Psyllium optimizes baking quality of bread.
Recent interest in psyllium has arisen primarily due to its use in high-fiber breakfast cereals and from claims that high-fiber cereals containing psyllium are effective in reducing cholesterol levels. The goal of scientists in Kuwait was to develop a high-fiber pan bread using psyllium as a source of soluble dietary fiber. They found that adding up to 5% psyllium can improve the baking characteristics of bread.
The researchers conducted farinograph tests for whole wheat flour (WWF), white flour (WF) and WF containing 1% to 5% psyllium. They used the straight-dough bread manufacturing method of the AACC to make pan bread. Specific loaf volume was determined by using the rapeseed displacement technique. The scientists measured texture using a commercial texture analyzer. The farinograph water absorption (FWA) value for WWF was 68.5%, compared with 64.5% for WF. Every 1% of psyllium added to wheat flour resulted in a 4% increase in FWA values.
The peak time was 6 min for WWF and 8 min for WF. The addition of psyllium increased the peak time to 11 min. Dough stability values were 16.5 min for WF, 9 min for WWF, 13 min to 14 min for WF containing 1% to 3% psyllium, and 11 min to 12 min for WF containing 4% to 5% psyllium.
The specific loaf volumes of white pan bread containing 1% to 5% psyllium were 4.0 cc per g to 4.4 cc per g, compared with 4.1 cc per g for the control bread. The loaf volumes totaled 3.5 cc per g to 3.3 cc per g for whole wheat bread containing 1% to 5% psyllium, compared with 3.3 cc per g for the control bread.
The test white bread with 5% psyllium had a compression force of 252.8 g compared with 420.4 g for the control bread. The compression force for the whole wheat bread with 5% psyllium was 348.0 g, compared with 492.5 for the control bread.
Further information. H. Alomirah, Biotechnology Department, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, P.O. Box 24885, safat, 13109 Kuwait; phone: +965 3980466; fax: +965 3989495; URL: http://www.kisr.edu.kw.
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|Publication:||Emerging Food R&D Report|
|Date:||Dec 1, 2004|
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