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Push & pull factors in entrepreneurial intentions among youth in a small imperial state.

Background

Over the past many years, there has been an ongoing debate all over the world regarding youth entrepreneurship. Both developed and developing countries perceive youth entrepreneurship as a way of boosting economic competitiveness and promoting regional development. Many researchers argue that entrepreneurial activity needs to be tapped by developing countries to enable them to compete in a globalizing market economy (Khandwalla, 1998; Kunango, 1998). However, most of the studies pointed towards the lack of support system for entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship in developing countries. Besides lack of financial assistance, lack of counseling and training programs, the grant of licenses and policies and controls and taxation had been cited as the major hurdles in the setting up and running of new businesses (Awasthi & Sebastian, 1996; Gautam, 1979; Mokry, 1988; Sadhak, 1989; Singh, 1985). Schoof (2006) examined a range of key constraints that impede young people in different countries from starting successful businesses. Entrepreneurial education, access to start-up capital and business provider services were found among the key factors impeding youth entrepreneurship, alongside societal attitudes and a regulatory framework.

Previous research showed that the formation of potential entrepreneurs through education and entrepreneurial training can help economic growth. The entrepreneurs' support system through entrepreneurship education can stimulate and facilitate entrepreneurial activities that can reduce the extent of unemployment, increase the formation of new businesses and reduce the number of business fail (Hatten & Ruhland, 1995; Ronstadt, 1985; Hensemark, 1998). Dana (1993) maintained that entrepreneurial training and education provided to the entrepreneurs will be able to contribute to their knowledge, skills and experience. The study by Upton, Sexton & Moore (1995) found that there is a relationship between entrepreneurship education and training on the tendency to start a business and the success of a business. Apart from the attitude of entrepreneurs who constantly upgrade their skills and knowledge in entrepreneurship education, entrepreneurs must have the ability to take risks in carrying out their entrepreneurial activities. Accordingly McConnell (2003) explained that the training will be more effective if the training need analysis is carried out comprehensively in advance.

In line with these suggestions, the present study is an attempt to identify the training need for entrepreneurial development among youth belonging to Kashmir Valley.

Need for the Study

Employment has always been a central issue in the development of nations. Providing jobs for a growing population is one of the most pressing challenges for all the governments in the world. One of the major reasons for lack of jobs is the swell in the proportion of youth within the population. Kashmir is not an exception to this trend. 71% of the population in Kashmir is under the age of 35 years and a large chunk among them are unemployed (GOI-Census, 2013). The consequences of unemployment are manifold all around the globe. Idle youth find themselves isolated, incur feelings of failure and experience depression, to name a few. However, in Kashmir these negative consequences are compounded by the episodic conflicts and instability experienced by people. These conflicts have created a deep sense of uncertainty about future.

The concept of self-employment among youth in Kashmir is naive due to lack of experience, information or inability to take risks. However, the private sector, public sector and civil society in Kashmir have the potential to nurture and shape a vibrant culture of youth entrepreneurship (Mercy Corps, 2011). In the light of this, a need was felt to explore those factors which have a bearing on the attitude of youth towards entrepreneurship in Kashmir.

Research Methodology

The present study is a cross-sectional one. The respondents belong to Central, North and South Kashmir. Demographics included to test in the study are: gender, nature of the family, educational qualification and region.

Objectives

The primary objective of this study is to assess the attitudes of youth towards entrepreneurship. The secondary objectives include:

* To understand the impact of various demographic factors, e.g. gender, age, qualification and region (North, South and Central Kashmir) on youth entrepreneurship.

* To identify the role of nature of family on youth entrepreneurship.

* To develop guidelines and recommendations on encouraging positive attitude of youth towards entrepreneurship.

Research Instrument

The instrument used in the study was a standard questionnaire adapted from "Attitudes of the Youth towards Entrepreneurs and Entrepreneurship: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of India and China", developed by Vohra and Goel (2007). The instrument comprises 10 items eight of which are scale based (4-point Likert scale) and two rank-based statements.

Data Collection & Sample

The sampling technique used for this research study is non-probability (convenient) sampling. In this technique the total population was divided into three geographical areas viz, South Kashmir, Central Kashmir and North Kashmir and respondents in these regions were approached on the basis of convenience. The data was utilised to generate descriptive information and also subjected to various statistical tests.

Data collection was done over a period of three and a half months from March, 2014 to Mid-June, 2014. The survey was carried out by means of a questionnaire. Researchers have administered the questionnaire personally by visiting different colleges, campuses and universities. At all occasions, questionnaires were filled in the presence of the researchers and at certain occasions researchers interacted with the respondents. This helped them to delve deeper into the state of entrepreneurship in Kashmir. Some of the comments from the respondents have been discussed in the forthcoming paragraphs.

Questionnaires were administered on 1384 respondents from three regions viz; Central, South and North Kashmir. 1254 responses were received, out of which only 1200 were found complete in all respects. These were found fit for analysis making it a response rate of 87%. Such response rate is considered to be satisfactory for this type of sampling frame. The profile of respondents is presented below in Table 1.

Data Sources

The data for this study have been collected from both primary and secondary sources. The mode of collection from primary sources has been discussed in detail in the above section. For secondary data sources various studies related to entrepreneurship were scanned in various libraries and electronic databases. Major part of secondary data has been collected from library of Jammu and Kashmir Entrepreneur Development Institute (JKEDI).

After completion of the questionnaires, a thorough procedure to clean the data was followed. Some questionnaires with missing responses or wrongly filled were discarded. All the data was coded and entered in the SPSS package for further analysis.

Analysis

Respondents were divided on the basis of demographics like age, educational qualification, nature of family and regions and comparisons were made accordingly. However, a cumulative percentage of respondents were also calculated. These percentages gave an idea about the overall perception of youth towards entrepreneurship.

The present study is helpful to broadly understand the level of intention to enterprising amongst Kashmiri youth. Table 2 shows the percentage of all respondents in agreement with positive evaluation of entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship. Following important points may be noted:

* 91.31% of total respondents believe that entrepreneurship is better than working for others.

* 58.20% of respondents are in agreement with the statement that entrepreneurship is popular among friends and family.

* 47.80% of respondents are of the opinion that they will prefer an entrepreneur over the employed as their partner.

* 68.40% of total respondents perceived that entrepreneurship has a better family life.

* 59.05% of respondents believe that rewards in entrepreneurship are more than that of being employed.

* 68.90% of respondents showed a positive agreement with the statement that entrepreneurship is respected in the society.

* 77.50% of total respondents opined for the positive relationship between entrepreneurship and prosperity of Kashmir.

* 76.70% believe that entrepreneurs are rich in comparison to those who are employed.

These figures indicate that the attitude of young people of Kashmir towards entrepreneurship is quite positive. But at the same time, not much of entrepreneurial growth had been witnessed till date. The present study hinted towards numerous reasons for negligible entrepreneurial activities in the valley. For example, lack of awareness of financial products and incentives, council/bodies/advisory boards for entrepreneurship development, corruption, social stigma, political instability and lack of training and counseling to the aspiring entrepreneurs of the valley. The present study opines that administration of proper training and counseling programs to the youth may help in the growth of entrepreneurial activities in the Valley.

Analysis based on Gender

Respondents were divided on the basis of gender viz; male and females. The findings are shown in Table 3.

Both the male and female respondents were univocal about the popularity enjoyed by entrepreneurs. They believe that entrepreneurs are popular among friends and family. Both the groups perceived that entrepreneurs have a good family life, are rich and are respected in the society. This hints towards the positive attitude of youth towards entrepreneurship.

Significant differences were found when respondents were asked about the choice between the entrepreneurship and working for others. 92% of females believed that entrepreneurship is better than working for others; in comparison to 85% males. Difference in the perception was found to be significant at p=0.00. This finding is contrary to the general perception that preference for entrepreneurship may be found more among males than among females. When this finding was probed further, males were of the opinion that jobs are good and allow people to make a living, provide support to their families and help the youth to build a stable foundation for professional growth; whereas, starting a business is quite risky. They added that government employees are paid even when curfew or strikes are called for whereas, self-employed people suffer losses. So, they perceive government jobs a better option. Contrary to this, females believe that youth entrepreneurship is the only option to create employment for the people in Kashmir.

Significant differences (0.00) were also found when respondents were asked whether they prefer entrepreneur or a job-holder as their life-partner. Here again, percentage of females showing positive inclination towards having their life partner an entrepreneur was on a higher side (i.e. 59%) than the males (39%). Females were seen to have a firm belief on the fact that people who are self-employed have higher "life satisfaction" which eventually will have effect on their lives as well. Along with their partners, they found entrepreneurship a more suitable option for themselves because of the autonomy factor associated with it. They opined that they need to play dual roles. So, be their own bosses is a key to their happy life. In continuum with the above trend, 78% of females had positively agreed with the statement that better rewards are associated with entrepreneurship. However, only 64% of males believed so. Difference in the agreement was significant at p=0.00.

Significant differences (p=0.00) were also found on the relationship of prosperity of Kashmir and entrepreneurship. Here, the percentage of male respondents showing agreement with this relationship was higher (81%) than females (74%). Male respondents commented that the prosperity of Kashmir is directly proportional to the entrepreneurial activities. They even attributed lack of entrepreneurial activities as one of the major reason of ongoing strife in the Valley. They commented that in comparison to other states, Kashmir lags far behind as far as self-employment avenues are concerned. They could see enormous scope in Kashmir for entrepreneurial activities to take place. They mentioned the opportunities in farming, agriculture, floriculture, handicrafts, saffron etc. Female as well as male students, mostly from the management field, talked about brand making and evaluation of beautiful varieties of rice and saffron.

On the basis of above discussion, it may be concluded that females are more positively inclined towards self-employment than the males. One interesting point on the basis of above discussion is that when male respondents were asked questions related to their perception of life of an entrepreneur positive trend emerged. However, when questions directed to tap their interest in entrepreneurship were posed, a slightly lower positive attitude was seen in comparison to females. This hints towards the fact that overall the youth in Kashmir are positively inclined towards entrepreneurship but fear of taking risks, lack of sufficient avenues like, lack of counseling and training programs, financial support, moral support etc. block their path towards entrepreneurship.

Analysis Based on Nature of Family

Respondents were divided on the basis of their family background, viz; Business and Service background. The results are shown in Table 4.

When data was analyzed on the basis of nature of the family, almost all respondents irrespective of their family background were found to be significantly positively oriented on all attributes towards entrepreneurship (proportion ranged between 47% and 91%). However, significant differences were found in the perception of relationship between entrepreneurial activities and prosperity of Kashmir. Respondents belonging to business background were found positive about this relationship (percentage of agreement, 79) than the respondents who were employed (percentage of agreement, 77). The differences in the perception were found at p= 001.

Another noteworthy finding on the basis of family background can be seen in the significant differences on the perception of richness of entrepreneurs. 87% of employed respondent believed that entrepreneurs are rich in comparison to respondents who had a business background. Differences were significant on p=0.01. They attributed their richness to the tendency of entrepreneurs towards exploiting their employees. This became evident from the comments like; "Entrepreneurs exploit employees to become richer day by day."

Analysis Based on Qualification

Respondents were divided into three groups on the basis of educational qualification; viz, up to 12th, graduation, post graduation. From Table 5 below, it may be noted that the results of ANOVA showed significant differences only on three attributes of entrepreneurial attitude viz; popularity of entrepreneurship among family and friends, preference of an entrepreneur over an employed for marriage and relationship of entrepreneurship and prosperity of Kashmir. On these three attributes, post graduates scored higher (67%, 50%, 84% respectively), followed by graduates (61%, 46%, 77%) and the least among these being the respondents having qualification lesser than 10+2 (54%, 46%, 77%). It may be noted that as the respondents get more and more educated, their attitude towards entrepreneurship also tends to shift towards the positive side. Moreover, more highly educated young people are likely to have requisite skills necessary to set up and run a new business. However, lack of training and counseling tends to discourage the youth to take up entrepreneurship as their career.

Analysis Based on Region

When data was analyzed on the basis of region, it was found that the youth in Kashmir were positively inclined towards entrepreneurship. In all the three regions of Kashmir; viz; Central Kashmir, South Kashmir and North Kashmir, more than 50% of respondents were seen to have positive agreements with all the statements measuring their attitude towards entrepreneurship. Significant differences were observed only on two statements. 93% of respondents belonging to South Kashmir were positive in their perception about entrepreneurship being better than working for others, closely followed by youth belonging to North Kashmir (92%); while only 88% respondents of Central Kashmir showed a strong agreement with the statement. The difference in the perception was significant at (P=0.01).

Vohra and Goel (2007) advocated that it is likely that regions that have greater entrepreneurial activity would have more success stories, have presence of informal networks to support entrepreneurship, exhibit more resilience in the case of failure, benefit from informal learning from social channels of communication, and give impetus to entrepreneurial activity in these regions. Together, they give rise to a positive spiral in favor of promoting entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial activity, thereby making the attitude towards entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship more positive in more developed regions. On the other hand, in less developed regions, there is lack of evidence of entrepreneurial success and therefore lesser examples from where one can learn about entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship. Together they result in a negative spiral that may lead to negative attitude towards entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship in lesser developed regions. Therefore, one can expect that the attitude towards entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship would be more positive compared to lesser developed regions.

Taking a clue from this, the respondents were divided on the basis of region, owing to the fact that more businessmen are found in South Kashmir in comparison to North and Central Kashmir. However in the present study no regional differences in entrepreneurial activity were found. All the regions perceived entrepreneurship as an activity worth taking up.

Managerial Implications

The findings of the study point towards various barriers to entrepreneurship (like lack of market opportunities, lack of access to financial resources, cultural hindrances etc.) that exist in Kashmir but the one which topped the list was "lack of entrepreneurial education and training." So, there is a pressing need for stimulating the entrepreneurial mindsets of young people in Kashmir. The training needs with respect to entrepreneurship are diverse. There is a need to inculcate the sense of initiative, innovation and risk-taking among the youth. Focus has to be on soft and core skills of entrepreneurial education like problem-solving, team-building, transversal competences such as learning to learn, social and civic competence, entrepreneurship and cultural awareness. For example, the study pointed out that women are more positively inclined towards entrepreneurship. Intensified effort has to be taken to provide flexible training programs and interest-based skill training. This can push young women of Kashmir towards entrepreneurial activities.

Entrepreneurship can be a route to decent work and sustainable enterprise for young people. Providing young people with more entrepreneurial training can give them the tools to create their own employment. The interaction of researchers with the respondents hinted towards the fact that there is a need to link the education with desirable behavioral outcomes. Many students, mostly from management background comment: "our universities teach us how to be good managers rather than focusing on how to be entrepreneurs." They were not seen satisfactory with the curriculum of business administration. Not even a single subject dealing with entrepreneurs or entrepreneurship is taught in the courses like bachelors in business administration, MBA or Masters in Tourism, Hospitality and Travel Management. Many young respondents were univocal about the fact that almost all the colleges, institutes and universities are too much focused on examinations and test-scores rather than building skills and developing positive attitude among youth. This disparity between the educational system and demands of labor market proves a major hurdle for youth of Kashmir in their pursuit of self-employment. This calls for a complete revamp of the courses taught. Subjects which foster independent thinking and acting, risk-taking and self-reliance among youth need to be incorporated not only in management streams but also in multidisciplinary fields. At the same time, training may be imparted to teachers as well. There is a need to sensitize them to provide a solid academic foundation to the students and at the same time to equip them with the ability to apply their knowledge in the real world. With the need so acute, experiential learning and participant-centered learning may be incorporated in to the training programs. This can go a long way towards preparing students for their professional lives.

Moreover, the success stories of prosperous entrepreneurs of Kashmir may be shared as a part of training and counseling sessions. This may instill confidence among budding entrepreneurs. There is a need to increase the mentoring and broader support. Research suggests that 88% of entrepreneurs with mentors survive in business, compared to a 50% failure rate for those without this support. Maria Pinelli, EY's Global Vice Chair for Strategic Growth Markets, puts this another way: "The danger is that capital without mentorship may prove to be capital lost, which governments cannot currently afford. The lack of mentoring and subsequent failure rate also means that there is a greater chance that those who don't succeed will find themselves one of the jobless in the future."

Governments, businesses and civil society need to work together to understand more about the policies and types of support that best enable the start-up and growth of youth-led enterprises.

Limitations

Participation and cooperation of respondents is a serious problem in survey based research. The same was observed in this study. This limitation caused a lower than anticipated response rate from targeted places.

* No study about the need for entrepreneurial training was found in the context of Kashmir. This limited the researcher's understanding about exploring factors specific to the attitude of young people of Kashmir towards entrepreneurship.

* Time constraint was another limitation of this research study.

Future Research

Future research may be addressed towards the identification of specific training needs which may help the young people of Kashmir to take up entrepreneurship as their career.

* The research instrument which may specifically incorporate the problems for entrepreneurs and entrepreneur ship of a disturbed state like Kashmir may be developed and used to draw the inferences accordingly.

* The present study was specific to Kashmir only. Research incorporating the broader state or the nation may be carried out. A cross-cultural comparison may also be made.

References

Awasthi, D. N. & Sebastian, J. (1996), Evaluation of Entrepreneurship Development Programs. New Delhi: Sage.

Balaji, K. D. (2013), "A Study on Entrepreneurial Attitude among Final Year Engineering Students in Kancheepuram District, Tamilnadu", International Journal of Applied Research, 3 (5): 441-43.

Dana, L. P. (1993), "Towards Internalization of Entrepreneurship: Two Models in Eastern Africa", Journal of International Business and Entrepreneurship, 2 (2): 74-86.

Gautam, V. (1979), Enterprise and Society, New Delhi, Concept.

Goel, A., Vohra, N., Zhang, L. & Arora, B. (2007), "Attitudes of the Youth towards Entrepreneurs and Entrepreneurship: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of India and China", Journal of Asia Entrepreneurship and Sustainability, 3 (1): 1-36.

Gulati, K. & Sharma, S. (2013), "Entrepreneurship in Indian Scenario", International Journal of Economics, Finance and Management, 2 (1): 83-87

Hansemark, O. (1998), "The Effects of an Entrepreneurship Programme on Need for Achievement and Locus of Control of Reinforcement", International Journal of Entrepreneurship Behaviour and Research, 4(1): 28-36.

Hatten, T. & Ruhland (1995), "Student Attitudes toward Entrepreneurship as Affected by Participation in an SBI Program", Journal of Education for Business, 7(4): 224-27.

Jones, C. & English J. (2004), "A Contemporary Approach to Entrepreneurship Education", Emerald Education and Training, 46(8): 416-23.

Kanungo, R. N. (1998), Entrepreneurship and Innovation: Models for Development, New Delhi, Sage.

McConnel, J. H. (2003), How to Identify Your Organization's Training Needs, New York, Amazon Books.

Mokry, B. W. (1998), Entrepreneurship and Public Policy: Can Government Stimulate Start-ups? New York, Quorum.

Ronstadt, R. (1985), "The Educated Entrepreneurs: A New Era of Entrepreneurial Education is Beginning", American Journal of Small Business, 10 (3): 7-23.

Sadhak, H. (1989), The Role of Entrepreneurship in Backward Area, New Delhi, Daya.

Schoof, U. (2006), "Stimulating Youth Entrepreneurship: Barriers and Incentives to Enterprise Start-ups by Young People, Series on Youth and Entrepreneurship", International Labor Organization, (76): 1-12.

Singh, Ram Sagar (1985), Rural Elite, Entrepreneurship and Social Change, Jaipur, Rawat Publications.

Sundar. C. & Madhavan. B. (2013), "A Study on Engineering Student Intent towards Entrepreneurial Career in Chennai", International Journal of Business Management & Research, 3 (1): 1-10.

Upton, N, Sexton, D. & Moore, C. (1995), "Have We Made Difference? An Examination of Career Activity of Entrepreneurship Major Since 1984. Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research", Proceedings of the 15th Annual Entrepreneurship Research Conference, Babson College, Wellesley, MA.

Irfana Rashid is Assistant Professor, Department of Management Studies, University of Kashmir (South Campus).E-mail : irfanababa@rediffmail.com
Table 1 Demographic Profile of Respondents

Demographics                         Overall         Total

Gender                               No.     %age    1200
                   Male              694       58
                   Female            506       42
Age                20-25             828    69.00    1200
                   26-30             250    20.80
                   31 & Above        122    16.83
Regions            Central Kashmir   455    37.90    1200
                   South Kashmir     383    31.90
                   North Kashmir     362    30.20
Educational        Up to 10+2        167    14.00    1200
  qualification    Graduation        487    40.60
                   Post-Graduation   546    45.40
Nature of family   Business          541       45    1200
                   Employed          659       55

Table 2 Cumulative Percentage of Respondents w.r.t.
Agreement/Disagreement with Entrepreneurship

Statements                       Frequency   Percentage   Cumulative
                                                                %age

Entrepreneurship is         SA        523        43.60         43.60
better than working for     A         572        47.70         91.30
others                      N          15        1.251         92.55
                            DA         80        6.660         99.21
                            SD         10        0.790         100.0
Entrepreneurs are popular   SA        171        14.22         14.20
among my friends and        A         527        43.98         58.20
family                      N          28        2.330         60.50
                            DA        360        30.00         90.53
                            SD        114        9.505         100.0
When looking for life       SA        227        18.90         18.90
partner for my self/        A         347        28.95         47.80
family member, I would      N          64        5.330         53.13
prefer an entrepreneur      DA        320        26.60         79.79
over an employed person     SD        242        20.25         100.0
Entrepreneurs have good     SA        209        17.48         17.40
family life                 A         612        51.00         68.40
                            N          24        2.001         70.40
                            DA        300        25.00         95.40
                            SD         55        4.605         100.0
Rewards from                SA        201        16.80         16.80
entrepreneurship are more   A         506        42.25         59.05
in comparison to the hard   N          25        2.085         61.53
work required               DA        340        28.36         89.89
                            SD        128        10.75         100.0
Entrepreneurship is         SA        201        16.85         16.80
respected in my society     A         626        52.26         68.90
                            N          72        6.009         74.90
                            DA        200        16.60         91.56
                            SD        101        8.445         100.0
I need to become            SA        480        40.00         40.00
entrepreneur to make        A         450        37.50         77.50
Kashmir prosperous          N          73        6.080         83.58
                            DA        102        8.500         92.08
                            SD         95        7.900         100.0
Entrepreneurs are rich      SA        305        25.45         25.40
                            A         615        51.24         76.70
                            N          21        1.756         78.45
                            DA        195        16.20         94.70
                            SD         64        5.305         100.0

SA= Strongly Agree, A= Agree, N =Neutral, DA= Disagree,
SD= Strongly Disagree

Table 3 Comparative Scores Based on Gender

Statements                                  Gender

Entrepreneur-      Agreement/     Male     Female
ship is:           Disagreement   (694)      (506)

                                           Cumula-    %age   Cumula-
                                  %age    tive %age          tive %age

Better than                 SA      44          44     42          42
working for                  A      41          85     50          92
others                       N       7          92      2          94
                            DA       4          96      4          98
                            SD       4         100      2         100
Popular                     SA      14          14     14          14
among                        A      43          57     44          58
friends &                    N       6          63      4          62
family                      DA      29          92     29          91
                            SD       8         100      9         100
Prefer                      SA      13          13     28          28
Entrepreneur                 A      26          39     31          59
as my partner                N       3          42      4          63
                            DA      34          76     23          86
                            SD      24         100     14         100
Has better                  SA      17          17     18          18
family life                  A      51          68     51          69
                             N       7          75      8          77
                            DA      19          94     20          97
                            SD       6         100      3         100
Rewards                     SA      19          19     42          42
in entre-                    A      45          64     36          78
preneurship                  N       3          67      4          82
are more                    DA      26          93     14          96
                            SD       7         100      4         100
Entrepreneurship            SA      18          18     17          17
is respected                 A      48          66     61          78
in society                   N       3          69      2          80
                            DA      22          91     14          94
                            SD       9         100      6         100
Necessary for SA            45      45          34     34       -3.33
prosperity                           A          36     81          40
of Kashmir                   N       6          87     10          84
                            DA       7          94      9          93
                            SD       6         100      7         100
Entrepreneurs               SA      25          25     24          24
are rich                     A      49          74     52          76
                             N       5          79      4          80
                            DA      15          94     16          96
                            SD       6         100      4         100

Statements
Entrepreneur-      Tests between subject effects
ship is:
                          t-value     Sig (p)

Better than                 -3.71      0.00
working for
others

Popular                     -0.00      0.99
among
friends &
family

Prefer                       7.20      0.00
Entrepreneur
as my partner

Has better                   0.83      0.40
family life

Rewards                     -3.80      0.00
in entre-
preneurship
are more

Entrepreneurship             1.52      0.12
is respected
in society

Necessary for SA             0.00
prosperity                     74
of Kashmir

Entrepreneurs                0.10      0.91
are rich

SA= Strongly Agree, A= Agree, N =Neutral, DA= Disagree,
SD= Strongly Disagree

Table 4 Comparative Scores Based on Nature of Family

Statements                         Nature of Family

Entrepreneur-      Agreement/     Business            Employed
ship is:           Disagreement     (541)              (659)

                                     %age    Cumula     %age    Cumula
                                             -tive              -tive
                                              %age               %age

Better than                 SA         45       45        42       42
working for                  A         46       91        49       91
others                       N          3       94         5       96
                            DA          5       99         3       99
                            SD          1      100         1      100
Popular among               SA         18       18        11       11
friends & family             A         46       64        42       53
                             N          5       69         4       57
                            DA         24       93        34       91
                            SD          7      100         9      100
Prefer                      SA         22       22        17       17
Entrepreneur                 A         28       50        30       47
as my partner                N          7       57         4       51
                            DA         24       81        29       80
                            SD         19      100        20      100
Has better                  SA         18       18        17       17
family life                  A         50       68        52       69
                             N          9       77         7       76
                            DA         18       95        20       96
                            SD          5      100         4      100
Rewards in                  SA         18       18        16       16
entrepreneurship             A         43       61        42       58
are more                     N          5       66         6       64
                            DA         26       92        25       89
                            SD          8      100        11      100
Entrepreneurship            SA         19       19        15       15
is respected in              A         50       69        54       69
society                      N          5       74        20       89
                            DA         19       93         4       93
                            SD          7      100         7      100
Necessary for               SA         44       44        37       37
prosperity of                A         35       79        40       77
Kashmir                      N          6       85         4       81
                            DA          7       92        12       93
                            SD          8      100         7      100
Entrepreneurs               SA         22       22        30       30
are rich                     A         55       77        57       87
                             N          4       81         4       91
                            DA         15       96         5       96
                            SD          4      100         4      100

Statements         Tests between
                   subject effects
Entrepreneur-
ship is:

                   t-value   Sig (p)

Better than         -0.72      0.46
working for
others

Popular among       -4.00      0.08
friends & family

Prefer              -1.81      0.06
Entrepreneur
as my partner

Has better           0.26      0.79
family life

Rewards in          -0.92      0.35
entrepreneurship
are more

Entrepreneurship    -1.10      0.26
is respected in
society

Necessary for       -2.49      0.01
prosperity of
Kashmir

Entrepreneurs       -2.53      0.01
are rich

SA= Strongly Agree, A= Agree, N =Neutral,
DA= Disagree, SD= Strongly Disagree

Table 5 Comparative Scores on the basis of Educational Qualification

Statements                  Educational Qualification

Entrepren-      Agreement/     Up to                  Graduation
eurship is:     Disagreement   10+ 2                  (N=487)
                               (N=166)

                                 %age    Cumulative   %age   Cumulative
                                                                     %

Better than              SA        51           51     42           42
working for               A        34           85     51           93
others                    N         5           90      2           95
                         DA         8           98      4           99
                         SD         2          100      1          100
Popular                  SA        12           12     14           14
among                     A        42           54     47           61
friends &                 N        16           70      8           69
family                   DA        21           91     22           91
                         SD         9          100      9          100
Prefer                   SA        18           18     17           17
Entrepreneur              A        28           46     29           46
as my                     N        16           62      6           52
partner                  DA        18           80     24           76
                         SD        20          100     24          100
Has better               SA        16           16     18           18
family life               A        46           62     52           70
                          N        10           72     18           88
                         DA        24           96      8           96
                         SD         4          100      4          100
Rewards in               SA        16           16     21           21
entrepreneur-             A        40           56     41           62
ship are more             N        16           72      8           70
                         DA        19           91     22           92
                         SD         9          100      8          100
Entrepreneur-            SA        21           21     15           15
ship is                   A        52           73     62           77
respected in              N         9           82     14           91
society                  DA        12           94      2           93
                         SD         6          100      7          100
Necessary for            SA        39           39     37           37
prosperity of             A        38           77     39           76
Kashmir                   N         7           84      6           82
                         DA         8           92     10           92
                         SD         8          100      8          100
Entrepreneurs            SA        28           28     26           26
are rich                  A        54           82     50           76
                          N         8           90      4           80
                         DA         6           96     14           94
                         SD         4          100      6          100

Statements      Educational             Tests between
                Qualification           subject effects

Entrepren-      Post Graduation        F    Sig (p)
eurship is:     (N=546)

                %age   Cumulative
                               %

Better than      43           43    0.367    0.693
working for      49           92
others            1           93
                  6           99
                  1          100
Popular          22           22    4.089    0.017
among            45           67
friends &         4           71
family           17           88
                 12          100
Prefer           21           21    3.678    0.026
Entrepreneur     29           50
as my            10           60
partner          25           85
                 15          100
Has better       17           17    1.116    0.328
family life      52           69
                  7           76
                 19           95
                  5          100
Rewards in       14           14    2.029    0.132
entrepreneur-    44           58
ship are more     8           66
                 24           90
                 10          100
Entrepreneur-    17           17    0.970    0.380
ship is          52           69
respected in      5           74
society          19           93
                  7          100
Necessary for    53           53    6.447    0.002
prosperity of    31           84
Kashmir           1           85
                 11           96
                  4          100
Entrepreneurs    25           25    1.291    0.275
are rich         52           77
                  5           82
                 14           96
                  4          100

SA= Strongly Agree, A= Agree, N =Neutral, DA= Disagree,
SD= Strongly Disagree

Table 6 Comparative Scores Based on Region

Statements                          Regions

Entrepreneur-    Agreement   Central                South
ship is:         /Disagree   Kashmir                Kashmir (383)
                 ment        (455)

                               %age    Cumulative   %age   Cumulative

Better than            SA        47           47     37           37
working for             A        46           93     51           88
others                  N         5           98      8           96
                       DA         1           99      3           99
                       SD         1          100      1          100
Popular                SA        14           14     12           12
among                   A        44           58     44           56
friends &               N        14           72      9           65
family                 DA        22           94     27           92
                       SD         6          100      8          100
Prefer                 SA        21           21     14           14
Entrepreneur            A        25           46     32           46
as my partner           N        11           57      9           55
                       DA        22           79     26           81
                       SD        21          100     19          100
Has better             SA        16           16     16           16
family life             A        50           66     53           69
                        N        11           77      7           76
                       DA        19           96     19           95
                       SD         4          100      5          100
Rewards in             SA        14           14     18           18
entrepreneur-           A        40           54     46           64
ship are more           N        16           70     10           74
                       DA        21           91     13           87
                       SD         9          100     13          100
Entrepreneur-          SA        15           15     15           15
ship is                 A        51           66     56           71
respected               N        11           77      8           79
in society             DA        15           92     14           93
                       SD         8          100      7          100
Necessary              SA        38           38     37           37
for prosperity          A        38           76     40           77
of Kashmir              N         9           85      8           85
                       DA         6           91      7           92
                       SD         9          100      8          100
Entrepreneurs          SA        23           23     28           28
are rich                A        53           76     48           76
                        N         8           84      6           82
                       DA        11           95     13           95
                       SD         5          100      5          100

Statements       Regions             Tests between
                                     subject effects

Entrepreneur-    North                  F     Sig (p)
ship is:         Kashmir (362)

                 %age   Cumulative
                                %

Better than       46           46    4.507       0.01
working for       46           92
others             3           95
                   3           98
                   2          100
Popular           17           17    0.477       0.62
among             44           61
friends &         11           72
family            14           86
                  14          100
Prefer            22           22    1.226      0.294
Entrepreneur      30           52
as my partner      8           60
                  19           79
                  21          100
Has better        21           21    1.572      0.208
family life       50           71
                   6           77
                  19           96
                   4          100
Rewards in        19           19    2.16       0.115
entrepreneur-     41           60
ship are more     22           82
                   7           89
                  11          100
Entrepreneur-     21           21    1.83       0.161
ship is           50           71
respected         11           82
in society         8           90
                  10          100
Necessary         46           46    3.317       0.37
for prosperity    34           80
of Kashmir         9           89
                   5           94
                   6          100
Entrepreneurs     25           25    0.173       0.84
are rich          53           78
                  10           88
                   6           94
                   6          100

SA= Strongly Agree, A= Agree, N =Neutral, DA= Disagree,
SD= Strongly Disagree
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Author:Rashid, Irfana
Publication:Indian Journal of Industrial Relations
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jul 1, 2017
Words:5902
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