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Pteridophytes of Northeast Alabama and adjacent highlands iv: Polypodiales (Dryopteridaceae to Osmundaceae).

INTRODUCTION

The following families are in the order Polypodiales treated in this paper are Dryopteridaceae (wood fern family), Hymenophyllaceae (filmy fern family), Lygodiaceae (climbing fern family), Marsileaceae (water-clover family), and Osmundaceae (royal fern family).

Information on specific and infraspecific taxa is set up in the following format: Number. Name author(s) [derivation of specific and infraspecific epithets]. VERNACULAR NAME. Habit; nativity (if exotic). Sporulating dates. Habitat data; highland provinces; relative abundance; [occurrence on Coastal Plain]. Conservation status. Wetland indicator status. Comments. Synonyms.

Introduced taxa are followed by a dagger (+). Species of conservation concern are followed by a star (*). The coded state ranks (ANHP 1994, 1996, 1997, 1999) are defined in Table 1. Wetland indicator status codes (Reed 1988) are defined in Table 2. Relative abundance is for occurrence in the study area and not for the whole state. Frequency of occurrence is defined as follows, ranging in descending order: common (occurring in abundance throughout), frequent (occurring throughout but not abundant), occasional (known in more than 50% of the region but in scattered localities), infrequent (known in less than 50% of t' region in scattered localities or occurring in restricted habitats), rare (known from only a few counties and restricted to specific localities), and very rare (known from only a single or few populations; mostly narrow endemics, disjuncts, and peripheral taxa). Synonyms are from Mohr (1901)-- M; Small (1938)-- 5; Radford et al. (1968)-- R; and Lellinger (1985)-- L. Suggested pronunciation, author( s), date of citation, common name, and derivations are provided after each genus.

Distribution maps are typically for 18 counties in the northeast region of Alabama. The maps are expanded to adjacent highland counties for taxa that are rare or peripheral. Key to symbols are as follows: Filled circle (*) = documented at Jacksonville State University herbarium; filled square (##) = documented at another herbarium; open circle (o) = reported in literature.

ORDER 2. POLYPODIALES

5. DRYOPTERIDACEAE (Wood Fern Family)

Selected reference: Smith, A. R. 1993. Dryopteridaceae. In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. 1993+. Flora of North America North of Mexico. 3+ vols. New York and Oxford. Vol. 2, pp. 246-249.

(1.) Leaves strongly dimorphic; sterile leaf blades pinnatifid and net veined, fertile leaf blades 2-pinnate and forming a bead-like cluster .............. Onoclea

(1.) Leaves monomorphic, sterile and fertile leaf blades similar, not net-veined. 2. Leaves l-pinnate (leaflets not deeply lobed).

1. Leaves monomorphic, sterile and fertile leaf blades similar, not net-veined.

2. Leaves 1-pinnate (leaflets not deeply lobed).

3. Pinnae with anterior basal lobe, margins toothed; fertile pinnae at tips of leaves (apical); son round: Polystichum

3. Pinnae lacking basal lobe, margins crenulate: fertile pinnae notlocalized at tip of leaves; son elongate: Diplazium

2. Leaves pinnate-pinnatifid to 3-pinnate (leaflets deeply lobed or divided).

4. Sori elongated or linear.

5. Leaves 2-pinnate to 3-pinnate; son crescent shaped: Athyrium

5. Leaves pinnate-pinnatifid; son almost straight: Deparia

4. Sori round.

6. Leaf stalk (petiole) essentially lacking scales (may have a few near base); indusia hood-like: Cystopteris

6. Leaf stalk distinctly scaly; indusia not hood-like.

7. Larger pinnae mostly more than 5cm long; rhizome robust: indusium covering top of sorus: Dryopteris

7. Larger pinnae mostly less than 5cm long; rhizome slender; indusium covering sides of sorus(separating into flaps and forms a star-shaped cup): Woodsia

1. ATHYRIUM {eh-THIR-ee-um} Roth 1799 * Lady Ferns * (Greek athyros, doorless; sporangia tardily pushing open margin of indusium.]

Selected reference: Kato, M. 1993. Athyrium. In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. 1993+. Flora of North America North of Mexico. 3+ vols. New York and Oxford. Vol. 2, pp. 255-258.

1. Athyrium filix-femina (Linnaeus) Roth [lady-fern] var. asplenioides (Michaux) Farwell [like Asplenium, spleenwort]. SOUTHERN or LOWLAND LADY FERN. Figure 1. Deciduous perennial. Sporulates May - October. Low woods, wooded stream banks, swamps, moist sandstone bluffs, pond and lake margins; all highland provinces; common; [Coastal Plain]. Wetland Indicator Status, FAC. The specific epithet means lady-fern, referring to its delicate and lacy appearance. Native Americans used the rootstock to make a tea to help stop breast pains in child birth, induce lactation, and ease labor (Foster and Duke 1990). Synonyms: Aspleniurn filix-foemina (Linnaeus) Bernhardi--M; Athyrium asplenioides (Michaux) A. A. Eaton--S, R.

2. CYSTOPTERIS {sis-TOP-ter-iss} Bernhardi 1806 * Bladder Ferns * [Greek kystos, bladder, and pteris, fern: young indusia are inflated.]

Selected references: Blasdell, R. F. 1963. A monographic study of the fern genus Cysropteris. Mem. Torrey Bot. Club 21: 1-102. Haufler, C. H., R. C. Moran, and M. D. Windham. 1993. Cystopteris. In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. 1993+. Flora of North America North of Mexico. 3+ vols. New York and Oxford. Vol. 2, pp. 263-270. Haufler, C. H., M. D. Windham, and T. A. Ranker. 1990. Biosystematic analysis of the Cystoperis tennesseensis (Dryopteridaceae) complex. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 77: 314-329.

1. Rhizome elongated (internodes distinct), apex usually protruding more than 1 cm past leaves; pinnules near middle of blade dissected to midrib (pinnate); bulbletsabsent; leaf blades usually widest near middle C. protrusa

1. Rhizome not elongated (internodes indiscernible due to closely overlappiingnodes), leaves clustered near apex; pinnules near middle of blade not dissected to midrib (pinnatifid); bulblets often present (found on the underside of leaf); leaf blades usually widest near base.

2. Leaf apex gradually long-tapered (attenuate), often very elongated; gland-tipped hairs scattered along rachis and leaflets or absent; bulblets smooth, 2-3 mm in diameter and found on rachis and leaflets C. bulbifera

2. Leaf apex not long-tapered (acute to acuminate), never greatlyelongated; gland-tipped hairs absent or scarce; bulblets (when present) scaly, 1.5 mm indiameter or less and found only on rachis C. tennesseensis

1. Cystopteris bulbifera * (Linnaeus) Bernhardi [bearing bulbs]. BULBLET or BERRY BLADDER FERN. Figure 2. Deciduous perennial. Sporulates May - September. Shaded bluffs, often limestone; Interior Low Plateau, Cumberland Plateau; rare. State Rank, previously S? (ANHP 1994). Wetland Indicator Status, FAC. Propagation of new plants are often from bulblets found on the fronds, sometimes they develop new plants while still on the plant. Young fronds resemble Cystopteris tennesseensis.

2. Cystopteris protrusa (Weatherby) Blasdell [protruding]. SPREADING BLADDER FERN; SOUTHERN FRAGILE FERN; LOWLAND BRITTLE FERN. Figure 3. Deciduous perennial. Sporulates April -- June. Rich, moist woods, often associated with limestone; Interior Low Plateau, Cumberland Plateau, Ridge and Valley; infrequent. Wetland Indicator Status, FACU. Plants spread by creeping rootstocks which protrude past the fronds, hence the specific epithet "protrusa." Synonym: Cystopterisfragilis (Linnaeus) Bernhardi var. prorrusa Weatherby -- M, S.

3. Cystopteris tennesseensis * Shaver [of Tennessee]. TENNESSEE BLADDER FERN. Figure

4. Deciduous perennial. Sporulates April -- August. Cracks and ledges of limestone cliffs and rocky limestone slopes; Interior Low Plateau, Cumberland Plateau; rare. State Rank, S2. Wetland Indicator Status, NI. This fern was discovered in 1950 by Jesse M. Shaver in Tennessee. It is a fertile hybrid derived from Cystopterisprotrusa and Cystopteris bulbifera.

3. DEPARIA {dih-PAIR-ee-uh} Hooker & Greville 1830 * False Spleenworts * [Greek depas, saucer; from the saucer-like indusium of the type species Deparia prolifera.]

Selected reference: Kato, M. 1993. Deparia. In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. 1993+. Flora of North America North of Mexico. 3+ vols. New York and Oxford. Vol. 2, pp. 254-255.

1. Deparia acrostichoides (Swartz) M. Kato :like Acrosrichum, leather fern]. SILVERY GLADE FERN; SILVERY-SPLEENWORT. Figure 5. Deciduous perennial. Sporulates June -September. Wooded limestone sinks and moist, rich woods, and rich slopes; all highland provinces; rare. Wetland Indicator Status, FAG. Young indusia have a silvery appearance. Synonyms:Diplazium acrostichoides (Swartz) Butters--S; Athyrium thelypteroides (Michaux) Desvaux-- R, L.

4. DIPLAZIUM {dye-PLAY-zee-um} Swartz 1801 * Twin-sorus Ferns * [Greek diplazein, double; in reference to the son being paired back-to-back in some species.]

Selected reference: Kato, M. 1993. Diplazium. In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. 1993+. Flora of North America North of Mexico. 3+ vols. New York and Oxford. Vol. 2, pp. 252-253.

1. Diplazium pycnocarpon * (Sprengel) M. Broun [with crowded "fruits"]. NARROW LEAVED GLADE FERN; NARROW-LEAVED-SPLEENWORT Figure 6. Deciduous perennial. Sporulates July -- September. Wooded limestone sinks, moist woods and slopes in basic or neutral soils; all highland provinces; rare; [Coastal Plain]. Species of Special Concern (Freeman et al. 1979). Wetland Indicator Status, FAG. This fern was originally described by Andre Michaux in 1803 as a spleenwort because of its linear son. Synonyms: Asplenium angustifolium Michaux- M; Homalosoru.r pycnocarpus (Sprengel) Small-- S; Adzyrium pycnocarpon (Sprengel) Tidestrom- R, L.

5. DRYOPTERIS {dry-OP-ter-iss} Adanson 1763 * Wood Ferns * [Greek, drys, tree (oak), and pteris, fern; an allusion to their woodland habitat.]

Selected references: Carlson, T. J. and W. H. Wagner, Jr. 1982. The North American distribution of the genus Dryopteris. Contr. Univ. Michigan Herb. 15: 141-162. Montgomery, J. D. and E. M. Paulton. 1981. Dryopteris in North America. Fiddlehead Forum 8: 25-31. Montgomery, 1. D. and W. H. Wagner. 1993. Dryopteris. In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. 1993+. Flora of North America North of Mexico. 3+ vols. New York and Oxford. Vol. 2, pp. 280-289.

1. Leaf blades 3 to 4-pinnate; leaflets with bristle-like tips (spinulose toothed) D. intermedia

1. Leaf blades Ito 2-pinnate, the pinnae often deeply cut (pinnatifid); leaflets lacking bristlelike tips.

2. Sori near the margins of leaflets; indusia thick and swollen; leavesgray-green and leathery; plant of rocky, sloped woods and bluffs D. marginalis

2. Sori not marginal; indusia thin and flat; leaves green and not leathery;plant of low, swampy woods and seepage slopesD. celsa

Note: Dryopteris X australis (Wherry) Small, * SOUTHERN OR DIXIE WOOD FERN, an infertile hybrid of Log Fern, Dryopteris celsa and Florida Wood Fern, Dryopteris ludoviciana (Kunze) Small, has been extirpated from its type locality in Cherokee County, where it was originally discovered in 1936. An extant population is known from Lee County near Auburn (Wagner and Musselman 1982). Its State Rank is S1.

1. Dryopteris celsa * (W. Palmer) Small [high]. LOG FERN. Figure 7. Evergreen perennial. Sporulates June-September. Seepage slopes, low woods, and swamps; Interior Low Plateau, Cumberland Plateau, Ridge and Valley; rare. State Rank, S1. Wetland Indicator Status, FAC+. The specific epithet is referring to its habit of sometimes growing on logs, thus being high or exalted. This species is a fertile hybrid derived from Florida Wood Fern, Dryopteris ludoviciana (Kunze) Small, and Goldie's Wood Fern, Dryopteris goldiana (Hooker) Gray. Florida Wood Fern is found in swamps on the Coastal Plain of Alabama; Goldie's Wood Fern (erroneously reported for Alabama) is found further north of our state. Crested Wood Fern, Dryopteris cristata (Linnaeus) Gray, is a similar species and has been reported to occur in Alabama but was probably a misidentified Log Fern.

2. Dryopteris intermedia (Muhlenberg ex Willdenow) Gray [intermediate]. EVERGREEN or COMMON WOOD FERN; FANCY FERN. Figure 8. Evergreen perennial. Sporulates May September. Rocky woods, often associated with hemlocks (Tsuga); Cumberland Plateau; rare. Wetland Indicator Status, FACU. Collected and used in floral arrangements, hence the name Fancy Fern. This species is similar to the Toothed Wood Fern, Dryopteris carthusiana (Villars) H. P. Fuchs [Dryopteris spinulosa (Mueller) Watt], which has been reported from the Bankhead National Forest in Winston County (Dean 1969), but no specimens have been seen. Dryopteris intermedia differs by having glandular blades and the 2 lower basal pinnules (closest to the rachis) usually of relatively the same size.

3. Dryopteris marginalis (Linnaeus) Gray [marginal]. MARGINAL SHIELD FERN; LEATHER WOOD FERN. Figure 9. Evergreen perennial. Sporulates May-September. Rocky, sloped woods, and sandstone bluffs; all highland provinces; frequent. Wetland Indicator Status, FACU. Son are found on the margins of the pinnules, hence the specific epithet, marginalis. A sterile hybrid between D. marginalis and D.intermedia has been collected from Jackson County by Jack Short, who states that it is a striking and magnificent fern (Short 1999).

6. ONOCLEA {on-oh-KLEE-uh} Linnaeus 1753 * Sensitive Fern * [Greek onos, vessel, and kleiein, to close; son are inclosed by inrolled leaf margins.] Monotypic genus, occurring in North America and northern Asia.

Selected references: Johnson, D. M. 1993. Onoclea. In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. 1993+. Flora of North America North of Mexico. 3 + vols. New York and Oxford. Vol. 2, p. 251. Lloyd, R. M. 1971. Systematics of Onocleoid ferns. Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 61:1-86.

1. Onoclea sensibilis Linnaeus [sensitive]. SENSITIVE FERN; BEAD FERN. Figure 10. Deciduous perennial. Sporulates April-June. Marshes, low thickets, swamps, alluvial woods, ditches, and creek banks; all highland provinces; common; [Coastal Plain]. Wetland Indicator Status, FACW. Sterile fronds are very sensitive' to cold and will die with the first frost, leaving only the upright fertile frond with its bead-like sporophylls. This is the host plant for the Sensitive Fern Borer Moth (Papaipema inquaesita). This fern has caused poisonings in livestock. Animals that have ingested it developed symptoms of incoordination and are unable to walk or even eat temporarily (Gibbons et al. 1990). Not recommended for cultivation because of its aggressive nature in gardens.

7. POLYSTICHUM {poh-LISS-tik-um} Roth 1799 * Holly Ferns * [Greek, poly, many, stichos, rows; alluding to the son on each pinna.] Vernacular name is in reference to the evergreen fronds and spinulose margins of the leaflets which resemble holly (Ilex).

Selected reference: Wagner, D. H. 1993. Polystichum. In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. 1993+. Flora of North America North of Mexico. 3+ vols. New York and Oxford. Vol. 2, pp. 290-299.

1. Polystichum acrostichoides (Michaux) Schott [like Acrostichum, leather fern]. CHRISTMAS FERN; DAGGER FERN. Figure 11. Evergreen perennial. Sporulates April-December. Moist woods and shaded slopes; all highland provinces; common; [Coastal Plain]. Wetland Indicator Status, FAC. Fronds stay green through the Christmas holiday season, hence the vernacular name. Used for Christmas wreaths and decorations. The leaflet with its "ear" at the base is thought to resemble a Christmas stocking or Santa in his sleigh. Cherokee Indians used its rhizomes as an ingredient in medicines for ailments such as toothaches and stomach aches (Dunbar 1989). This fern can be grown as a house plant and is often cultivated in moist shaded gardens. Various forms with rolled, ruffled or deeply incised leaflets are found growing naturally in Alabama.

8. WOODSIA {WOOD-zee-uh} R. Brown 1810 * Cliff Ferns * [For Joseph Woods, 1776-1864; English botanist.]

Selected references: Brown, D. F. M. 1964. A monographic study on the fern genus woodsia. Nova Hedwigia 16: 1-154. Windham, M. D. 1993. Woodsia. In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. 1993+. Flora of North America North of Mexico. 3+ vols. New York and Oxford. Vol. 2, pp. 270-280.

1. Woodsia obtusa (Sprengel) Torrey [obtuse]. BLUNT-LOBED CLIFF FERN; COMMON WOODSIA. Figure 12. Deciduous perennial. Sporulates May-October. Moist, rocky woods, limestone bluffs, shaded sandstone cliffs, and sandstone outcrops; all highland provinces; frequent; [Coastal Plain]. Wetland Indicator Status, UPL. The specific epithet means "blunt" referring to the tips of the pinnules. This species is similar to Cystopteris, but can be distinguished by the numerous scales on the leaf stalk and the star-shaped sori.

6. HYMENOPHYLLACEAE (Filmy Fern Family)

Selected reference: Farrar, D. R. 1993. Hymenophyllaceae. In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. 1993+. Flora of North America North of Mexico. 3+ vols. New York and Oxford. Vol. 2, pp. 190-191.

Note: Hymenophyllum tayloriae Farrar & Raine, * TAYLOR'S or GORGE FILMY FERN (see Figure 14), which primarily occurs only as a gametophyte, is known from Lawrence, Winston and Franklin counties in northwest Alabama. Its preferred habitat is deeply shaded, moist crevices in acidic rock, often narrow gorges and behind waterfalls. Gametophytes of Hymenophyllwn are ribbon-like; whereas, gametophytes of Trichomanes are filamentous. Because of the preferred habitat and size of this species, it can be difficult to locate and to identify. Its State Rank is SI. Recent findings show that this species is likely to be more abundant than current herbarium records indicate (Davison 1997). Qametophytes of Hymenophyllum tayloriae were first discovered in 1936 by Mary S. Taylor in South Carolina. Sporophytes of this species were recently discovered growing with the gametophyte by Paul G. Davison in Lawrence County, Alabama, in the Bankhead National Forest (Farrar and Davison 1994).

1. TRICHOMANES {try-KAHM-uh-neez} Linnaeus 1753 * Bristle Ferns * [Greek thrix, hair, and manes, cup, alluding to the hair-like receptacle extending from the cup-like involucre that holds the sporangia.]

Selected references: Farrar, D. R., J. C. Parks, and B. W. McAlpin. 1982. The fern genera Vittaria and Thichomanes in the northeastern United States. Rhodora 85: 83-92. Farrar, D. R. 1993. Trichomanes. In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. 1993+. Flora of North America North of Mexico. 3+ vols. New York and Oxford. Vol. 2, pp. 226-227. Farrar, D. R. 1992. Trichomanes intricatum: The independent Trichomanes gametophyte in the eastern United States. Amer. Fern. 1. 82: 83-92.

1. Plant filamentous, occurring as gametophyte only: T. intricatum

1. Plant not filamentous, occurring as both gametophyte and sporophyte (gametophytes usually in association with sporophytes).

2. Leaf blades entire to slightly lobed, usually less than 2 cm long; leaf margins with dark hairs: T petersii

2. Leaf blades deeply pinnately lobed, usually greater than 4 cm long; leaf margins without dark hairs: T. boschianwn

1. Trichomanes boschianum * Sturm [R. B. Van den Bosch, 1810-1862]. APPALACHIAN FILMY FERN; BRISTLE FERN. Figure 13. Deciduous perennial. Sporulates June - September (sexual reproduction is thought to be infrequent). Moist shaded areas such as rock overhangs, deep shelters or grottoes, that usually are not exposed to climatic extremes; Cumberland Plateau, Ridge and Valley, upper Piedmont; rare. State Rank, S3 (ALHP 1994). Wetland Indicator Status, OBL (probably FAC). This species was first discovered in Alabama along the Sipsey River by Judge Thomas Peters in 1853 (Mohlenbrock and Voigt 1959). The specific epithet commemorates Roelof van den Bosch, a nineteenth century botanist who studied filmy ferns.

2. Trichomanes intricatum Farrar [entagled]. WEFT FERN. Figure 14. Gametophyte only. Deeply sheltered overhangs of sandstone rocks; Cumberland Plateau, Ridge and Valley; infrequent. Wetland Indicator Status, NI. Because this species is difficult to locate (due to habit) and to identify, the frequency of occurrence in the study area is underestimated. Dr. Herb Wagner says it looks like "green steel-wool."

3. Trichomanes petersii * A. Gray [T. M. Peters, ?-1888]. DWARF FILMY FERN; PETERS' BRISTLE FERN. Figure 15. Deciduous perennial. Sporulates June - August. Moist shaded areas such as rock faces, ledges, and sheltered rocky areas, often close to waterfalls; Cumberland Plateau, Ridge and Valley, Piedmont Plateau; rare; [Coastal Plain]. State Rank, S2. Wetland Indicator Status, FAC. Asa Gray named this species in honor of Judge Thomas M. Peters a graduate of the University of Alabama., who first discovered it in 1853 in Winston County, Alabama (Thieret 1980). The type locality of this fern was destroyed when the Lewis Smith Dam was build on the Sipsey River (Dean 1969).

7. LYGODIACEAE (Climbing Fern Family)

1. LYGODIUM {lye-GO-dee-um} Swartz 1800 * Climbing Ferns * [Greek lygodes, flexible, in reference to the twining habit.] The "leaves" of this genus are leaflets (pinnules) and the true leaves are the whole vine-like frond, of indeterminate growth. This genus (and family) is sometimes included in the Schizaeaceae (Curly-grass Family).

Selected reference: Nauman, C. E. 1993. Lygodiaceae. In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. 1993+. Flora of North America North of Mexico. 3+ vols. New York and Oxford. New York and Oxford. Vol. 2, p. 114-116.

1. Leaflets ("leaves") palmately lobed and fan-shaped; sterile tissue between indusia on fertile lobes nearly absent: L. palmatum

1. Leaflets ("leaves") I-to 3-pinnate, not fan-shaped; sterile tissue between indusia on fertile lobes present: L. japonicum

1. Lygodium japonicum + (Thunberg ex Murray) Swartz [Japanese]. JAPANESE CLIMBING FERN. Figure 16. Deciduous, vine-like perennial; native to eastern Asia. Sporulates June - September. Roadside ditches, creek banks, moist woods; Cumberland Plateau, Ridge and Valley; rare; [chiefly Coastal Plain]. Wetland Indicator Status, FAC. This fern has been grown in outdoor gardens throughout the South and was first reported to have escaped from cultivation in Thomasville, Georgia in the early 1900's (Nelson 2000). In our area, it is only sporadically naturalized, but is a rampant weed in southern Alabama and other southeastern states.

2. Lygodium palmatum * (Bernhardi) Swartz [hand-like]. AMERICAN CLIMBING FERN; HARTFORD FERN. Figure 17. Deciduous, vine-like perennial. Sporulates June - September. Wet thickets in sandy or acid soil; Cumberland Plateau; very rare; [Coastal Plain]. State Rank, S1. Wetland Indicator Status FACW. One known extant population in northeast Alabama, is found below the confluence of the east and west forks of Little River on Cherokee-DeKalb County line. A report of this species exists for Jackson County (Short 1978). This fern was once common around Hartford, Connecticut, (hence the name), and because of over-collecting, the State Legislature passed a law to protect this fern from being taken from another person's property (Clute 1938).

8. MARSILEACEAE (Water-clover Family)

Selected reference: Johnston, D. M. 1993. Marsileaceae. In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. 1993+. Flora of North America North of Mexico. 3+ vols. New York and Oxford. Vol. 2, pp. 331-335.

1. PILULARIA {pill-yoo-LARE-ee-uh} Linnaeus 1754 * Pillworts * [Latin pilula, referring to the tiny ball-like sporocarps.]

1. Pilutaria americana * A. Braun [American]. AMERICAN PILLWORT. Figure 18. Evergreen, aquatic. Sporocarps produced April - October. Shallow water of lakes, ponds, and streams in the Tennessee River Valley in the Interior Low Plateau and Cumberland Plateau; rare. State Rank, S1. Wetland Indicator Status, OBL. The little "pills" which contain the spores allow the plant to survive droughts (Dean 1969). The best characteristic to distinguish this fern from other grass-like plants are by its curled up leaf tips ("fiddle-heads") that will uncoil as the leaves mature. Only one herbarium specimen seen from Alabama. it was collected by Dr. Paul Davison, in Lauderdale County near Waterloo.

9. OSMUNDACEAE (Royal Fern Family)

Selected references: Bobrow, A. E. 1967. The family Osmundaceae (R. Br.) Kaulf. Its taxonomy and geography. Bot. Zhurn. Moscow & Leningrad 52: 1600-1610. Hewitson, W. 1962. Comparative morphology of the Osmundaceae. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 49: 57-93. Whetstone, R. D. and T. A. Atkinson. 1993. Osmundaceae. In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. 1993+. Flora of North America North of Mexico. 3+ vols. New York and Oxford. Vol. 2, pp. 107-109.

1. OSMUNDA {oz-MUN-da} Linnaeus 1753 * Royal Ferns * [Saxon, Osmunder, name for Thor, God of war; the type species, O. regalis, grew in bogs where bog iron was found; the ore was used to make weapons (and other items).]

1. Sterile leaves pinnate, leaflets pinnatifid (deeply lobed); tufts of hairs persistent on abaxial surface (underside) of pinnae (leaflets) near base; fertile leaves with pinnae monomorphic, all spore bearing.......0. cinnamomea

Spaulding,

1. Sterile leaves 2-pinnate; tufts of hairs absent on abaxial surface of pinnae near base; fertile leaves with pinnae dimorphic, apical ones spore-bearing, the others not ... O. regalis

1. O. cinnamomea Linnaeus [cinnamon-colored]. CINNAMON FERN. Figure 19. Deciduous perennial. Sporulates March - May. Seepage woods, bogs, swamps, stream banks, and moist sandstone bluffs; all highland provinces; frequent; [Coastal Plain]. Wetland Indicator Status, FACW +. Mature fertile fronds are covered with cinnamon colored hairs, hence the common name. Widely cultivated as an ornamental. This and the next species are host plants for the Osmunda Borer Moth (Papaipema speciosissima). Cherokee Indians ate new fiddle-heads (croziers) as a vegetable (Dunbar 1989). The rhizome is edible and is reported to taste like raw cabbage (Clute 1938).

2. O. regalis Linnaeus [royal] var. spectabilis (Willdenow) Gray [showy]. RoYAL FERN. Figure 20. Deciduous perennial. Sporulates March - June. Seepage woods, bogs, stream banks, and swamps; all highland provinces; infrequent; [Coastal Plain]. Wetland Indicator Status, OBL. Rhizomes are used by orchid growers. Fiber from the rhizome is also used to make twine, rope, netting, and mats (Dunbar 1989). The chloroplasts within the spores give the young sporangia their green color. As the spores mature and are shed, the sporangia change color to a distinctive, rusty brown. The white portion of the rhizome is edible; because of its pungent taste is has been called bog onion (Abbe 1981). The type species of this very large and regal fern (O. regalis var. regalis) occurs in Eurasia.
Table 1

Definition of state ranks

Code Definition

S1 Critically imperiled in Alabama because of
 extreme rarity or because of some factor(s)
 making it especially vulnerable to extirpation
 from Alabama.

S2 Imperiled in Alabama because of rarity or
 because of some factor(s) making it very
 vulnerable to extirpation from the state.

S3 Rare or uncommon in Alabama.

S4 Apparently secure in Alabama, with many
 occurrences.

S5 Demonstrably secure in Alabama and essentially
 "ineradicable" under present conditions.

SH Of historical occurrence, perhaps not verified
 in the past 20 years, and suspected to be
 still extant.

SR Reported, but without persuasive documentation
 which would provide a basis for either
 accepting or rejecting the report.

SU Possibly in peril in Alabama, but status
 uncertain.

S? Not ranked to date.
Table 2.

Definition of wetland indicator codes.

Code Status Probability of Occurrence

OBL Obligate Wetland Species Occurs with estimated 99%
 probability in wetlands.

FACW Facultative Wetland Species Estimated 67%-99% probability
 of occurrence in wetlands,
 1% - 33% probability in
 nonwetlands.

FAG Facultative Species Equally likely to occur in
 wetlands and nonwetlands
 (34%-66% probability).

FACU Facultative Upland Species Estimated 67%-99% probability
 of occurrence in nonwetlands,
 1%-33% probability in
 wetlands.

UPL Obligate Upland Species Occurs with estimated 99%
 probability in uplands.

NI No Indicator Status Insufficient information
 available to determine
 an indicator status.

Note: Positive or negative signs indicate a frequency toward higher (+)
or lower (-) frequency of occurrence within a category.


REFERENCES CITED

Alabama Natural Heritage Program [ANHP]. 1994. Vascular Plant Inventory Tracking List, April edition. Montgomery, Alabama.

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Author:Spaulding, Daniel D.; Ballard, J. Mark; Whetstone, R. David
Publication:Journal of the Alabama Academy of Science
Geographic Code:1U6AL
Date:Oct 1, 2001
Words:4597
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