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Qualea Aubl. from Parana State, Brazil/Qualea Aubl. (Vochysiaceae) no Estado do Parana, Brasil.


Belonging to Vochysiaceae A. St.-Hil., Qualea Aubl. is a neotropical genus with approximately 60 species, restricted to the Central and South Americas, occurring in rain forests as well as in Cerrados (savannas) (LISBOA, 2000). The name Qualea is derived from quale, the original name used to designate these plants by the Guianas native aborigines (VIANNA; MARTINS, 2001). Popularly known as dedaleira, pau-terra, laba-laba, umirirana and muirauba-da-varzea, among other names, some species of this genus provide wood for the construction of boats, boxes and houses interior (RECORD; MELL, 1924) as well as are used in folk medicine against stomach ulcer, diarrhea and intestinal colic (GRANDI et al., 1989).

Regarding the occurrence of this genus at Parana State, there is some discrepancy in the literature data. According to Stafleu (1953), this genus would be represented at Parana by Q. cordate Spreng. var. cordate; Q. grandiflora Mart. and Q. multiflora Mart. spp. multiflora. Angely (1965), beside these, included Q. cryptantha (Spreng.) Warm. and Q. intermedia Warm.. However, this last taxon was previously included in Q. cordate Spreng. as var. intermedia (Warm.) Stafleu (1953), without inserting Parana State in its distribution area. Vianna e Martins (2001) registered the occurrence of Q. cordate Spreng. var. cordate and Q. cryptantha (Spreng.) Warm. var. cryptantha at Parana State. Negrelle (1988), besides these, reinforced the occurrence of Q. grandiflora Mart. and Q. multiflora Mart. ssp. multiflora in the State.

Facing such divergence of information and aiming to update the Qualea Aubl. distribution knowledge, the results from a study on the genus occurrence at Parana State, Southern Brazil are presented. The research was performed in accordance with the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (ESTRATEGIA, 2006), which points out the necessity of a continuous updating process of floristic surveys, monitoring biodiversity distribution at country level and respective states.

Material and methods

The following regional herbaria were consulted aiming to obtain records of Qualea occurrence at Parana: FUEL (Londrina, PR), HBR (Itajai, SC), HCF (Campo Mourao, PR), HUCO (Irati, PR), HUEM (Maringa, PR); HUPG (Ponta Grossa, PR), MBM (Curitiba, PR), PKDC (Curitiba, PR), UPCB (Curitiba, PR), UNOP (Cascavel, PR). Additionally, exploratory field trips were performed in distinct periods in several locations classified by Straube (1998) as savanna (Cerrado) at Parana State, as follows: Vale do Rio das Cinzas, Norte Velho, Norte Novo and Campo Mourao. In these opportunities, the local occurrence of Qualea was registered as well as plant material was collected. The collected material after properly dried and identified was incorporated to the UPCB Herbarium at the Department of Botany / Federal University of Parana State (UFPR). The species identification followed the classic taxonomy standards, analyzing the morphological characteristics of several species representatives. The determination at specific level was performed based on Warming (1875), Stafleu (1953) and Lisboa (2000) analytic keys. Based on all registered and examined plant material, a key to determining the Qualea species occurring in Parana State was elaborated. For each indentified species, the botanical description, common names, phenology data, the geographic distribution, uses and illustrations are included. The genus description was based on Stafleu (1953).

Qualea Aubl. Pl.Gui. 1:5.1775.

Especie typus: Q. rosea Aubl.

Trees or shrubs. Stipules usually represented by crater shaped glands or extrafloral nectaries. Perulate leaf buds. Opposite leaves, rare 3-verticillate; simple, coriaceous or rigid-chartaceous; venation camptodromous-brochidodromous or mix craspedodromous. Petiole, most of all, wrinkled and canaliculated in the adaxial face. Inflorescence thyrsoidea, terminal or axial, usually formed by isolated flowers mixed with pauciflorus cincinnus, which sometimes are sessile; deciduous bracts. Asymmetrical elongated-oval flower buds, calcarate or not. Calix with unequal lobes, the bigger one generally calcarate and with a gibbous base, the others varying in size but always smaller. Corolla with a single petal usually obcordate, located between the two biggest calyx lobes, color varying among white, yellow, blue-purple or rose; purple or yellow spotted at the centre. Androecium represented by only one stamen, with basifixed to sub-dorsifixed anther, glabrous, large filament, rostrate connective. Staminodes (2), usually present, small and foliaceous. Gynoecium with superior ovary, densely pilose, trilocular; biseriate Seminal rudiments up to 12 per cavity; axile placentation, thin placentae; style simple, large and filiform; stigma simple, usually terminal, subcapitate. Fruit, elliptical-elongated capsule, loculicidall, thin central collum, woody pericarp. Winged oblong seeds. Homotropous embryo, straight, with convolute and plicate cotyledons.

Results and discussion

Four species of Qualea were registered at Parana State, included in two sub-genus, according to the Stafleu (1953) classification, as discriminate as follows:
Sub-genus    Amphilochia (Mart.) Stafl.

               Q. cordata Sprengel
               Q. glaziovii Warm.

Sub-genus    Qualea

        Sec. Costatifolium Stafl.
               Q. grandiflora Mart.
               Q. multiflora Mart. ssp. multiflora

Among the previously species cited for Parana State, it was excluded Q. cryptantha (Spreng.) Warm., whose occurrence is restricted to the Tabuleiro Forest in the NE--region of Brazil, as reported by Lisboa (2000). The majority of the plant material previously collected at Parana and identified as this species, in fact correspond to Q. glaziovii Warm.

Considering all the species registered for the State, only Q. glaziovii was detected exclusively in a region characterized by an interface between Ombrophyllous Dense Forest and Araucarian Forest, where the climate is subtropical wet (Mesothermic - Cfb), with average temperature at the hottest month inferior to 22[degrees]C and at the coldest month inferior to 18[degrees]C, without dry season, with pleasant summer and frequent heavy frosts at winter (IAPAR, 2000).

The other species were registered in Cerrado (savanna) and surroundings areas, characterized by subtropical wet climate (Mesothermic- Cfa), with average temperature at the hottest month superior to 22[degrees]C and at the coldest month inferior to a 18[degrees]C, without dry season, with hot summer and less frequent frosts at winter (IAPAR, 2000). Q. cordate had the wider register of occurrence, being distributed at the northwest, north and northeast regions of the State. Q. grandiflora and Q. multiflora spp. multiflora were registered only in few areas with Cerrado at the north and northeast regions (Figure 1).

According to Straube (1998), Parana State encompasses four macro-geographic regions covered by Cerrados, as follows: Vale do Rio das Cinzas (Cinzas River Valey), Norte Velho (Old North), Norte Novo (New North) and Campo Mourao, with distinct level of degradation and fragility.


Located at the northeast region of the Parana State, the macro-geographic region named Vale do Rio das Cinzas includes the biggest and most significant Cerrado area of the State. There, this type of vegetation has being evolved from open grassland, at 730 up to 1,100 m above the sea level, mixing in some points with the Araucarian Forest. It is distributed through the municipalities of Jaguariaiva, Arapoti, Pirai do Sul, Senges, Telemaco Borba and Tibagi. In that region, that encompasses the Cerrado State Park (1830.40 ha) and the Guartela State Park (798.97 ha, where 5 ha correspond to Cerrado), it was evidenced the greatest diversity of Qualea species, including Q. cordate, Q. grandiflora and Q. multiflora var. multiflora. The last one observed exclusively in this region.

The called Cerrados from the Norte Velho correspond to the region historically reported as covered by Cerrado only in some disperse areas between the Municipalities of Sao Jeronimo da Serra, Conselheiro Mairinck and Ribeirao do Pinhal, all them at the right side of Tibagi river. At present, those Cerrado areas are extremely reduced, due to anthropogenic occupation and agro-forestry activities. Only Q. cordate was registered in this region.

The Cerrados from Norte Novo include little more than 40 km2, surrounded by Semideciduous Seasonal Forest, in a region between Bandeirantes and Pirapo rivers, near to Maringa city. No Qualea species was detected in that region.

The Cerrados from Campo Mourao, located at the centre-northwest of the State, originally covered approximately 102 [km.sup.2], being classified as a transition between the Semideciduous Seasonal Forest and the Araucarian Forest, with predominance of the last one. At present, the remaining area corresponds up to 0.7% of the original Cerrado area, due to the urban and rural development of Campo Mourao Municipality. The most expressive fragments correspond to the Cerrado Ecological Station (1.3 ha) and Plot 7-H. This last one, located at the side of the Highway BR-158, is the best Cerrado representative in that region (MIZOTE, 2005). In these areas, we registered the occurrence of Q. cordate and Q. grandiflora.

In general, there is insufficient information about abundance or density of individuals of Qualea species in the distinct locations at Parana State. Especially due to the small size of tree-shrub representatives, these are not usually included in the quantitative vegetation surveys. According to Isernhagen et al. (2002), only two qualiquantitative plant surveys at Parana State registered the occurrence of Qualea species: Uhlmann (1995) and Uhlmann et al. (1998). At the last one, only two individuals of Q. cordate were identified among 549 other tree individuals (perimeter at trunk base > 15) sampled area equal 4,000 [m.sup.2] at Cerrado State Park.

Evaluating the distribution of the four Qualea species in a national range, it is possible to identify that the Parana State represents the southern limit for Q. grandiflora and Q. multiflora (around 24[degrees] lat. S). For Q. cordate, this limit corresponds to the north of Santa Catarina State (around 26[degrees] lat. S), with only one record for the species in that State. For Q. glaziovii this limit corresponds to the coastal zone of Santa Catarina State, near to Florianopolis city (around 27[degrees] lat. S). The northern limit of these four species is much broader, especially for Q. grandiflora, with occurrence in almost all national territory, with exception to the northeast region.

Key for determination of Qualea Aubl. species at Parana State
1 Calcar absent or very small      2

1' Calcar well developed           3

2 Base of the foliar blade
usually acute-cuneate, very
preeminent urceolate petiole
gland                              Q. glaziovii Warm.

2' Base of the foliar blade
cordate, usually inconspicuous
circular flat peciole gland        Q. cordata Spreng.

3 Floral bud with external spur    Q. multiflora Mart. ssp. multiflora

3' Floral bud with internal spur   Q. grandiflora Mart.

Qualea cordata Spreng. Syst.1:17.1825 (Figure 2-A).

Tree or treelet (0.5-)1.80-6.0(-10) m high, tortuous trunk, glabrous branches, slightly 4angled, sometimes exfoliated; older branches usually lenticelated, axiale perulate buds, inconspicuous circular glands (0.05 cm diam.), sometimes with a small gland appendix just above the main gland. Petiole glabrous, blackish, slightly canaliculated, (0.15-) 0.5-0.8 (-1.5) cm long. Opposite decussate leaves; glauco-pruinose, specially in the adaxial face, varying in size and shape; ovate blade (or ovate-lanceolate, ovate-elliptic, ovate-oblong, ellipticoblong, (4-) 5.5-9 (-12) cm long and (2.5-) 3.5-5 (-7) cm wide, coriaceous; Acute or obtuse apex (sometimes acuminate); cordate base; margin entire, fimbriate; venation mix craspedodromous, inconspicuous at the adaxial face. Inflorescence thyrsoid, 10(-15) cm long and 2 cm wide; cincinnus (1-)2-4 flower, pubescent pedicel 0.2-0.4 cm long. Ovate-elliptic buds (0.6-)0.8-1.0(-1.2) cm long and (0.2-)0.5(-0.7) cm wide, non calcarate. Calyx with unequal lobes; the lateral ones almost glabrous, others are sericeous at the dorsal face; 4[degrees] lobe with gibbous base. Whitish petals spotted at the centre, heavily sericeous, 1.5-1.8 cm wide, emarginated apex; membranaceous, with a crass base. Glabrous anthers, obcordate, dorsifixed (versatile), 0.3-0.5 cm long; slightly rostrate connective; filament glabrous or slightly pilose at the base, usually narrowing towards the anther, 0.6-0.8 cm long. Staminodes absent. Heavily albescent-pilose, trilocular ovary with 10-12 seminal rudiments per cavity; glabrous style 0.5-0.7 cm long; capitate-papillose stigma. Fruit with woody oblong-elliptic capsule, loculicidal, 2-2.5 cm long; exocarp finely verruculose and densely fissured (at fruit senescence, the exocarp is represented only by its venation net attached to the peduncle), elliptic elongated valves, acuminate; peduncle 0.6-1.0 cm long and 0.3-0.5 cm wide

Common names: pau-terra (PR, SC), mariano (MG), dedaleira-preta (SC), burro-caa, quebracho-falso (Paraguai).

Uses: supplies wood for canoes, crates and carpentry. The bark and fruits are source of tinctorial material (CORREA, 1984). Without usage indication at Parana State.

Phenology: Flowering (May) August-January. Fructification (November) December-May (April).

Geographic distribution: Brasil: MG, MT, RJ, SP, PR and SC. North and center of Paraguay.

Distribution at Parana State: Mun. Tibagi, Castro and Pirai do Sul: grassland mixed with forest remnants and riparian forests at the Araucaria region. Mun. Senges and Jaguariaiva: savanna (Cerrado) remnant inserted in the grassland region (700 up to 1100 m a.s.l.). Usually found on rocky soil. According to Linsingen et al. (2006), it was registered in the Cerrado strictu sensus as well as at its border with the Seasonal Semideciduous Forest. Mun. Arapoti, Ventania, Ribeirao do Pinhal and S. Jeronimo da Serra: Seazonal Semideciduous Forest as well as the transition zone to savanna. Mun. Campo Mourao: Cerrado and Cerradao. Mun. Altonia, Cruzeiro do Oeste, Cianorte and Umuarama: Seazonal Semideciduous Forest fragments intercalated with pasture and agriculture fields.

Material examined: Brazil, Parana, Mun. Altonia, Fda. Pontal II, 12/XI/2002, C. Kozera 1528 (MBM); Mun. Arapoti: Barra Rio das Perdizes, 27/XI/1959, G. Hatschbach 6587 (MBM); Fda. do Tigre, 28/XV1959, G. Hatschbach 6607 (HBR, MBM). Mun. Campo Mourao, 22/V/2003, M.G. Caxambu 39 (HCF); 18/XI/2003, M.G. Caxambu 151 (HCF); 28/XI/2003, M.G. Caxambu 220 (HCF); 30/IV/1998, A. Soares and W. Maschio 235 (mBM); idem, 27/V/1996, A. Soares 82 (MBM). Mun. Castro: Carambei, Rio S. Joao, 1/XI/1964, G. Hatschbach 11788 (MBM PKDC, UPCB). Mun. Cianorte, Fda. Lagoa, 20/V/1971, G._Hatschbach 26680 et. P. Pelanda (MBM). Mun. Cruzeiro do Oeste: Doradina, 29/X/1959, R. Braga and R. Lange 132 (UPCB 2718, PKDC 5488). Mun. Jaguariaiva, Lageado 5 Reis, 23/III/1968, G. Hatschbach 18939 (MBM), Fda. Chapadao S. Antonio, 26/XV1968, G. Hatschbach 20392 (UPCB, MBM); 30/XT1993, A. C. Cervi 4197 et al. (UPCB). PE do Cerrado, 14/XV1992, A. C. Cervi 3836 and A. Dunaiski (MBM), 30/VII/1997, A. C. Cervi 6385 et al. (UPCB). Mun. Pirai do Sul, Fda. das Almas, 16/IV/1987, Y. S. Kunyoshi and C. V. Roderjan 5182 (MBM). Mun. Ribeirao do Pinhal, 16/XII/1998, J. Carneiro 628 (MBM). Mun. Sao Jeronimo da Serra, Reserva Indigena Sao Jeronimo, 17/IV/2002, K. L. V. R. de Sa - 110 (MBM); idem, 13/H/2003, K. L. V. R. de Sa et al. 505 (MBM, FUEL). Mun. Senges: Fda. Morungava, Rio do Funil, 12/XIIy1958, G. Hatschbach 5265 and R. B. Lange (MBM); Fda. Sta. Gil, 16/XII/1986, Negrelle et al. 153 (UPCB), idem, 16/XII/1986, Negrelle et al. 159 (UPCB), idem 17/XH/1986, Negrelle et al. 163 (UPCB). Mun. Tibagi, Guartela, 23/XII/1992, A. C. Cervi 4002 (MBM); idem, 23/XII/1992, A. C. Cervi 4002 (UPCB); Canion do Rio Iapo, 07/XI/1996, E. P. Santos et al. 212 (UPCB); Canion Guartela, 28/IV/1996, O. S. Ribas 1391 and L. B. S. Pereira (MBM); PE do Guartela , 03/HI/2003, M. R. B. do Carmo 129 (HUEPG); PE do Guartela, 07/R2003, M.R.B. 31 (HUEPG); PE do Guartela, 30/V/2003, M. R. B. do Carmo 150 (HUEPG); PE do Guartela, 05/12/2003, M. R. B. do Carmo 521 (HUEPG); PE do Guartela, 29/X/2004, D. C. Maia and R. Morokawa s/n (UPCB);. Mun. Umuarama, Serra dos Dourados, IV/1958, R. Braga s/no (MBM, UPCB, PKDC). Mun. Ventania, Morro do Chapeu, 2005, D. A. Estevan 772 (FUEL).

Qualea glaziovii Warm. Flora Bras. 13 (2): 53. 1875 (Figure 2-B)

Trees 10-25 m high; glabrous branches, usually with small scales at the base of young branches, old branches sometimes lenticelated, sub-globose perulate buds, perula with ciliate border, prominent urceolate glands at the petiole base (0.05-0.10 cm long and 0.08-0.10 cm diam.), thin blackish glabrous petiole (0.8-)1-1.5(-2) cm long and ca. 1 mm wide. Opposite decussate leaves, glabrous or with very short hairs sparsely distributed along the central vein; elliptic oblong-elliptic or ovate-elliptic, blade (4.8-)5-8 cm long and (2-)3(-5) cm wide; acute-acuminate or acute apex, base usually acute-cuneate, entire margin, venation mix-camp todromous; papiracea. Inflorescence thyrsoid 6-9 cm long and 2 cm wide; cincinnus 2-3(-5) flower, pedicel (0.15-) 0.2-0.3 (-0.5) cm long, slightly puberulent. Elliptic to ovate-elliptic buds 0.7-1.0 cm long; spur absent. Calyx with unequal sericeous lobes, the lateral ones are rounded and smaller; the fourth one is larger and with a gibbous base. Heavily sericeous petals, specially at the centre; (1-) 1.5 cm long and wide; white with purple veins at the base, undulate margin. Glabrous anther, rarely with sparse hairs; glabrous; dorsifixed; curved; 3 mm long; filament heavily pilose with 0.5-0.7 cm long, narrowing towards the anther. Staminodes absents. Tomentose ovary; style pilose at the base 0.5-0.8 cm long, capitate stigma. Fruit woody elliptic capsule with mucronate apex; finely verruculose and fissured exocarp; 2-2.5 cm long, peduncle ca. 0.5 cm long and 0.2-0.3 cm wide.

Common names: louro-da-serra, louro (PR, SC).

Uses: Without usage indication at Parana State as well as other locations were the species occurs.

Phenology: Flowering October-February (-March). Fructification February-May (-August)

Geographic distribution: Brazil: Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, Parana, Santa Catarina.

Distribution at Parana State: Mun. Bocaiuva do Sul and Campina Grande do Sul: fragments of Mountain Ombrophilous Dense Forest mixed with reforestation areas, citriculture and other crops. Mun. Piraquara: Mountain Ombrophilous Dense Forest remnants.

Material examined: Brazil, Parana; Mun. Bocaiuva do Sul: Campina dos Tavares, 4/XII/1963, G. Hatschbach 10772 (UPCB, HBR, MBM, HUEPG); Serra S. Ana, 23/I/1974, G. Hatschbach 33713 (MBM); Chacara Serra da Bocaina, 03/III/2005, J.M. Silva and L.M. Abe 4285 (MBM, UPCB). Mun. Campina Grande do Sul: Morro Cerro Verde, 28/XII/1966, G. Hatschbach 15567 (UPCB, MBM); Pico Garatuva, 8/IV/1967, G. Hatschbach 16269 (UPCB, MBM, HBR); Mun. Piraquara: Mananciais da Serra, 9/W1968, L. T. Dombrowski 2948 (PKDC); Mananciais da Serra,VI/2005, M. Reginato 449 (UPCB).

Qualea grandiflora Mart. Nov. Gen. et Sp. 1:133.1824. (Figure 2-C)

Trees (2-)6-10 (-15) m high; winding trunk with suberose, quite thick cortex, young branches are tomentose, older ones are scaly; perulate tomentose buds, ovate, flat or slightly crateriform blackish stipule glands 0.2 cm diam., some with gland accessories, tomentose petiole 0.4-1.0 cm long and 0.2 cm wide. Opposite decussate leaves, discolor blade with varying in size and shape from oblong, narrowly oblong, elliptic, narrowly elliptic, ovate-lanceolate, ovate-elliptic or oblong-elliptic; usually forming a bandaging in the middle portion (7.7-) 10-20 (-20.9) cm long and (2.8-) 7 (-8) cm wide; rounded apex, acuminate or obtuse, sometimes with a small mucro; cordate base, slightly cordate or obtuse, margin entire; coriaceous, adaxial face slightly tomentose or pubescent, adaxial face glabrous and shiny, venation brochidodromous-campdodromous. Inflorescence thyrsoid laxa 20 cm long and 8 cm wide, with cincinnus usually 1flower (-2-4flower); rachis, peduncle and pedicel tomentose. Tomentose sericeous buds, 1.5-1.7 cm long and 0.8 cm wide, with an included spur. Calix with unequal lobes, all rounded and with undulate margin, slightly sericeous; curved cylindrical spur 1.3-2.5 cm long. Obcordate yellowish-white or yellow petals, glabrous or slightly sericeous at the base (4-)5 cm wide and 6 cm long. Cordate glabrous anther (0.4-) 1.0 cm long, glabrous filament 0.15 cm long, inserted very near to the anther base. Staminodes, if present, are 2. Ovary heavily sericeous; glabrous styles 0.15 cm; sub-capitates stigmas. Fruits loculicidal ovoid capsule, woody, exocarp finely verruculose, apiculate or acuminate apex; lanceolate valves with total dehiscence, from the apex up to the base, central fibrose trigonal columella central where the seeds are inserted, valves (5-)8 cm long and (2-)3 cm wide at the mature fruit, crasso and exfoliated peduncle 1.5-3 cm long and 0.5-1.0 cm wide.

Common names: pau-terra, pau-terra-de-folha-grande, roquisia (GO, MT, MG); salta-cavaco (SP); arinona, pau-terra-do-campo, ariuna (PA).

Uses: The bark and leaves have medicinal usage; the fruits are source of tinctorial material (yellow) (CORREA, 1984). The powder of the bark from the stem is used as antiseptic for external wounds (SIQUEIRA, 1988). The seed possesses exceptional amounts of lauric acid. (MAYWORM; SALATINO, 1996). The leaf extract has depressive action on the nervous central system, analgesic effect and is a potential anti-convulsion medicine (GASPI et al., 2006). The hidro-alchoolic extract of the bark has an important anti-ulcerogenic activity (HIRUMA-LIMA et al., 2006). Without usage indication at Parana State. Due the beauty of its flowers and tree shape, the species has ornamental potentiality.

Phenology: Flowering October-February. Fructification February-June

Geographic distribution: Brazil: Amazonas to Parana, specially occurring at the Brazilian central grassland region and Amazonian prairies. Also found in the American tropical zone outside Amazonia and at Western Paraguay.

Distribution at Parana State: Mun. Senges: savanna (Cerrado) remnant inserted in the grassland region (700 up to 1100 m a.s.l.). Mun. Arapoti: Seazonal Semidecidual Forest and transition zone towards Cerrado. Mun. Campo Mourao: Cerrado remnants.

Material examined: Brazil, Parana, Mun. Arapoti: Fda. do Lobo, 22/III/1968, G. Hatschbach 18886 (UPCB, MBM, HBR); Chapadao S. Antonio, 12/V1973, G. Hatschbach 31163 (UPCB); Fda. do Lobo, 18/VI/1973, G. Hatschbach 32170 (MBM). Mun. Campo Mourao, terreno baldio, 15/XH/2004, M.G. Caxambu 736 (HCF). Mun. Jaguariaiva, PE do Cerrado, 16/IV/1994, Schino et al. (UPCB); idem, 19/VI/1993, A.C. Cervi 4107 and Uhlmann (UPCB). Mun. Senges: Fda. Sta. Gil, 16/XU/1986, Negrelle et al. 161 (UPCB).

Qualea multiflora Mart. Nov. Gen. Sp. 1:134.1824 ssp. multiflora in Stafleu Acta Bot. Neerl. 2_(2):195.1953 (Figure 2-D).

Trees or shrubs, (2-)3-8(-10) m high and 0.1-0.2 m diam.; winding trunk; glabrous branches, the younger ones sometimes with small scales at the base, older branches usually exfoliates, perulate glabrous buds; crateriform, rounded or elliptic-ovate glands with a lighter margin 1.0-2.0 mm diam., located at the petiole base, sometimes with gland accessories. Glabrous, blackish petiole (0.2-)0.4(-0.6) cm long and 0.12 cm wide. Discolor opposite leaves, rare 3-verticilate, elliptic, oblong, oblong-elliptic, narrowly oblong or narrowly obovate blades, 5-12(-20) cm long and 1.7-4.5(-7) cm wide, coriaceous to papiracea; apex acute or acuminate; acute, acute-rounded, rounded, obtuse or slightly cordate base, entire margin, venation camptodromous-broquidodromous, more prominent at the adaxial face. Inflorescence thyrsoid 9-12(-22.5) cm long and 5 cm wide, with cincinnus (-2)3-4(-5) flower, rachis sparsely pilose, tomentose sericeous peduncle and pedicel (0.4-)0.5(-1.3) cm long. Buds recovered with yellow tomentose sericeous hairs 0.7-1.0 (-1.2) cm long and 0.5 cm wide, included spur. Calyx with unequal lobes, elliptic or elliptic-ovate, sericeous, glabrous or not at the base, ciliate at margin, calcarate lobe can reach twice the size of lateral lobes base, straight spur at the young bud, curving during maturity 0.5-0.7 cm long, densely pilose. Obcordate glabrous petals, white when young and yellowish at maturity with purple (rare red or yellow) dots or lines at the centre, 2.5-3.0 cm long and 2.5-3.0 cm wide. Elliptic-ovate glabrous anther with cordate base and rostrate connective, dorsifixed, 0.4-0.5 cm long, glabrous thin filament 0.5-1.0 cm long and 0.05 cm wide.


Staminodes absent. Ovary heavily fulvoussericeous, styles pilose at the base or entirely glabrous 0.9-1.2 cm long, sub-capitates stigmas. Fruits oblong loculicidal capsule with acuminate or acute apex, woody with exocarp finely verruculose; varying in size, lanceolate valves with 3-4(-10) cm long and 1.5(-3) cm wide at the mature opened fruit, crasso and exfoliated peduncle.

Common names: Pau-terra-amarelo (MS), Uvapuva-do-campo, Pau-terra (MG, SP), Lourotinga (RJ), Cinzeiro, Pau-de-tucano, Pau-terra-docampo.

Uses: supplies wood for canoes, crates and carpentry. The bark is rich in tannins (Correa, 1984). Has molluscicidal activity, specially related to Biomphalaria glabrata, the most important intermediate vector of Schistosoma mansoni (schistossomosis) (SOUZA et al., 1984). Without usage indication at Parana State.

Phenology: Flowering February (-March). Fructification (February-) March - August

Geographic distribution: Brazil: from the Brazilian Central Plateau to Parana State and Northern Paraguay.

Distribution at Parana State: Mun. Senges and Jaguariaiva: savanna (Cerrado) remnant inserted in the grassland region (700 up to 1,100 m a.s.l.).

Material examined: Brasil, Parana: Mun. Jaguariaiva, P. E. do Cerrado, 14/XI/1992, A.C. Cervi 3836 (UPCB). Mun. Senges: Fda. Morungava, Rio do Funil, 13/XH/1958, G. Hatschbach 5287 et Lange (MBM, UPCB, PKDC); Fda. Sta. Gil, 16/XII/1986, Negrelle et al. 162 (UPCB).


Four species of Qualea were registered at Parana State, included in two sub-genus: Amphilochia (Q. cordata Spreng.; Q. glaziovii Warm); Qualea Sec. Costatifolium (Q. grandiflora Mart.; Q. multiflora Mart. spp. multiflora). Among the previously species cited for Parana State, it was excluded Q. cryptantha (Spreng.) Warm., whose occurrence is restricted to the Tabuleiro Forest in the NE--region of Brazil. In general, there is insufficient information about abundance or density of individuals of Qualea species in the distinct locations at Parana State.

Raquel Rejane Bonato Negrelle Laboratorio Oikos, Departamento de Botanica, Universidade Federal do Parana, Cx. Postal 19031, 81531-900, Curitiba, Parana, Brazil. E-mail:

DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i3.3671

Received on September 25, 2008.

Accepted on December 16, 2009.


To Rosimeri Morokawa, for helping reviewing the Herbaria material and to Claudinei Pedroso Ribas, for helping typing the text. To the Herbaria Curators that provided the material for study and to all those that are dedicated to the collection and registering of plant species for promoting a better knowledge of the Brazilian flora.


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Author:Negrelle, Raquel Rejane Bonato
Publication:Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences (UEM)
Date:Jul 1, 2011
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