

Comparison with Latvia and Lithuania

In the year 2002, the impact of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania was 5.03, 3.52, and 3.97, respectively (Allik, 2003). According to the release of the ESL from 1 January 1997 to 31 December 2007, the impact factors for Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania increased to 7.87, 5.92, and 4.95, respectively. The increase during the last five years was 56.5%, 68.2%, and 24.7%, respectively, for Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. Thus, although the total number of Latvian papers did not increase their quality improved considerably. At the same time Lithuania remarkably improved in the number of publications but their quality improved at a much more modest rate.

Table 3 compares strengths and weaknesses in 22 fields of science in Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. It is certainly not a coincidence that Economics & Business failed to break the threshold in all three countries. In addition, Latvia is not represented in Agricultural Sciences, Mathematics, Social Sciences, Space Science, and like Lithuania, in Multidisciplinary sciences. Like Estonia, Latvia is above the world average in five fields while Lithuania has not yet attained the world average in any of the fields.

Across all fields, Estonia is 17.2% below the world average (Latvia 37.7% and Lithuania 47.8%). There were only eight Estonian papers published between 1997 and 2007 that were classified as multidisciplinary. (3) These few papers were cited +82.4% more frequently than papers of this category on average, suggesting that this was due to lucky coincidences. Another small number anomaly is 10 Latvian papers in Psychiatry/Psychology, which were cited +220% above the world average. The most successful subfield in Estonian science is certainly Material Science, which exceeds the world average citation rate by +43.5%. Traditionally strong is the research in Environment/ Ecology and Plant & Animal Science categories (+10.5% and 0%, respectively). In addition, Pharmacology & Toxicology, Chemistry, and Molecular Biology & Genetics are the fields that are very close to the world average level.

According to bibliometric criteria the weakest field in Estonian science is Economics & Business, the only one which failed to exceed the threshold of essential science. Relatively modest impact is in Geosciences, Immunology, and Computer Science.

Productivity of research institutions

Table 4 lists 20 most productive research institutions with regard to the number of papers authored by Estonian scientists in the period between 1997 and 2007. Of these top 20 institutions, 11 are not located in Estonia but in some other countries (five in Sweden, four in Finland, and one both in Germany and Russia). The University of Helsinki is the fourth most productive research institution contributing to Estonian science. These 20 institutions produced virtually all Estonian papers because the total score is above 100% (a considerable number of papers have authors from several listed institutions).

Collaboration with other countries

Table 5 provides a list of the top 20 countries/territories contributing to papers authored by Estonian scientists. As expected, the largest number of papers were written in collaboration with colleagues from Sweden, Finland, Germany, USA, and England (almost 50% of all papers). The proportion of papers written in collaboration with Russian scientists has decreased and is now only 4.2%. There is no doubt that the re-orientation towards scientifically stronger partners appears to be one of the success factors of Estonian science. At the same time it may be a weakness as well because of the lack of sufficient autonomy. For example, according to the latest ESI release (1 May 2008), there were 58 papers co-authored by Estonian scientists that were within the top 1% of the most cited papers in their particular fields. From these highly cited papers relatively few have exclusively Estonian authorship (Aarik et al., 1999; Niinemets, 1999; Raidal, 2004; Kaljurand et al., 2005), (4)

Humanities

Because the humanities are not included into the ESI, the Arts & Humanities Citation Index (A&HCI) in the WoS was analysed separately. Estonian authors published 128 articles in journals indexed by the A&HCI during the 11-year period. These 128 papers, from which almost a half (40%) were book reviews, were cited 192 times (1.5 times per article; H-Index = 5). The average publication intensity was rather low (less than 12 articles per year), reaching its maximum in 2007 with 20 publications. For comparison, Finnish scholars published 1401 articles in the A&HCI journals during the same period, which were cited 1322 times (0.94 times per article; H = 15). Thus, after normalization for the population sizes the productivity of Estonian authors comprises 37% of the average level of Finnish humanitarians. It is interesting to note that the most cited article is identical for both Estonia and Finland (Cheour et al., 1998) with 137 citations (as of 16 May 2008), which is 71% of all Estonian citations. Thus, somewhat surprisingly the productivity of Estonian humanitarians compared to their Finnish colleagues is in the same proportion to what we observed for the 'hard' sciences. Nevertheless, it is necessary to remind that the A&HCI coverage of the humanities and arts is the lowest among all disciplines (hoed, 2005, p. 126).

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS

Although the productivity of Estonian scientists is still far behind the most advanced R&D countries, the quality of publications improved considerably during the last eleven years. Somewhat surprisingly Estonian science has the highest impact (7.87) compared to all other former Communist bloc countries including Hungary (7.83), Latvia (5.92), Lithuania (4.95), and Russia (3.98). Every paper authored by scientists working in Estonia attracted two times more citations than an average paper written by their Russian colleagues although the WoS includes hundreds of Russian own journals. Thus, Estonia has achieved, with one of the smallest R&D expenditures (0.77% of the GDP in 2003), quite a remarkable increase in the quality of scientific research.

The analysis revealed how political decisions taken by governments of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania during the last 17 years of independence have differently shaped the scientific productivity and quality. Latvia failed to increase the productivity of its scientists although the quality of a relatively small number of papers published in international peer-reviewed journals has increased considerably during the last five years. In five fields it exceeds the world average level. Although Latvia succeeded in maintaining the high quality of its publications, several political decisions have put Latvian science very close to a critical mass that is necessary to keep up the research activity (Allik, 2003).

Lithuania, in turn, demonstrated a considerable increase in the total number of publications in peer-reviewed international journals, including their own journals indexed in the WoS, but without parallel increase in their overall quality. It is not because Lithuania failed to re-orient the network of its scientific collaboration. Among papers published between 1997 and 2007, 8.6%, 8.5%, 7.7%, and 5.7% of all articles were written in collaboration with scientists from Germany, USA, Sweden, and France, respectively. The role of collaboration with Russia (3.6%) was even lower than that in Estonia (4.2%) and Latvia (7.9%). There is also no evidence that Lithuania supports fields with smaller impacts because Physics and Chemistry are the two most productive research areas. It is also stressed that the number of WoS publications has been one of the main criteria for financing decisions in Lithuanian science (Kristapsons et al., 2003). One possible explanation is that the increase of Lithuanian publications in journals indexed by the WoS was achieved mainly by the increase of publications in low-impact journals including their own local ones. In any case, this could serve as a warning for science administrators that the number of WoS publications alone cannot serve as the criterion for decisions, including financing ones.

Estonia succeeded in exceeding the threshold of essential science in all 22 categories except Economics & Business. For a country with a research community of about 1500 actively publishing authors this is a remarkable achievement. However, even Iceland, four times smaller than Estonia, is represented in 20 fields of the 22. In several fields, particularly Agricultural Sciences, Molecular Biology & Genetics, Social Sciences, Geosciences, Environment/Ecology, and Clinical Medicine, the growth of the impact during the last three years has been noteworthy. Some of these fast developing fields are already on a high international level, such as Environment/Ecology and Molecular Biology & Genetics, but some of them, like Geosciences and Social Sciences, are still behind the world average.

The above-presented analysis provides also some evidence that one potential factor behind the relative success of Estonian science could be partnership with scientifically more advanced countries, particularly with Sweden, Finland, Germany, and the United States. A considerable proportion of publications is prepared and published in co-authorship with colleagues from countries that are ahead of Estonia both in terms of the intensity and impact of research. This is a kind of 'hidden money' that is difficult to take into account in the statistics on R&D (Allik, 2003). In the list of the 20 most productive research institutions contributing to Estonia's international publications a half are located outside the border. However, a more detailed analysis is required to reveal how the international network of collaboration stimulates or inhibits Estonian science.

Received 25 June 2008, in revised form 15 September 2008

REFERENCES

Aarik, J., Aidla, A., Kiisler, A. A., Uustare, T., and Sammelselg, V. 1999. Influence of substrate temperature on atomic layer growth and properties of Hf0Z thin films. Thin Solid Films, 340(1-2), 110-116.

Allik, J. 1998. Thoughts about the quality of social sciences in Estonia. Trames, 2, 91-107.

Allik, J. 2003. The quality of science in Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania after the first decade of independence. Trames, 7(57/52), 40-52.

Andreis, M. and Jokic, M. 2008. An impact of Croatian journals measured by citation analysis from SCI-expanded database in time span 1975-2001. Sciento-metrics, 75(2), 263-288.

Cheour, M., Ceponiene, R., Lehtokoski, A., Luuk, A., Allik, J., Alho, K., et al. 1998. Development of language-specific phoneme representations in the infant brain. Nat. Neurosci., 1(5), 351-353.

de Solla Price, D. 1965. Networks of scientific papers. Science, 149, 510-515.

European Commission. 2005. Key Figures 2005. Towards a European Research Area Science, Technology and Innovation. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.

Kaljurand, I., Kutt, A., Soovali, L., Rodima, T., Maemets, V., Leito, I., and Koppel, 1. A. 2005. Extension of the self-consistent spectrophotometric basicity scale in aceto nitrile to a full span of 28 pKa units: unification of different basicity scales. J. Org. Chem., 70(3), 1019-1028.

Kristapsons, J., Martinson, H., and Dagyte, 1. 2003. Baltic R&D Systems in Transitions: Experiences and Future Prospects. Zinatne, Riga.

Moed, H. F. 2005. Citation Analysis in Research Evaluation. Springer, Dordrecht.

Must, U. 2006. "New" countries in Europe--research, development and innovation strategies vs bibliometric data. Scientometrics, 66(2), 241-248.

Niinemets, U. 1999. Components of leaf dry mass per area thickness and density--alter leaf photosynthetic capacity in reverse directions in woody plants. New Phytol., 144(1), 35-47.

Raidal, M. 2004. Relation between the neutrino and quark mixing angles and grand unification. Phys. Rev. Lett., 93(16).

Tilts, M., Kattel, R., Kalvet, T., and Tamm, D. 2008. Catching up, forging ahead or falling behind? Central and Eastern European development in 1990-2005. Innovation-Ear. J. Social Sci. Res., 21(1), 65-85.

(1) Figure 1 counts all publications (also abstracts) included in the WoS based not on their nominal publication date but on the actual time they were entered into the database. All publications were included since it has been argued that conference presentations are more important vehiches of scientific communication in some areas than others.

(2) Since the middle of 2008 four more Estonian journals Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences, Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences, Trames: Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences, and Linguistica Uralica--started to be indexed by the WoS.

(3) The category 'Multidisciplinary' is formed as a residual of articles published in approximately 60 journals, including journals such as Science, Nature, and the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA (PNAS); afterwards most of these papers are reassigned to the field with the largest number of references and citations to them.

(4) Some very recent entries were discarded because of unreliability of very small numbers. Unfortunately, I was not able to analyse separately papers in which Estonian authors were listed first or where they were indicated as the principal or corresponding authors.

Juri Allik

Department of Psychology, University of Tartu, Tiigi 78, 50410 Tartu, Estonia; juri.allik@but.ee
Table 1. Ranking of countries/territories according to the number of
citations per paper in the Essential Science Indicators during the
11-year period 1 January 1997-31 December 2007

      Rank

Papers     World    Country/
>2000 *   ranking   Territory                Papers

1            2      Switzerland             167 118
2            5      USA                   2 986 569
3            6      Denmark                  91 326
4            7      Netherlands             231 072
5            8      Scotland                106 594
6           10      Iceland                   4 191
7           11      Sweden                  175 569
8           12      England                 681 819
9           13      Finland                  85 516
10          14      Hong Kong                11 527
11          15      Canada                  411 730
12          16      Belgium                 123 955
13          17      Germany                 769 257
14          18      Israel                  110 411
15          19      Austria                  86 942
16          21      Norway                   61 758
17          22      France                  551 081
18          23      Wales                    35 312
19          25      Australia               262 001
20          26      Italy                   389 473
21          27      Ireland                  35 818
22          28      North Ireland            17 377
23          32      New Zealand              52 072
24          33      Uganda                    2 338
25          34      Japan                   808 301
26          36      Costa Rica                2 958
27          37      Spain                   283 934
28          40      Kenya                     6 496
29          46      Peru                      2 928
30          48      Uruguay                   3 888
31          50      Estonia                   7 207
32          51      Hungary                  47 910
33          52      Chile                    26 058
34          53      Senegal                   2 056
35          58      Philippines               4 724
36          61      Tanzania                  3 036
37          62      Portugal                 45 812
38          66      Argentina                50 870
39          67      South Africa             45 527
40          68      Greece                   68 230
41          71      Zimbabwe                  2 368
42          72      Singapore                50 931
43          73      Indonesia                 5 189
44          74      Czech Republic           55 945
45          77      Colombia                  8 060
46          78      Latvia                    3 672
47          79      Armenia                   3 838
48          80      Cyprus                    2 561
49          82      Mexico                   62 578
50          85      Vietnam                   4 667
51          86      Thailand                 20 622
52          87      Poland                  126 684
53          90      Slovenia                 18 384
54          91      Cameroon                  2 792
55          92      Venezuela                11 198
56          93      Ghana                     2 100
57          94      Taiwan                  137 846
58          95      Brazil                  145 267
59          96      South Korea             203 637
60          99      Sri Lanka                 2 383
61          100     Slovakia                 22 668
62          101     Bulgaria                 17 917
63          105     Lebanon                   4 013
64          106     Lithuania                 7 350
65          107     Ethiopia                  2 885
66          108     Bangladesh                4 963
67          109     Cuba                      6 684
68          111     Croatia                  16 207
69          112     Yugoslavia                9 599
70          113     Republic of Georgia       2 961
71          115     India                   227 761
72          116     People's Republic       508 561
                      of China
73          120     Romania                  23 705
74          121     Russia                  286 153
75          122     Kuwait                    5 882
76          123     Malaysia                 13 059
77          124     Morocco                  10 786
78          125     Egypt                    29 138
79          126     Saudi Arabia             15 799
80          127     Turkey                  101 843
81          128     United Arab Emirates      4 601
82          129     Moldova                   2 001
83          130     Pakistan                  9 606
84          131     Oman                      2 555
85          133     Belarus                  11 636
86          135     Ukraine                  44 635
87          136     Iran                     32 050
88          137     Tunisia                   9 408
89          138     Algeria                   6 393
90          139     Jordan                    6 061
91          140     Nigeria                   9 663
92          142     Kazakhstan                2 306
93          143     Uzbekistan                3 510
94          147     Azerbaijan                2 090

      Rank

Papers     World    Country/                              Citations
>2000 *   ranking   Territory              Citations      per paper

1            2      Switzerland            2 481 447        14.85
2            5      USA                   42 332 176        14.17
3            6      Denmark                1 230 868        13.48
4            7      Netherlands            3 093 182        13.39
5            8      Scotland               1 399 170        13.13
6           10      Iceland                   54 365        12.97
7           11      Sweden                 2 230 827        12.71
8           12      England                8 647 781        12.68
9           13      Finland                1 028 069        12.02
10          14      Hong Kong                136 074        11.80
11          15      Canada                 4 769 621        11.58
12          16      Belgium                1 415 215        11.42
13          17      Germany                8 609 811        11.19
14          18      Israel                 1 192 527        10.80
15          19      Austria                  936 697        10.77
16          21      Norway                   663 009        10.74
17          22      France                 5 869 472        10.65
18          23      Wales                    367 136        10.40
19          25      Australia              2 671 361        10.20
20          26      Italy                  3 914 198        10.05
21          27      Ireland                  355 994         9.94
22          28      North Ireland            169 440         9.75
23          32      New Zealand              476 094         9.14
24          33      Uganda                    20 911         8.94
25          34      Japan                  7 151 726         8.85
26          36      Costa Rica                25 991         8.79
27          37      Spain                  2 465 253         8.68
28          40      Kenya                     55 577         8.56
29          46      Peru                      23 554         8.04
30          48      Uruguay                   30 803         7.92
31          50      Estonia                   56 684         7.87
32          51      Hungary                  375 151         7.83
33          52      Chile                    195 667         7.51
34          53      Senegal                   15 388         7.48
35          58      Philippines               34 928         7.39
36          61      Tanzania                  21 649         7.13
37          62      Portugal                 325 088         7.10
38          66      Argentina                339 202         6.67
39          67      South Africa             301 413         6.62
40          68      Greece                   444 493         6.51
41          71      Zimbabwe                  15 232         6.43
42          72      Singapore                327 120         6.42
43          73      Indonesia                 33 324         6.42
44          74      Czech Republic           350 623         6.27
45          77      Colombia                  49 427         6.13
46          78      Latvia                    21 750         5.92
47          79      Armenia                   22 683         5.91
48          80      Cyprus                    15 086         5.89
49          82      Mexico                   362 710         5.80
50          85      Vietnam                   26 775         5.74
51          86      Thailand                 118 021         5.72
52          87      Poland                   719 262         5.68
53          90      Slovenia                 103 412         5.63
54          91      Cameroon                  15 702         5.62
55          92      Venezuela                 62 678         5.60
56          93      Ghana                     11 740         5.59
57          94      Taiwan                   765 570         5.55
58          95      Brazil                   796 761         5.48
59          96      South Korea            1 114 544         5.47
60          99      Sri Lanka                 12 672         5.32
61          100     Slovakia                 118 218         5.22
62          101     Bulgaria                  92 506         5.16
63          105     Lebanon                   20 157         5.02
64          106     Lithuania                 36 371         4.95
65          107     Ethiopia                  13 940         4.83
66          108     Bangladesh                23 908         4.82
67          109     Cuba                      31 659         4.74
68          111     Croatia                   74 782         4.61
69          112     Yugoslavia                43 809         4.56
70          113     Republic of Georgia       13 447         4.54
71          115     India                    991 151         4.35
72          116     People's Republic      2 147 166         4.22
                      of China
73          120     Romania                   97 064         4.09
74          121     Russia                 1 140 087         3.98
75          122     Kuwait                    23 370         3.97
76          123     Malaysia                  51 706         3.96
77          124     Morocco                   42 146         3.91
78          125     Egypt                    111 841         3.84
79          126     Saudi Arabia              60 014         3.80
80          127     Turkey                   386 169         3.79
81          128     United Arab Emirates      17 411         3.78
82          129     Moldova                    7 488         3.74
83          130     Pakistan                  34 617         3.60
84          131     Oman                       9 041         3.54
85          133     Belarus                   39 987         3.44
86          135     Ukraine                  145 914         3.27
87          136     Iran                     104 631         3.26
88          137     Tunisia                   29 709         3.16
89          138     Algeria                   20 024         3.13
90          139     Jordan                    18 971         3.13
91          140     Nigeria                   30 127         3.12
92          142     Kazakhstan                 6 695         2.90
93          143     Uzbekistan                 9 203         2.62
94          147     Azerbaijan                 4 044         1.93

Notes: * = Only countries that published 2000 or more papers during
the 11-year period. The first 22 countries/territories are above
the world average (9.5).

Table 2. Estonian Essential Science Indicators (ESI) for two periods,
1997-2007 and 1994-2004, and increase in citations per paper
(CPP) 2004-2007

                                            ESI 1997-2007

     Field                          Papers   Citations      CPP

     All fields                      7 207      56 684     7.87
1    Agricultural Sciences              83         368     4.43
2    Molecular Biology & Genetics      219       4 945    22.58
3    Social Sciences general           250         680     2.72
4    Geosciences                       672       3 287     4.89
5    Environment/Ecology               511       5 129    10.04
6    Clinical Medicine                 895       8 257     9.23
7    Biology & Biochemistry            422       5 311    12.59
8    Psychiatry/Psychology             169         967     5.72
9    Neuroscience & Behavior           234       2 976    12.72
10   Engineering                       341       1 028     3.01
11   Materials Science                 257       1 898     7.39
12   Microbiology                      143       1 554    10.87
13   Computer Science                   92         120     1.30
14   Plant & Animal Science            758       5 101     6.73
15   Immunology                        100       1 083    10.83
16   Multidisciplinary                   8          54     6.75
17   Chemistry                         782       6 661     8.52
18   Physics                           837       4 609     5.51
19   Mathematics                       159         327     2.06
20   Pharmacology & Toxicology          78         820    10.51
21   Space Science                     170       1 480     8.71
22   Economics & Business               --          --       --

                                            ESI 1994-2004

     Field                          Papers   Citations      CPP

     All fields                      5 821      36 834      6.3
1    Agricultural Sciences              --          --       --
2    Molecular Biology & Genetics      173       2 315     13.4
3    Social Sciences general           164         322      2.0
4    Geosciences                       559       2 014      3.6
5    Environment/Ecology               342       2 592      7.6
6    Clinical Medicine                 737       5 199      7.1
7    Biology & Biochemistry            341       3 288      9.6
8    Psychiatry/Psychology             122         535      4.4
9    Neuroscience & Behavior           193       1 933     10.0
10   Engineering                       301         715      2.4
11   Materials Science                 180       1 055      5.9
12   Microbiology                      124       1 086      8.8
13   Computer Science                   50          53      1.1
14   Plant & Animal Science            553       3 171      5.7
15   Immunology                         80         742      9.3
16   Multidisciplinary                  10          58      5.8
17   Chemistry                         689       5 139      7.5
18   Physics                           794       3 844      4.8
19   Mathematics                       141         257      1.8
20   Pharmacology & Toxicology          86         901     10.5
21   Space Science                     182       1 615      8.9
22   Economics & Business               --          --       --

                                    CPP increase
     Field                          2004-2007, %

     All fields                         24.4
1    Agricultural Sciences                --
2    Molecular Biology & Genetics       68.8
3    Social Sciences general            38.8
4    Geosciences                        35.8
5    Environment/Ecology                32.5
6    Clinical Medicine                  30.9
7    Biology & Biochemistry             30.6
8    Psychiatry/Psychology              30.3
9    Neuroscience & Behavior            26.9
10   Engineering                        26.5
11   Materials Science                  26.1
12   Microbiology                       24.1
13   Computer Science                   22.6
14   Plant & Animal Science             17.5
15   Immunology                         16.7
16   Multidisciplinary                  16.4
17   Chemistry                          14.2
18   Physics                            13.8
19   Mathematics                        13.2
20   Pharmacology & Toxicology           0.3
21   Space Science                      -1.8
22   Economics & Business                 --

-- Below the ESI threshold.

Table 3. Essential science in Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania,
1 January 1997-31 December 2007. Percentages above the world
average are highlighted in bold

                                          Estonia

                                                           Relative
                                               Citations   to world
Field                     Papers   Citations   per paper   average,

All fields                 7 207      56 684        7.87      -17.2
Agricultural Sciences         83         368        4.43      -23.8
Biology & Biochemistry       422       5 311       12.59      -22.0
Chemistry                    782       6 661        8.52       -6.3
Clinical Medicine            895       8 257        9.23      -19.7
Computer Science              92         120        1.30      -54.4
Economics & Business          --          --          --         --
Engineering                  341       1 028        3.01      -17.8
Environment/Ecology          511       5 129       10.04       10.5
Geosciences                  672       3 287        4.89      -41.0
Immunology                   100       1 083       10.83      -46.8
Materials Science            257       1 898        7.39       43.5
Mathematics                  159         327        2.06      -29.0
Microbiology                 143       1 554       10.87      -26.2
Molecular Biology &          219       4 945       22.58       -9.9
  Genetics
Multidisciplinary              8          54        6.75       82.4
Neuroscience & Behavior      234       2 976       12.72      -27.7
Pharmacology &                78         820       10.51        1.1
  Toxicology
Physics                      837       4 609        5.51      -28.8
Plant & Animal Science       758       5 101        6.73        0.0
Psychiatry/Psychology        169         967        5.72      -38.7
Social Sciences general      250         680        2.72      -30.3
Space Science                170       1 480        8.71      -31.2

                                          Latvia

                                                           Relative
                                               Citations   to world
Field                     Papers   Citations   per paper   average,

All fields                 3 672      21 750        5.92      -37.7
Agricultural Sciences         --          --          --         --
Biology & Biochemistry       181       1 611        8.90      -44.9
Chemistry                    782       3 510        4.49      -50.6
Clinical Medicine            289       3 571       12.36        7.6
Computer Science              64         151        2.36      -17.2
Economics & Business
Engineering                  344         896        2.60      -29.0
Environment/Ecology           84         438        5.21      -42.7
Geosciences                   39         593       15.21       83.5
Immunology                    46         528       11.48      -43.6
Materials Science            477       1 423        2.98      -42.1
Mathematics                   --          --          --         --
Microbiology                  67         741       11.06      -24.9
Molecular Biology &           73       1 028       14.08      -43.8
  Genetics
Multidisciplinary             --          --          --         --
Neuroscience & Behavior       29         268        9.24      -47.5
Pharmacology &                29         420       14.48       39.2
  Toxicology
Physics                      843       4 946        5.87      -24.2
Plant & Animal Science       150       1 073        7.15        6.2
Psychiatry/Psychology         10         299       29.90      220.5
Social Sciences general       --          --          --         --
Space Science                 --          --          --         --

                                        Lithuania

                                                           Relative
                                               Citations   to world
Field                     Papers   Citations   per paper   average,

All fields                 7 350      36 371        4.95      -47.9
Agricultural Sciences        130         603        4.64      -20.1
Biology & Biochemistry       438       4 474       10.21      -36.8
Chemistry                  1 177       5 558        4.72      -48.1
Clinical Medicine            644       5 723        8.89      -22.6
Computer Science             138         173        1.25      -56.1
Economics & Business          --          --          --         --
Engineering                  746       2 097        2.81      -23.2
Environment/Ecology          229         655        2.86      -68.5
Geosciences                  118         666        5.64      -32.0
Immunology                    71         790       11.13      -45.3
Materials Science            678       1 808        2.67      -48.2
Mathematics                  442         710        1.61      -44.5
Microbiology                 113       1 014        8.97      -39.1
Molecular Biology &          119       1 434       12.05      -51.9
  Genetics
Multidisciplinary             --          --          --         --
Neuroscience & Behavior       71         662        9.32      -47.0
Pharmacology &                64         486        7.59      -27.0
  Toxicology
Physics                    1 365       6 628        4.86      -37.2
Plant & Animal Science       403       1 560        3.87      -42.5
Psychiatry/Psychology         51         300        5.88      -37.0
Social Sciences general      142         162        1.14      -70.8
Space Science                158         813        5.15      -59.3

                                       World
                                      average
                                     citations
Field                                per paper

All fields                              9.50
Agricultural Sciences                   5.81
Biology & Biochemistry                 16.15
Chemistry                               9.09
Clinical Medicine                      11.49
Computer Science                        2.85
Economics & Business                    4.81
Engineering                             3.66
Environment/Ecology                     9.09
Geosciences                             8.29
Immunology                             20.34
Materials Science                       5.15
Mathematics                             2.90
Microbiology                           14.72
Molecular Biology &                    25.06
  Genetics
Multidisciplinary                       3.70
Neuroscience & Behavior                17.60
Pharmacology &                         10.40
  Toxicology
Physics                                 7.74
Plant & Animal Science                  6.73
Psychiatry/Psychology                   9.33
Social Sciences general                 3.90
Space Science                          12.66

Table 4. The top 20 of the most productive research institutions
contributing to papers authored by Estonian scientists (1997-2007)

                                        Number of     Percent
Rank   Institution                        papers      of total

1      University of Tartu (a)            4523          59.2
2      Tallinn University of              1353          17.7
         Technology (b)
3      Estonian University of Life         535           7.0
         Sciences (c)
4      University of Helsinki *            376           4.9
5      National Institute of Chemical      302           4.0
         Physics & Biophysics (d)
6      Uppsala University *                265           3.5
7      Tartu Observatory (e)               236           3.1
8      Estonian Academy of Sciences        181           2.4
9      Karolinska Institute *              163           2.1
10     Estonian Biocentre                  148           1.9
11     Tartu University Clinic (f)         142           1.9
12     Tallinn University (g)              124           1.6
13     Russian Academy of                  123           1.6
         Sciences *
14     National Institute for Health       122           1.6
       Development (h)
15     Lund University *                    90           1.2
16     University of Hamburg *              77           1.0
17     Helsinki University of               72           0.9
         Technology *
18     Swedish University of                72           0.9
       Agricultural Sciences *
19     University of Kuopio *               70           0.9
20     University of Turku *                70           0.9
         Total                            9095         119.1

Notes: Conference abstracts were excluded (N = 7636).
Formerly: (a)--Institute of Physics, Tartu State University;
(b)--Tallinn Technical University; (c)--Institute of Zoology and
Botany, Estonian Agricultural University; (d)--Institute of
Chemical Physics & Biophysics; (e)--Institute of Astrophysics
and Atmospheric Physics; (f)--Tartu University Hospital;
(g)--Tallinn University of Educational Sciences, Tallinn
Pedagogical University; (h)--Institute of Experimental and
Clinical Medicine.

* --Foreign institutions.

Table 5. The top 20 countries/territories contributing to papers
authored by Estonian scientists (1997-2007)

       Country/             Number      Percentage
Rank   Territory          of papers      of total

1      Sweden                951           12.5
2      Finland               927           12.1
3      Germany               679            8.9
4      USA                   645            8.4
5      England               418            5.5
6      Russia                319            4.2
7      France                315            4.1
8      Italy                 273            3.6
9      Netherlands           209            2.7
10     Norway                199            2.6
11     Denmark               193            2.5
12     Spain                 169            2.2
13     Latvia                140            1.8
14     Poland                137            1.8
15     Canada                134            1.8
16     Switzerland           133            1.7
17     Lithuania             125            1.6
18     Japan                 116            1.5
19     Czech Republic        108            1.4
20     Belgium                94            1.2
         Total:             6284           82.3
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Title Annotation:SCIENTOMETRICS
Author:Allik, Juri
Publication:Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences
Date:Dec 1, 2008
Words:6169
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