Printer Friendly

Pteridophytes of Northeast Alabama and adjacent highlands v: Polypodiales (Polypodiaceae to Vittariaceae).

INTRODUCTION

This paper concludes the study of pteridophytes of Northeast Alabama and adjacent highlands. The final families treated are Polypodiaceae (polypody family), Pteridaceae (maidenhair fern family), Thelypteridaceae (marsh fern family), and Vittariaceae (shoestring fern family).

Information on specific and infraspecific taxa is set up in the following format: Number. Name author(s) (derivation of specific and infraspecific epithets]. VERNACULAR NAME. Habit; nativity (if exotic). Sporulating dates. Habitat data; highland provinces; relative abundance; [occurrence on Coastal Plain]. Conservation status. Wetland indicator status. Comments. Synonyms.

Introduced taxa are followed by a dagger (+). Species of conservation concern are followed by a star (*). The coded state ranks (ANHP 1994, 1996, 1997, 1999) are defined in Table 1. Wetland indicator status codes (Reed 1988) are defined in Table 2. Relative abundance is for occurrence in the study area and not for the whole state. Frequency of occurrence is defined as follows, ranging in descending order: common (occurring in abundance throughout), frequent (occurring throughout but not abundant), occasional (known in more than 50% of the region but in scattered localities), infrequent (known in less than 50% of the region in scattered localities or occurring in restricted habitats), rare (known from only a few counties and restricted to specific localities), and very rare (known from only a single or few populations; mostly narrow endemics, disjuncts, and peripheral taxa). Nomenclature follows Flora of North America [FNAJ (1993+) and more recent publications. Synonyms are from Mohr (1901)--M; Small (1938)-- S; Radford et al. (1968)--R; and Lellinger (1985)--L. Suggested pronunciation, author(s), date of citation, common name, and derivations are provided after each genus.

Distribution maps are typically for 18 counties in the northeast region of Alabama. The maps are expanded to adjacent highland counties for taxa that are rare or peripheral. Key to symbols are as follows: Filled circle (*) = documented at Jacksonville State University herbarium; filled square (#) = documented at another herbarium; open circle (o) = reported in literature.

ORDER 2. POLYPODIALES

10. POLYPODIACEAE (Polypody Family)

Selected reference: Smith, A. R. 1993. Polypodiaceae. In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. 1993+. Flora of North America North of Mexico. 3+ vols. New York and Oxford. Vol. 2, pp. 312-313.

1. Lower (abaxial) leaf surfaces with scurfy, dark-centered scales; leaves gray-green; lobes of leaf blade entire Pleopeltis

1. Lower leaf surfaces glabrous, lacking scales; leaves green; lobes of leaf blade minutely toothed Polypodium

1. PLEOPELTIS {plee-oh-PELL-tiss} Humbolt & Bonpland ex Willdenow 1810 * Shielded-sorus Polypodies * [Greek, pleos, many, and pelte, shield; in reference to scales that cover young sori.]

Selected reference: Andrews, E. G. and M. D. Windham. 1993. Pleopeltis. In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. 1993+. Flora of North America North of Mexico. 3+ vols. New York and Oxford. Vol. 2, pp. 324-327.

1. Pleopettis polypodioides (Linnaeus) Andrews & Windham [like polypodium] var. michauxiana (Weatherby) Andrews & Windham [A. Michaux, 1746-1802]. RESURRECTION FERN; GRAY POLYPODY. Evergreen perennial. Sporulates May - October. Epiphytic on trees, or growing on shaded rocks and logs; all highland provinces; common; [Coastal Plain]. Wetland Indicator Status, UPL. It is called resurrection fern because it appears dead during dry times but wet weather will "resurrect" it and the leaves will unfold and become green again. Scales on leaf help to conserve moisture. A total of 6 varieties of this species are known, only this taxon occurs in North America. The typical variety (var. polypodicides) is common in the West Indies and has scales abundant on both surfaces of the leaf. Our variety is named in honor of Andre Michaux , a French botanist who botanized the United States and first discovered this fern. Indians made an ointment from the leaves and rootstaik for treatment of sores and ulcers (Foster and Duke 1990). Synonyms: Polypodium polypodioides (Linnaeus) Hitchcock-- M; Marginaria polypodioides (Linnaeus) Tidestrom-- S; Polypodium polypodicides (Linnaeus) Watt--R; Polypodium polypodioldes (Linnaeus) Watt var. michauxianum Weatherby- L.

2. Polypodium {polly-POH-dee-um} Linnaeus 1753 * Polypodies; Rock-cap Ferns * [Greek, poly, and podion, many feet; alluding either to the knob-like leaf scars on the rhizome or the foot-like branching of the rootstock.]

Selected references: Cranfill, R. and D. M. Britton. 1983. Typification within the Polypodium virginianum complex (Polypodiaceae). Taxon 32: 557-560. Haufler, C. H. and M. D. Windham. 1991. New species of North American Cyszopteris and Polypodium, with comments on their reticulate relationships. Amer. Fern J. 81: 7-23. Haufler, C. H., M. D. Windham, and S. A. Whitmore. 1993. Polypodium. In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. 1993+. Flora of North America North of Mexico. 3 + vols. New York and Oxford. Vol. 2, pp. 315-323.

1. Polypodium virginianum * Linnaeus [Virginian]. ROCK-CAP FERN; COMMON POLYPODY; ROCK POLYPODY. Evergreen perennial. Sporulates June - November. Shaded cliffs and rocky, wooded slopes; Cumberland Plateau and upper Piedmont; infrequent. Species of Special Concern (Freeman et al. 1979). Wetland Indicator Status, UPL. This species has been medicinally used for various ailments, especially coughs and other respiratory problems (Dunbar 1989). Ashes from this fern contain large amounts of potash and were used in the manufacture of glass (Abbe 1981). Polypodium virginianum is identified as a tetraploid. A diploid cytotype of this species is recognized by some authors as a separate species, known as Polypodium appalachianum Haufler & Windham (Appalachian Polypody). These two taxon are difficult to separate and do not appear to be morphologically distinct. The scales on the rhizome of P. appalachianum are often uniformly golden brown (sometimes weakly bicolored), the leaves are often larger and widest near the base ( but not always), the spores are less than 52[micro]m, and there are usually more than 40 sporangiasters per sorus. P. virginianum usually has bicolored scales with a dark central stripe, the leaves tend to be widest near the middle, the spores are more than 52[micro]m, and there are less than 40 sporangiasters per sorus. Both species occur in our area, P. appalachianum is known from Pisgah Gorge. Synonym: Polypodium vulgare Linnaeus-- M.

11. PTERIDACEAE (Maidenhair Fern Family)

Selected Reference: Windham, M. D. 1993. Pteridaceae. In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. 1993+. Flora of North America North of Mexico. 3+ vols. New York and Oxford. Vol. 2, pp. 122-124.

1. Leaflets fan-shaped and oblong; son arrangement discontinuous (with obvious separation between sori) on reflexed marginal lobes of leaflets; veins of leaflets distinct: Adiantum

1. Leaflets not fan-shaped; son arrangement continuous (without obvious separation) along revolute (under-rolled) margins of leaflets; veins of leaflets obscure.

2. Blades 1-pinnate to pinnate-pinnatifid; underside (abaxial surface) of leaf covered with fringed or stellate scales: Astrolepis

2. Blades 2- to 5-pinnate (at least proximally); underside of leaf usually without fringed or stellate scales.

3. Ultimate segments (smallest leaf divisions) 1-4 mm long: Cheilanthes

3. Ultimate segments 8+ mm long

4. Rachis straw-colored to greenish; leaves palmately compound or pinnatifid (both leaf types often present on same plant); terminal leaflets from 4-13 cm long: Pteris

4. Rachis deep brown to black; leaves pinnate to bipinnate; terminal leaflets usually less than 4 cm long: Pellaea

1. ADIANTUM * {ad-ee-AN-tum} Linnaeus 1753 @ Maidenhair Ferns @ [Greek adiantos, unwetted, for the glabrous leaves, which shed raindrops.] The name "maiden-hair" is said to be an allusion to the slender black stalks of this fern (Clute 1938).

* Contributed in part by Steven J. Threlkeld

Selected references: Fernald, M. L. 1950. Adiantum capillus-veneris in the United States. Rhodora 52: 201-208. Paris, C. A. Adiantum. In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. 1993+. Flora of North America North of Mexico. 3+ vols. New York and Oxford. Vol. 2, pp. 125-130. Paris, C. A. and M. D. Windham. 1988. A Biosystematic Investigation of the Adiantum pedatum complex in eastern North America. Syst. Bot. 13: 240-255.

1. Fronds broader than long, fan-like; main rachis forked at the tip; leaflets borne on one side of the forked rachises.........A. pedatum

1. Fronds longer than broad, spade-like; main rachis continuous; leaflets borne on both sides of the rachis ......... A. capillus-veneris

1. Adiantum capillus-veneris Linnaeus [Venus' hair]. VENUS'-HAIR FERN; SOUTHERN MAIDENHAIR FERN. Deciduous perennial. Sporulates June - July. Moist ledges, under cut banks, and bluffs along creeks and rivers; Cumberland Plateau, Ridge and Valley, Piedmont Plateau; infrequent; [chiefly Coastal Plain]. Wetland Indicator Status, FACU. The Latin translation of capilius-veneris means 'Venus' hair," alluding to the fine strands of hair of the goddess of love. Medicinally this fern was used as a diuretic and to cure headaches and colds (Dunbar 1989). This fern is commonly used in the nursery trade.

2. Adiantum pedatum Linnaeus [palmately forking]. NORTHERN or COMMON MAIDENHAIR FERN. Deciduous perennial. Sporulates June -- August. Rich woods and mesic slopes; all highland provinces; frequent; [Coastal Plain]. Wetland Indicator Status, FACU. The fern was made into a tea and used for a cure-all (Clute 1938).

2. ASTROLEPIS {ass-stroh-LEE-puss} D.M. Benham & Windham 1992 * Star-scaled Cloak Ferns * [Greek astro, star, and lepis, scale, referring to the star-like scales on the top surface of leaf blade; Asteria was the Greek goddess of the stars.]

Selected reference: Benham, D. M. and M. D. Windbam. 1993. Astrolepis. In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. 1993+. Flora of North America North of Mexico. 3+ vols. New York and Oxford. Vol. 2, pp. 140-143.

1. Astrolepis integerrima * (Hooker) Benham & Windham [absolutely entire]. STAR-SCALED CLOAK FERN; FALSE CLOAK FERN. Deciduous perennial. Sporulates June -- September. Exposed limestone glades; Ridge and Valley; very rare. State Rank, S1. Wetland Indicator Status, NI. This species is a disjunct from the southwestern United States. It is not known from the study area, but has been documented in Bibb County, Alabama on the Ketona limestone glades (Allison 1996). Synonym: Notholaena integerrima (Hooker) Hevly-L.

2. CHEILANTHES {key-LAN-theez; kay-LAN-theez} Swartz 1806 * Lip Ferns * [Greek cheilos, margin, and anthus, flower, referring to the marginal sporangia; hence the name "Lip" fern.]

Selected references: Correll, D. C. and M. C. Johnston. 1979. Manual of the Vascular Flora of Texas. The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas. Windham, M. D. and E. W. Rabe. 1993. Cheilanthes. In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. 1993+. Flora of North America North of Mexico. 3+ vols. New York and Oxford. Vol. 2, pp. 152-169.

1. Leaves glabrous or essentially so; pinnules entire or lobed only at base .......

c. alabamensis

1. Leaves pubescent to densely tomentose; pinnules pinnatifid to pinnate.

2. Leaves and rachis villous hirsute (undersurface of leaves and surface of rachis clearly visible through pubescence); pubescence of rachis with several noticeable dark bands (septa-like articulations) along their length; pinnules pinnatif: C. lanosa

2. Leaves and rachis densely tomentose (undersurface of leaves and surface of rachis nearly obscured); pubescence of rachis without noticeable dark bands along their length; pinnules usually pinnate: C. tomentosa

1. Chedanthes alabamensis * (Buckley) Kunze [of Alabama]. ALABAMA LIP FERN. Deciduous perennial. Sporulates March -- September. Forested slopes and bluffs with exposed rock (particularly calcareous); Cumberland Plateau, Ridge and Valley; infrequent; [Coastal Plain]. State Rank, previously S3 (ANHP 1994). Wetland Indicator Status, UPL.

2. CheilanThes lanosa (Michaux) D.C. Eaton [woolly]. HMRY LIP FERN. Deciduous perennial. Sporulates February -- November. Forested slopes and bluffs with exposed, acidic rocks, ecotones of granitic flatrock communities; all highland provinces; frequent; [Coastal Plain]. Wetland Indicator Status, UPL.

3. Chilanthes tomentosa Link [densely woolly]. WOOLLY LIP FERN. Deciduous perennial. Sporulates February -- November. Forested slopes and bluffs with exposed, acidic rocks; Ridge and Valley, Piedmont Plateau; occasional; [Coastal Plain]. Wetland Indicator Status, UPL.

3. PELLAEA {pell-LEE-uh} Link 1841 * Cliff-brake Ferns * [Greek pellos, dark, possibly referring to bluish gray leaves.]

Selected reference: Windham, M. D. 1993. Pellaea. In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. 1993+. Flora of North America North of Mexico. 3+ vols. New York and Oxford. Vol. 2, pp. 175-186.

Note: Pellaea glabella Mettenius ex Kuhn, Smooth Cliff-brake, occurs in adjacent Marion County, Tennessee (Cumberland Plateau) in crevices of limestone cliffs and ledges. It is currently not known from Alabama. It has glabrous petioles and rachises and the pinnae are slightly decurrent on the rachis. P. atropurpurea has petioles and rachises with scattered crisp hairs and the pinnae are not decurrent on the rachis.

1. Pellaea atrorapurpurea (Linnaeus) Link [blackish-purple]. PURPLE CLIFF-BRAKE. Deciduous perennial. Sporulates May -- September. Forested slopes and bluffs with exposed rock (particularly calcareous), open, limestone outcroppings; all highland provinces; frequent; [Coastal Plain]. Wetland Indicator Status, UPL. This species was first discovered by John Clayton on the Rappahannock River in Virginia (Snyder and Bruce 1986).

4. PTERIS {TARE-iss} Linnaeus 1753 * Brake Ferns * [Greek pteris, fern, derived from pteron, wing or feather, for the closely spaced pinnae, which give the leaves a likeness to feathers.]

Selected reference: Nauman, C. E. 1993. Pteris. In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. 1993+. Flora of North America North of Mexico. 3+ vols. New York and Oxford. Vol. 2, pp. 132-135.

1. Pteris muitifida + Poiret ex Lamarck [divided frequently]. SPIDER BRAKE; HUGUENOT FERN; WALL FERN. Evergreen perennial; native to east Asia. Sporulates April -- November. Rockwalls, sidewalks, and open lots; Ridge and Valley, Piedmont Plateau; infrequent; [chiefly Coastal Plain]. Wetland Indicator Status, UPL. Escaped from cultivation, sporadically naturalized in our area. One of the common names is derived from the place of its first North American discovery in Huguenot Cemetery, Charleston, South Carolina (Dunbar 1989). Synonym: Pycnodoria multifida (Poiret) Small-- S.

12. THELYPTERIDACEA (Marsh Fern Family)

Selected reference: Smith, A. R. 1993. Thelypteridaceae. In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. 1993+. Flora of North America North of Mexico. 3+ vols. New York and Oxford. Vol. 2, pp. 206-222.

1. Blades 1-pinnate to 1-pinnate-pinnatifid; leaves narrowly to broadly lanceolate in outline: Thelypteris

1. Blades 2-pinnatifid or 2-pinnate-pinnatifid; leaves broadly triangular in outline.

2. Pinnae for most part connected by wings along rachis; blades 2-pinnatifid: Phegopteris

2. Pinnae free, rachis not winged; blades 2-pinnate-pinnatifid: Macrotlielypteris

1. MACROTHELYPTERIS {macro-thuh-LIP-ter-iss) (H. Ito) Ching 1963 * Maiden Ferns [Greek makros, large, thelys, female, and pteris, fern.]

Selected reference: Leonard, S. W. 1972. The distribution of Thelypteris torresiana in the Southeastern United States. Amer. Fern. J. 62: 97-99.

1. Macrothelypteris torresiana + (Gaudichaud-Beaupre) Ching [L. de Torres]. MARIANA MAIDEN FERN; TORRES' FERN. Deciduous perennial; native to tropical and subtropical Asia and Africa. Sporulates June -- October. Wet banks along railroad track rights-of-way, stream banks, and floodplains; Interior Low Plateau, Ridge and Valley, Piedmont Plateau; infrequent; [chiefly Coastal Plain]. Wetland Indicator Status, FAC. This species has escaped from cultivation and is naturalized in our area. First collection of this fern was in Seminole County, Florida in 1904. Named in honor of Louis de Tortes a native of the Mariana Islands where this fern was originally described. Synonyms: Thelypteris torresiana (Gaudichau' Alston- L.

2. PHEGOPTERIS {fee-GOP-ter-iss} (C. Presl) Fee 1852 * Beech Ferns * [Greek phegos, beech, and pteris, fern.]

1. Phegopteris hexagonoptera (Michaux) Fee [six-cornered fern]. BROAD BEECH FERN. Deciduous perennial. Sporulates June - October. Rich, mesic, forested, slopes, forested floodplains, and streambanks; all highland provinces; frequent; [Coastal Plain]. Wetland Indicator Status, FACU +. The specific epithet refers to the six-angled appearance of the rachis wing (Snyder and Bruce 1986). Synonyms: Thelypteris hexagonoptera (Michaux) Weatherby-R, L.

3. THELYPTERIS {thuh-LIP-ter-iss} Schmidel 1763 * Maiden Ferns * [Greek thelys, female, and pteris, fern.]

Selected references: Crawford, L. C. 1951. A new fern for the United States. Amer. Fern. J. 41: 15-20. Iwatsuki, K. 1964. An American species of Stegnogramma. Amer. Fern. J. 54: 141-145. Smith, A. R. 1971. The Thelypteris normalis complex in the southeastern United States. Amer. Fern. J. 61:21-32.

1. Sori elongate; sporangia minutely hairy; indusia absent; plant of sandstone bluffs: T. pilosa var. alabamensis

1. Sori round or slightly oblong; sporangia glabrous; indusia present; plant not of sandstone bluffs (primarily of wetland habitats).

2. Lower leaflets much reduced, noticeably smaller than medial leaflets: T. noveboracensis

2. Lower leaflets not reduced or only slightly smaller than medial pinnae.

3. Basal veinlets and majority of other veinlets on undersurface of leaflets forked (some simple veinlets may be present); leaflets dissected to or nearly to midvein; margins of fertile leaflets strongly under-rolled (revolute): T. palustris

3. Basal veinlets and majority of other veinlets on undersurface of leaflets simple and unforked (a few forked veinlets may be present); leaflets lobed but not dissected to midvein; margins of fertile leaflets not under-rolled.

4. Veins on upper surface of leaflets with stout hairs (more than 0.3 mm long); leaflets often with yellowish, stalked glands; leaf blade lanceolate to triangular: T. Kunthii

4. Veins on upper surface of leaflets glabrous, or rarely with a few scattered hairs (less than 0.2 mm long); leaflets lacking glands; leaf blade ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate-oblong: T. ovata

1. Thelypteris kunthii (Desvaux) C. V. Morton [C. S. Kunth, 1788-1850]. SOUTHERN SHIELD FERN; WIDESPREAD MAIDEN FERN. Deciduous perennial. Sporulates late May - October. Creek banks and forested floodplains; Ridge and Valley; rare; [chiefly Coastal Plain]. Wetland Indicator Status, FACW. The specific epithet is in honor of Carl Sigismund Kunth, a professor of botany at Berlin (Thieret 1980). Synonyms: Thelypteris normalis (C. Christensen) Moxley, Thelypteris unca R. St.John, Thelypteris saxatilis R. St.John-- S.

2. Thelypteris noveboracensis (Linnaeus) Nieuwland [of New York!. NEW YORK FERN. Deciduous perennial. Sporulates late May--October. Rich, mesic, forested slopes, forested floodplains, pond margins, and streambanks; all highland provinces; frequent; [Coastal Plain]. Wetland Indicator Status, FAC +. The common name was given because Linnaeus reportedly received a specimen from New York (Dunbar 1989). This species is easily cultivated, but it should be noted that maiden ferns may take over a garden. Synonym: Dryopteris noveboracensis (Linnaeus) Gray--M.

3. Thelypteris ovata * R. P. St. John ex Small [ovate]. OVATE MAIDEN FERN. Evergreen perennial. Sporulates June - October. Damp, wooded limestone ledges and bluffs; Ridge and Valley; very rare; [chiefly Coastal Plain]. State Rank, 53. Wetland Indicator Status, UPL. Though not from the known project area, this species is reported to occur in Bibb County along the Little Cahaba River (Allison 1996).

4. Thelypteris palustris Schott [marshy] var. pubescens (Lawson) Fernald [hairy]. MARSH FERN. Deciduous perennial. Sporulates June - October. Forested floodplains and wet, open ditches, Cumberland Plateau, Ridge and Valley; infrequent; [Coastal Plain]. Wetland Indicator Status, FACW+. Both the specific epithet and common name of this species are in reference to the wet habitats in which this plant is usually found. Thelypteris palustris var. palustris is found in Eurasia. Synonyms: Dryopteris thelypreris (Linnaeus) Gray-- M; Thelypteris thelypteris-- S.

5. Thelypteris pilosa * (M. Martens & Galeotti) Crawford [long, soft hairs] var. alabamensis Crawford [of Alabama]. ALABAMA STREAK-SORUS FERN. Evergreen perennial. Sporulates year-round. Sandstone bluffs and overhangs in river gorges; Cumberland Plateau; very rare. Federal Status, Threatened; State Rank, 51. The vernacular name is referring to its elongated son (most species in the genus Thelypteris have round son). This species is currently not known from northeast Alabama; however, it is known from Winston County in northwest Alabama. The type colony was discovered in 1950, but was destroyed by road bridge construction (Wherry 1972). The Alabama population is disjunct from other populations of Thelypteris pilosa var. alabamensis in north Mexico, which were discovered later. The type species, Thelypteris pilosa var. pilosa ranges from southern Mexico to Central America and is larger in size. Recent research suggests that the Alabama streak-sorus fern represents a species distinct from T. pilosa (Wagner 1999). Synonyms: Leptogramma pilosa (Martens & Galeotti) L. Underwood var. alabamensis (Crawford) Wherry; Stegnogrammapilosa (Martens & Galeotti) Iwatsuki var. alabamensis (Crawford) Iwatsuki.

13. VITTARIACEAE (Shoestring Fern Family)

1. VITTARIA {vye-TARE-ee-uh} Smith 1793 * Shoestring Ferns * [Latin vitta, ribbon or stripe; referring to the linear, string-like leaves of the sporophyte.]

Selected references: Farrar, D. R. 1974. Gemmiferous fern gametophytes--Vittariaceae. Amer. J. Bot. 62: 146-155. Farrar, D. R. 1978. Problems in the identity and origin of the Appalachian Vittaria gametophyte, a sporophyteless fern of the eastern United States. Amer. J. Bot 65: 1-12. Farrar, D. R. 1993. Vittariaceae. In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. 1993+. Flora of North America North of Mexico. 3+ vols. New York and Oxford. Vol. 2, pp. 187-189. Farrar, D. R. and J. T. Mickel. 1991. Vittaria appalachiana: A name for the "Appalachian gametophyte." Amer. Fern J. 81: 69-75.

1. Vittaria appalachiana Farrar & Mickel [Appalachian]. APPALACHIAN SHOESTRING FERN. Persistent gametophyte (sporophyte absent or abortive). Reproduces vegetatively by gemmae. Dark, moist cavities and crevices of sandstone bluffs and grottoes; Cumberland Plateau; infrequent. Wetland Indicator Status, NI. Dense colonies of this gametophyte often coat deeply shaded rock surfaces and resemble pale-green liverworts.
Table 1

Definition of state ranks

Code Definition

S1 Critically imperiled in Alabama
 because of extreme rarity or
 because of some factor(s)
 making it especially vulnerable
 to extirpation from Alabama.

S2 Imperiled in Alabama because
 of rarity or because of some
 factor(s) making it very
 vulnerable to extirpation
 from the state.

S3 Rare or uncommon in Alabama.

S4 Apparently secure in Alabama,
 with many occurrences.

S5 Demonstrably secure in Alabama
 and essentially "ineradicable"
 under present conditions.

SH Of historical occurrence,
 perhaps not verified in the
 past 20 years, and suspected
 to be still extant.

SR Reported, but without persuasive
 documentation which would provide
 a basis for either accepting or
 rejecting the report.

SU Possibly in peril in Alabama,
 but status uncertain.

S? Not ranked to date.
Table 2

Definition of wetland indicator codes

Code Status Probability of Occurrence

OBL Obligate Wetland Species Occurs with estimated 99%
 probability in wetlands.

FACW Facultative Wetland Species Estimated 67%-99% probability
 of occurrence in wetlands, 1%
 - 33% probability in
 nonwetlands.
FAC Facultative Species Equally likely to occur in
 wetlands and nonwetlands (34%-
 66% probability).

FACU Facultative Upland Species Estimated 67%-99% probability
 of occurrence in nonwetlands,
 1%-33% probability in
 wetlands.

UPL Obligate Upland Species Occurs with estimated 99%
 probability in uplands.

NI No Indicator Status Insufficient information
 available to determine an
 indicator status.

Note: Positive or negative signs indicate a frequency toward higher (+)
or lower (-) frequency of occurrence within a category.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors thank Robert Kral, Jack Short, and the late Warren Herb Wagner, Jr. for their suggestions and comments which greatly improved the manuscript. We also appreciate the grammatical review by Verna Gates and the contributions of Tern Ballard, Tim Hofmann, and Steve Threlkeld. Most importantly, this flora would have not have been possible without the fieldwork of many botanists who have collected plants in northern Alabama. Our work is founded on the collection data of their herbarium specimens. We are indebted to the authors of the following Alabama vascular floras: Blount County (Brian R. Keener 1999), Cheaha State Park (Melanie G. Bussey 1983), Cumberland Plateau (R. David Whetstone 1981), Distribution of Alabama Pteridophytes (Jack Short 1978), Dugger Mountain (Francine N. Hutchinson 1998), Etowah County (Lesley M. Hodge-Spaulding 1997), Horseblock Mountain (Susan E. Hruska 1997), Jackson County (Kristin R. Brodeur 1999), Jefferson County (J. Patrick Barber 1986), Lake Guntersville State Park (Danie l D. Spaulding 1995), Limestone County (Timothy L. Hofmann 2000), Little River Canyon (Catherine C. Dickson 1992), Madison County (Steve J. Threlkeld 1998), Randolph County (Christopher F. Nixon 1989), St. Clair County (Hayes A. Jackson 2000), and Talladega Ranger District of the Talladega National Forest (J. Mark Ballard 1995). Other individuals making significant contributions to the Jacksonvile State University herbarium are Erik Alford, Tim Atkinson, Jerry Clonts, Tern Dobson [Ballard], Robert Kral, Ken Landers, Carol Lawler, Keener Morrow, Gary Wayner, and Loretta Weninegar.

LITERATURE CITED

Abbe E. 1981. The Fern Herbal. Comstock Publishing Associates. Ithaca and London.

Alabama Natural Heritage Program [ANHP]. 1994. Vascular Plant Inventory Tracking List, April edition. Montgomery, Alabama.

Alabama Natural Heritage Program. 1996. Species Inventory List. Montgomery, Alabama.

Alabama Natural Heritage Program [ANHPJ. 1997. Inventory List of Rare Threatened and Endangered Plants, Animals and Natural communities of Alabama. Privately printed by the Alabama Natural Heritage Program, Montgomery, Alabama.

Alabama Natural Heritage Program. 1999. Inventory List of Rare, Threatened, and Endangered Plants, Animals, and Natural Communities of Alabama. Montgomery, Alabama.

Allison, J. R. 1996. A "lost world" in Bibb County, Alabama. Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Georgia Natural Heritage Program.

Ballard, J. M. 1995. A vascular flora of the Talladega Ranger District of the Talladega National Forest, Alabama. M.S. Thesis, Department of Biology, Jacksonville State University, Jacksonville, Alabama.

Barber, J. P. 1986. A vascular flora of Jefferson County, Alabama. M.S. Thesis, Department of Biology, Jacksonville State University, Jacksonville, Alabama.

Brodeur, K. R. 1999. A vascular flora of Jackson County, Alabama. M.S. Thesis, Department of Biology, Jacksonville State University, Jacksonville, Alabama.

Bussey, M. G. 1983. Flora of Cheaha State Park. M.S. Thesis, Department of Biology, Jacksonville State University, Jacksonville, Alabama.

Clute, W. N. 1938. Our Ferns: Their Haunts, Habits and Folklore, 2nd ed. Frederick A. Stokes Company, New York.

Dickson, C. C. 1992. A vascular flora of Little River Canyon, Alabama. M.S. Thesis, Department of Biology, Jacksonville State University, Jacksonville, Alabama.

Dunbar, Lin. 1989. Ferns of the Coastal Plain, their Lore, Legends and Uses. University of South Carolina Press.

Flora of North America [FNA] Editorial Committee, eds. 1993+. Flora of North America North of Mexico. 3+ vols. New York and Oxford.

Foster, S. and J. A. Duke. 1990. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants, Peterson Field Guide Series. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston.

Freeman, J. D., A. S. Causey, J. W. Short, and R. R. Haynes. 1979. Endangered, threatened, and special concern plants of Alabama. Department of Microbiology, Agricultural Experiment Statioin. Departmental Series no. 3, Auburn University.

Hodge-Spaulding, L. M. 1997 A vascular flora of Etowah County, Alabama. M.S. Thesis, Department of Biology, Jacksonville State University, Jacksonville, Alabama.

Hofmann, T. L. 2000. A vascular flora of Limestone County, Alabama. M.S. Thesis, Department of Biology, Jacksonville State University, Jacksonville, Alabama.

Hruska, S.E. 1997. A vascular flora of Horseblock Mountain of the Talladega Ranger District of the Talladega National Forest, Alabama. M.S. Thesis, Department of Biology, Jacksonville State University, Jacksonville, Alabama.

Hutchinson, F. N. 1998. A vascular flora of Dugger Mountain, Alabama. M.S. Thesis, Department of Biology, Jacksonville State University, Jacksonville, Alabama.

Jackson, H. A. 2000. A vascular flora of St. Clair County, Alabama. M.S. Thesis, Department of Biology, Jacksonville State University, Jacksonville, Alabama.

Keener, B. R. 1999. Vascular Flora of Blount County Alabama. MS. Thesis, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa.

Lellinger, D. B. 1985. A Field Manual of the Ferns and Fern-allies of the United States and Canada. Washington, D. C.

Mohr, C. 1901. Plant Life of Alabama. Cont. U. S. Nat. Herb. 6.

Nixon, C. F. 1989. A vascular flora of Randolph County, Alabama. M.S. Thesis, Department of Biology, Jacksonville State University, Jacksonville, Alabama.

Radford, A. E., H. E. Ahles, and C. R. Bell. 1968. Manual of the Vascular Flora of the Carolinas. The University of North Carolina Press.

Reed, P.B. 1988. National List of Plant Species that Occur in Wetlands: Southeast (Region 2). U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Biological Rep. 88 (24), 244 p.

Short, J. W. 1978. Distribution of Alabama Pteridophytes. M.S. Thesis, Auburn University, Auburn.

Small, J. K. 1938. Ferns of Southeastern States. Published by author. New York.

Snyder, L. H. and J. G. Bruce. 1986. Field Guide to the Ferns and Other Pteridophytes of Georgia. The University of Georgia Press.

Spaulding, D. D. 1995. The vascular flora of Lake Guntersville State Park, Marshall County, Alabama. M.S. Thesis, Department of Biology, Jacksonville State University, Jacksonville, Alabama.

Theiret, J. W. 1980. Louisiana Ferns and Fern Allies. Lafayette Natural History Museum in conjunction with the University of Southwest Louisiana. Lafayette, Louisiana.

Threlkeld, S. J. 1998. A vascular flora of Madison County, Alabama. M.S. Thesis, Department of Biology, Jacksonville State University, Jacksonville, Alabama.

Wagner, W. H, 1999. Personal letter and notes to Daniel D. Spaulding at the Anniston Museum of Natrual History, 16 November.

Wherry, E. T. 1972. The Southern Fern Guide, corrected edition. Doubleday and Company, Inc., New York.

Whetstone, R. D. 1981. Vascular flora and vegetation of the Cumberland Plateau of Alabama... Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Botany, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
COPYRIGHT 2001 Alabama Academy of Science
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2001 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Spaulding, Daniel D.; Ballard, J. Mark; Whetstone, R. David
Publication:Journal of the Alabama Academy of Science
Geographic Code:1U6AL
Date:Oct 1, 2001
Words:4592
Previous Article:Pteridophytes of Northeast Alabama and adjacent highlands iv: Polypodiales (Dryopteridaceae to Osmundaceae).
Next Article:Human evolution in search of an explanation. (Book Review).
Topics:


Related Articles
PTERIDOPHYTES OF NORTHEAST ALABAMA AND ADJACENT HIGHLANDS.
PTERIDOPHYTES OF NORTHEAST ALABAMA AND ADJACENT HIGHLANDS III: OPHIOGLOSSALES AND POLYPODIALES (Aspleniaceae to Dennstaedtiaceae).
Pteridophytes of Northeast Alabama and adjacent highlands iv: Polypodiales (Dryopteridaceae to Osmundaceae).
Pteridophytes of southeast Alabama: Dichotomous keys, illustrations and distribution maps.

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2020 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters