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Publishing international counseling articles.

One of the more interesting and exciting trends in counseling today is the internationalization of counseling services. This spread of counseling is being facilitated by the Internet and other types of high-speed, far-reaching computer technology. However, counseling is but one of many professions going global. As a result, virtually every aspect of one's life is being influenced by international forces in one way or another, whether it is multinational business, medicine, military, religion, banking, education, or entertainment. Nations throughout the world recognize that positive mental health is a valuable asset, regardless of political orientation, and that counseling is one of the helping professions that can improve mental health. Counseling personnel from the United States have consulted with various developing countries about expanding counseling services while recognizing these services must be adapted to the needs of the host countries rather than being transferred wholesale from one country to another. Each country must assess how counseling can be helpful and select and develop services that best meet its needs. It is through publishing about the unique needs and mental health services in various countries that the world family can learn from each other, keeping in mind that what works for one culture or country may or may not work for others (Hohenshil, 2010).

Editors of the Journal of Counseling & Development (JCD) have long recognized the importance and growth of counseling in other countries and published numerous articles devoted to the international aspects of counseling. Ed Herr, during his first term as JCD editor more than 15 years ago, initiated a section of the journal dealing with international counseling. He believed nations around the globe were wrestling with many of the same human conditions that individuals experience in the United States, including general mental health, career development, and diversity issues (Herr & Fabian, 1993). Publication of international articles continued through the editorships of Earl Ginter and Scott McGowan. The Trends section of JCD placed emphasis on international counseling during the last year of McGowan's second term, and a special series of articles was developed on international counseling that was published in the Winter 2010 issue. The current JCD editor, Spencer Niles, also elected to devote a special section of JCD to international issues because he believes counseling must move beyond our current levels of knowledge, skills, and attitudes regarding our work in a diverse and global society (Niles, 2008). Given this brief history, what are some of the guidelines for authors who wish to make international contributions? The remainder of this article is a description of two general categories of articles published in the international section, followed by a description of the review process and a listing of international journals.

Guidelines for "Past, Present, Future" Articles

In the past, many international articles dealt with the process of counseling students from other countries while they were temporarily in the United States, usually to attend college. Those articles were frequently focused on the stress and cultural shock experienced by international students and their families. Although these are important and useful areas of practice and research, our present international focus is different. Currently, the JCD approach is to consider the counseling services that actually exist in different countries. That is, the focus is on the development of counseling services in other countries that serve the mental health needs of their own citizens. Good examples of this are included in the Winter 2010 issue of JCD, which featured a major section on counseling services provided in several different countries. Following is a listing of those eight articles, plus one from Venezuela that had been published previously.

Ayyash-Abdo, H., Alamuddin, R., & Mukallid, S. (2010). School counseling in Lebanon: Past, present, and future. Journal of Counseling & Development, 88, 13-17.

Dixon, A. L., & Hansen, N. H. (2010). Fortid, nutid, fremtid (Past, present, future): Professional counseling in Denmark. Journal of Counseling & Development, 88, 38-42.

Lim, S. L., Lira, B. K. H, Michael, R., Cai, R., & Schrock, C. K. (2010). The trajectory of counseling in China: Past, present, and future trends. Journal of Counseling & Development, 88, 4-8.

Montilla, R. E., & Smith, R. L. (2009). Counseling in the Republica Bolivariana de Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela). Journal of Counseling & Development, 87, 122-125.

Portal, E .L., Suck, A. T., & Hinkle, J. S. (2010). Counseling in Mexico: History, current identity, and future trends. Journal of Counseling & Development, 88, 33-37.

Remley, T. P., Jr., Bacchini, E., & Krieg, P. (2010). Counseling in Italy. Journal of Counseling & Development, 88, 28-32.

See, C. M., & Ng, K. M. (2010). Counseling in Malaysia: History, current status, and future trends. Journal of Counseling & Development, 88, 18-22.

Stockton, R., Nitza, A., & Bhusumane, D. B. (2010). The development of professional counseling in Botswana. Journal of Counseling & Development, 88, 9-12.

Szilagyi, A., & Paredes, D. M. (2010). Professional counseling in Romania: An introduction. Journal of Counseling & Development, 88, 23-27.

We are interested in publishing many more of these types of articles, which describe counseling in different countries. The general format includes the following components for each article.


This initial section of each international manuscript should be a general introduction to the particular country and its counseling services. In other words, set the stage for what is to come in the article. The introduction is usually around two or three paragraphs in length and has few references.


This section should provide a general history of the country involved, including its economic, social/education, and political systems. Special emphasis also should be devoted to describing the historical development of the country's counseling services. In other words, how did the country's economic, social/educational, and political systems influence the development of counseling services? How was the development of counseling services influenced by psychological services? What is the definition of counseling in the country, and how has that evolved over time? Also, describe the historical development of professional counseling associations and counselor credentialing agencies. Any history of involvement with U.S. counselors, counselor educators, and/or counseling professional associations also should be discussed. This section might be three or four pages long and include several references.

Current Status

This section of the article should include a description of the current status of counseling in the selected country. About how many counselors are there? Where do they work--schools, social agencies, private practice? Where and how were they trained? Describe the professional counseling associations and credentialing agencies as well as the current status of counseling in educational institutions, social agencies, and private practice. What is the current relationship between the practice of counseling and the practice of psychology? What are the similarities and differences between the counseling profession in the country described and the United States? This section is normally five or six pages in length and has several references.


In this section, authors should project 5-10 years into the future as to how they see counseling continuing to develop in the particular country. Perhaps a description can be included of different client groups, new kinds of services, innovation in counseling techniques, and so on. Particular attention should be given to relationships with such groups as psychologists and social workers. Other topics that might also be considered could be the future of counseling associations, credentialing, counselor training programs, and similarities and differences between U.S. programs and personnel. This section is usually two or three pages in length and includes a few references.


Having at least one author from the country involved and one author from the United States is the recommended arrangement. The native author provides the expertise about counseling in the particular country, whereas the U.S. coauthor provides expertise in relating the counseling programs to those in the United States and may also be of assistance if an English language barrier exists. How authors from different countries come to work together occurs in a variety of ways. For some, it occurs as a result of consulting in another country. For others, it comes as a result of graduate or postgraduate study in a foreign country. For still others, it may come through professional association or governmental work. Having said that, however, using only single or multiple authors from a country can also work if the authors have good English writing skills and knowledge of U.S. counseling programs as well as their own.

The partnerships we are suggesting can be useful for the immediate goal of developing a JCD publication. As an added benefit, the relationships formed through this process can also lead to something more long lasting. A good illustration of the partnership model is some of the work of Dr. Richard Young from the University of British Columbia, Canada. Over the years, he has published widely with other international authors (Dr. Audrey Collins in the United Kingdom; Dr. Ladislav Valach in Switzerland), and this has enriched his work on career theory and more specifically the application of action theory.

Writing Style and Terminology

The total length of an international article should be 12-15 pages (including references). Although various countries may have different writing style systems, articles for JCD must follow the guidelines included in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.; American Psychological Association, 2009). The importance of following APA publication guidelines cannot be overemphasized because it is not unusual for an otherwise good manuscript to be rejected because the authors did not follow APA guidelines. It should also be noted that in many countries the terms psychologist and counselor are used interchangeably. Therefore, it is important to clearly define these terms and use them consistently throughout an international article. Because the focus of JCD is on the profession of counseling, this distinction is an important one to make.

Other International Topics

In addition to the previously discussed topics, other international counseling topics are considered for publication in JCD. They may involve internationally oriented research, practice, or theoretical topics related to a particular country.

Although these kinds of articles were not emphasized while we were focusing on "past, present, future" formats, they will be considered in the future. The topics must be of interest and relevant to readers of JCD and contain comparisons with counseling in the United States. Following are a few international articles published in previous JCD issues that can serve as examples of research, practice, and theoretical formats.

Chung, R. C. Y. (2005). Women, human rights, and counseling: Crossing international boundaries. Journal of Counseling & Development 83, 262-268.

Furbish, D. S. (2007). Career counseling in New Zealand. Journal of Counseling & Development, 85. 115-119.

Joo, E. (2009). Counselors in South Korea: A qualitative study of senior professionals. Journal of Counseling & Development, 87, 466-475.

Maples, E M., &Han, S. (2008). Cybercounseling in the United States and South Korea: Implications for counseling college students of the millennial generation and the networked generation. Journal of Counseling & Development, 86, 178-183.

Spangenberg, J. J. (2003). The cross-cultural relevance of person-centered counseling in postapartheid South Africa. Journal of Counseling & Development, 81, 48-54.

The Review Process

All international manuscripts go through a rigorous review process by members of the JCD editorial board, the two associate editors for international counseling, and the editor. Almost all manuscripts require some revision, and authors should understand that revising is an important part of the publishing process. In fact, receiving feedback from the editor that an article needs revision is really a positive sign because it means there is interest in publishing it in JCD if some changes are made. As a result of the first round review, authors may be asked to revise and resubmit their manuscript, it may be accepted for publication without revision, or it may be rejected. Occasionally, a publishable article is submitted that is not a good fit for JCD. In those instances, the editor usually recommends other journals for the authors to consider as an outlet. After revision and resubmission, a manuscript will be reviewed again, usually by the associate editors for international counseling. As a result of that review, the manuscript may be returned for further revisions, recommended for acceptance, or rejected. Sometimes manuscripts require several revisions before final acceptance. It should be noted the final decision on all manuscripts is made by the general JCD editor.

International Journals

This section contains a list of English-language international journals that may be helpful to authors as they compare and contrast counseling among various countries. Most of the journals on the list are peer reviewed and supported by counseling associations or private publishing firms. It should be noted that in addition to JCD, other ACA journals also include international articles from time to time. Among those are The Career Development Quarterly, Counselor Education and Supervision, and the Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development.

Asia Pacific Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy or

This journal is a peer-reviewed publication of the Asian Professional Counsellors Association, which is located in Hong Kong. It provides a forum for academic/research papers, focusing on best practices in counseling and psychotherapy. A special goal is to provide international dialogue between the Asia Pacific region and other parts of the world.

Australian Journal of Guidance and Counselling or

This is the professional journal of the Australian Guidance and Counselling Association. It is published biannually and deals with theoretical, practical, and training issues in school counseling and school psychology.

Canadian Journal of Career Development

The Canadian Journal of Career Development is sponsored by the Counselling Foundation of Canada, the Canadian Education and Research Institute for Counselling, and Memorial University of Newfoundland. It is published once or twice each year and includes such topics as career development in the corporate sector, secondary and postsecondary education, and government-related counseling.

Canadian Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy

This is the flagship journal of the Canadian Counselling and Psychotherapy Association, which is published quarterly. It is a bilingual journal that publishes articles of interest for the broad range of counselors the association represents.

Career Development International (CDI)

CDI is published by Emerald for an international audience dealing with issues in career development and career counseling. It is primarily focused on topics in business, industry, and government rather than being education based. It deals with such topics as career interventions, mentoring, organizational change, and the nature of work.

Counselling Australia

This is the professional journal of the Australian Counselling Association and is published three times each year. Generally, it publishes articles dealing with nonschool issues and thus is clinically oriented.

International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance

This is the professional journal of the International Association for Educational and Vocational Guidance. It is a refereed journal that publishes articles about work and leisure, career development, and career counseling that have international interest.

International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling

This journal is published under the auspices of the International Association for Counselling. It publishes a wide variety of international counseling articles dealing with research, practice, and theory. It also publishes papers presented at the association's major conferences and workshops.

International Journal of Psychology and Counselling (1JPC)

IJPC is published by Academic Journals. It is an Internet-based, open-access, peer-reviewed journal that publishes articles approximately 1 month after acceptance. The journal contains research- and practice-based articles on a variety of counseling-related topics.

International Psychology Bulletin or

The International Psychology Bulletin is a publication of Division 52 of the American Psychological Association. It provides information about international conferences and other training opportunities and also includes some brief original articles and book reviews.

Journal for International Counselor Education (JICE)

JICE is a peer-reviewed, international journal published by Berkeley Electronic Press and housed at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. It is an open-access journal that features counselor education research, theory, instructional techniques, and practice. JICE publishes manuscripts as they are accepted, continually throughout the year, and articles can be downloaded free of charge.

New Zealand Journal of Counselling or

This journal is a publication of the New Zealand Association of Counsellors. It is designed as a forum for sharing ideas, research, practice-based articles, and book reviews to reflect the diversity of interests of New Zealand's counselors. Two issues are published each year.

Nigerian Journal of Guidance and Counselling

The Nigerian Journal of Guidance and Counselling includes articles on a variety of counseling topics. It publishes a blend of articles that appeal to counselors in schools and other settings.

Psychology International

Using a newsletter format, this publication of American Psychological Association's Office of International Affairs includes short articles, book reviews, and various announcements.


PsyTalk is the national journal for the Psychological Society of South Africa. As such, it includes articles covering a broad range of psychological topics relating to South Africa and the general region.

School Psychology International (SPI)

SPI is a refereed journal published by Sage Publications and normally has five or six issues per volume year. It includes a variety of learning and behavioral articles involving school-age children and adolescents. Some of the topics in the August 2010 issue involved bullying among Korean children, the Brazilian adaptation of the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities, and temperament styles of Greek and U.S. children.

Therapy Today or

This flagship journal of the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy is published 10 times a year and includes counseling and therapy topics relating to research and practice, mainly in Great Britain.


With the recent advances in transportation and communication technology, the world community is rapidly becoming much closer. Counseling, which was once considered primarily a U.S. or Western approach to mental health services, is spreading to other countries as they recognize that positive mental health is a national asset and that counseling can facilitate the development of good mental health. It is the purpose of the International Section of the JCD to help readers gain a better understanding of how the counseling profession is developing in cultures that may have values and goals that are different than those existing in the United States. There are many JCD readers who are either natives of other countries or have experience living and/or consulting outside the United States. It is our hope this article will encourage those readers to consider sharing their experiences with others by writing and submitting international articles to JCD. If a person has an interest in writing such an article, it is recommended that contact be made with both associate editors for international counseling to make sure a manuscript about that particular country is not already in progress (Norman E. Amundson:; Thomas H. Hohenshil:


American Psychological Association. (2009). Publication manual of the American Psvchological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Herr, E. L., & Fabian, E. S. (1993). The Journal of Counseling & Development: Its legacy and its aspirations. Journal of Counseling & Development, 72, 3-4.

Hobenshil, T. H. (2010). International counseling (Editorial). Journal of Counseling & Development. 88, 3.

Niles, S. G. (2008). From the editor: Introduction. Journal of Counseling & Development, 86, 387.

Thomas H. Hohsnshil, Department of Educational Leadership and Policy Studies, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University; Norman E. Amundson, Department of Educational and Counselling Psychology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. Thomas H. Hohenshil is now retired. Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Thomas H. Hohenshil, 104 Prestwick Drive, Clayton, NC 27527 (e-mail:
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Title Annotation:Special Section: Counseling Research and Publishing in JCD
Author:Hohenshil, Thomas H.; Amundson, Norman E.
Publication:Journal of Counseling and Development
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jun 22, 2011
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