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Psychology.

Understanding the Cognitive Abilities of the Morra Game. Atlaure Hayes, Xamaka Latham, Megan Al-Hamando, Kaylee Patterson, Jeff Huang-Hodges, Laura Bruton, Maddie Barnewold, Brooke Timlin, Miranda Klemp, Tyler Al-Hamando, Alina Molette, and Franco Delogu, Lawrence Technological University

Morra is an ancient game which is still played in many Mediterranean regions. In Morra, two players reveal their hand simultaneously, presenting a number of fingers between 1 and 5, while calling out a number between 2 and 10. Any player who successfully guesses the summation of fingers revealed by both players scores a point. As playing Morra requires attention, memory, speed of processing, and skills in randomly generating numbers, it could be used as a tool to explore cognitive functions in an ecological setting. In this study, we tested if proficiency in Morra can predict scores in cognitive tests.

A total of 88 participants were involved in this study. Sessions included PASAT which requires constantly updating numerical sums, a digit-span task, a Random-Number-Generation task, and a Guess-Next-Number task, where participants predicted the numbers of a non-random numerical sequence. Finally, the participant played Morra against the experimenter while game data are recorded. Data acquisition and analysis are still in progress. We expect to find positive correlations between performance in Morra and the abovementioned tests. If our hypothesis would be confirmed, Morra could be used as an original and engaging method for predicting and modulating cognitive functions in educational settings.

An Exploration of Facial Affect. Leena Twal, Oakland University

Anger inferiority occurs when an angry stimulus interferes with behavior, increasing response time and reducing accuracy. The purpose of conducting this research was to test race as a possible modulating variable in anger inferiority by looking for possible interactions between race and affect. Dependent measures for this study were response time and accuracy. Independent variables in this study were gender, race, and facial affect of stimuli. Control variables were gender and race of participants. Forty-five participants were shown sequences of two faces portraying angry or happy expressions. The stimuli chosen were pictures of African American and Caucasian females and males expressing happy or angry faces. Participants were asked to indicate if the faces showed same or different expressions by pressing a key on a keypad. Response time and percentage correct were recorded. Repeated measures analysis of variance shows that there is a strong main effect of facial affect, with response time increased and correct responses decreased, when an angry face was presented first. There is an interaction between race of participants with race, gender, and affect of stimuli. Angry expressions appear to cause the greatest delay in reaction time when stimuli are Caucasian females. This finding should be investigated further.

Effects of Verbal Fluency and Common Ground on Eye Movements and Pupillometry. Ye L. Kim, Andrews University

Processing language directs the time course of eye fixations (Cooper, 1974), thus creating a sequence (Griffin and Bock, 2000). One factor that may influence these patterns is common ground (Horton and Keysar, 1994), which refers to the information that speakers assume is in common with listeners and the visual cues speakers use to retrieve information about what listeners should and should not know (Horton and Gerrig, 2016). In addition to the location of gaze, information about processing can also be inferred from pupil dilation. The pupil of the eye dilates in response to mental activity (Kahnman and Beatty, 1966)--processing common ground may increase mental load. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between eye movements and pupil dilations, language fluency, and common ground. The design of this experiment is within-subjects, repeated measures and consists of two tasks: one measuring language fluency, and the other measuring eye movement patterns and pupil dilation during word generation in different common ground situations. To compare the pattern of eye movements across conditions, we will use a descriptive approach using sequence similarity and clustering (Elzinga, 2003), in addition to a 2-way ANOVA on frequency of fixation and pupil dilation.

Getting It Right: Handedness and Longevity in Major-League Baseball Players. Amanda Bailey and Kenneth Cramer, University of Windsor

The objective of this paper was to produce a recent analysis of major league baseball statistics so as to test the hypothesis of a link between handedness and longevity (Hicks, Johnson, Cuevas, Deharo, and Bautista, 1994; Abel and Kruger, 2004; Coren and Halpern, 1991). Over 19,000 players (from 1833 to the present) were divided into (a) left or right throwers, and (b) left, right, or switch batters; and were compared according to how many days they had lived (final sample size = 8610). After removing both height and weight as covariates, results showed no significant difference in longevity when analyzed by either throwing or batting, where average longevity was 69 years. Implications for further study are outlined.

The Effects of Age on Reactive and Proactive Resilience. Rachelle Pichot, Harvey Burnett, and Karl Bailey, Andrews University

This exploratory study examined age as a predictor of overall resilience based on the Psychological Body Armor (Everly, 2000) theoretical framework which defines overall resilience as a combination of proactive (resistance/immunity) and reactive (ability to bounce back) resilience pathways.

Data were collected from 202 participants through Amazon's MTurk who completed a demographic questionnaire, 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (Campbell-Sills and Stein, 2007); for Proactive Resilience the 9-item Self-Acceptance subscale and 9-item Purpose in life subscale from the Scale of Psychological Well-Being (PSW; Ryff, 1989), 4-item Subjective Happiness Scale (Lyubomirsky and Lepper, 1999), and a 1-item Spirituality scale; and for Reactive Resilience the 9-item Relationships with Others subscale from the PSW, 2-item Perceived Stress Scale (Buchanan and McConnell, 2017), 18-item Brief Symptom Inventory (Derogatis, 2000), a 1-item Sleep scale, a 1-item Fitness scale, and a 3-item Nutrition scale.

The [M.sub.age] of participants was 37.7 years (SD = 11.6), ranging between 22 and 76 years. After controlling for age, hierarchical regressions revealed that, while variables measuring innate well-being traits contributed significantly to predicting resilience for both pathways ([R.sup.2] = 0.40-0.46 across models), age (maturation) did not ([R.sup.2] = 0.016 for the full model).

Social Conformity in Group Therapy. Brittany Rutland, Michigan School of Professional Psychology

Utilizing a systematic literature review, this paper presents conformity and group therapy, while exploring ways in which conformity occurs in group therapy settings and how it may influence the effectiveness of group therapy. There is limited research on the influence of conformity within group therapy. Social conformity is a common occurrence in social groups and group therapy is an intimate group setting which requires groups of people to meet and interact. A range of emotions can come up within these groups, examples of which can include embarrassment and shame. According to Suhay's (2015) research on identity and emotion in conformity, common emotions responsible for conformity include embarrassment and shame. Solomon Asch (1951) theorized conformity was a rational response to an individual's responsibility in maintaining his or her own viewpoint meanwhile listening to others'. Other factors contributing to conformity in group therapy include emotional contagion, conforming to group norms and roles, and the fear of rejection. In conclusion, conformity in group therapy can occur as a result of self-conscious emotions, influence from peers, and the desire to avoid rejection from the group.

Group Identification and Recidivism: Understanding How to Better Help Criminal Offenders. Michelle Justice, Michigan School of Professional Psychology

Utilizing a systematic literature review, this poster presents the argument that group identification should be considered when understanding recidivism. The groups with which we identify have an effect on the way we think, as well as how we behave (Greenaway et al., 2015; Miller, Wakefield, and Sani, 2016). Identification with a group that perpetuates antisocial behavior increases the likelihood of continued antisocial behavior (Littman and Paluck, 2015). The greatest predictor of future violent behavior is past violent behavior (Gendreau, Little, and Goggin, 1996). Group therapy has been proven to be an effective tool in reducing recidivism (Morgan and Flora, 2002). Specifically, Moral Reconation Therapy (MRT) has been proven particularly effective with an inmate population (Little and Robinson, 1988). A correctional facility's utilization of group-centered therapies is cost effective and helps inmates to build connections with prosocial groups, reducing recidivistic behaviors (Miller, Wakefield, and Soni, 2016).

An Examination of Resilience over Time between Men and Women in Psychological First Aid. Leiali'i R. Edwards, Harvey Burnett, and Karl Bailey, Andrews University

The purpose of this study is to examine if implementing Psychological First Aid (PFA) exhibits a difference in resilience levels between gender over time. A key component of PFA is to promote resilience in individuals affected by distressing traumatic events (Everly, 2012). The examination of how the implementation of PFA affects resilience levels in each gender is important because research has found that gender is a predictive factor of resilience (Bonanno et al., 2007). Fifty recruited participants will complete a survey composed of the Response to Stressful Events Scale developed to measure resilience (Johnson et al., 2011). Participants then discuss stressful life experiences for 10 minutes as the researcher applies one of the conditions: RAPID-PFA reflective listening technique (experimental) or Social Acknowledgement non-empathic listening technique (control). Utilizing an ANOVA with Post Hoc analysis, this study expects to find a significant interaction between time and gender. Women will exhibit increasing resilience levels over time, however, men will exhibit no change. The results of this study will provide insight on the association of gender and resilience levels over time after receiving a crisis intervention technique such as PFA and may lead to the development of better gender-specific practices that foster resilience growth.

Does Chiropractic Treatment Help with Reducing Headaches? Ivy Mariah Cooper and Harvey Burnett, Andrews University

This study examines the efficacy of certain types of chiropractic treatment (i.e., applying manual [spinal] manipulation or using mechanical activators to the vertebrae) over time in reducing pain associated with various forms of headaches. Research is mixed on which treatment modality is more effective in reducing headache pain (Nilsson et al., 1997). It is hypothesized that the use of spinal manipulation is more effective in reducing headache pain over a three month period. This archival study examines the use of repeated measures with a time series design. Upon obtaining IRB approval, 68 participants' medical records will be obtained from two chiropractic treatment centers and will be randomly assigned to either a spinal manipulation group or a mechanical activator group. Using matched pair t-tests for pair-wise comparison, we expect the results to show that participants receiving spinal manipulation show a significant decrease in headache pain after completing three months of treatment compared to the mechanical activator group. This study will provide further insight regarding which chiropractor treatment modality is more effective in reducing headache pain, leading to more research on developing better evidence-based practices for treating headache pain which affects millions of people on an annual basis.

Substance Use Treatment for Women. William Sisung, Michigan School of Professional Psychology

The treatment for women with substance use disorder has shown to lack research in comparison to men. Substance use for women has been increasing over the decades but research on treatment has been focused on men, mainly due to higher ease of access. Thus, the male dominant research findings are applied to women in treatment. The lack of focus on women in treatment has affected the accessibility and success of substance use treatment tor women. There are gender differences between men and women in regard to substance use. Women have social barriers that are detrimental to them entering and completing treatment. Women also have different social support network needs that are not always available to them and also difficult to achieve. Women who experience substance abuse have different experiences than men with primary social groups and trauma as well. In conclusion, using systematic literature review, research shows that group therapy treatment can cater to women's specific needs, which will bring about success by increasing cohesion and creating better group affiliation. Solutions for women seeking long-term sobriety are all related to how well women are able to feel comfortable and work within a treatment group.

Personality Differences in Peer Review. Jenessa Shaw and Kenneth Cramer, University of Windsor

Peer reviews offer a unique assessment of post-secondary students' writing, wherein students grade fellow students' (peers') essay submissions according to a rubric. Previous research found personality was related to the grades students both earn and receive during peer-assessment. Conscientiousness, agreeableness, and openness predicted higher grades, whereas academic entitlement and grade orientation predicted lower grades. Moreover, both agreeableness and extraversion in raters were related to higher grading leniency, whereas conscientiousness was related to lower grading leniency. The present study examines the association between personality factors on grader leniency and grades received during an introduction to psychology peer review assignment. Participants completed an online survey containing the Academic Entitlement scale (Greenberger, 2008), LOGO-II, Narcissistic Personality Inventory 16, and the Ten-Item Personality Inventory; peer review grades received and given were later merged. Analyses using correlation and regression formulae were conducted. A correlation matrix was produced to determine the relationship between all personality factors, grades, and rater leniency. It is hypothesized that the greatest predictor of rater leniency is agreeableness. Additionally, conscientiousness and learning orientation are expected to be related to higher grades and lower rater leniency. Results to follow in February.

A Review of Social Network Analysis in Psychological Research. Evangelia Tzakis and Zhiyong Zhang, University of Notre Dame

Social network analysis has drawn significant attention in social and personality psychology research but is still underutilized across many areas of psychology. The aim of this study is to explore the ways in which social network data are used and analyzed in published psychology research. This was done by analyzing references to "network analysis," and more specifically, "social network analysis" in published articles from 1982 to 2017, in the PsycArticles database. A total of 59 and 32 articles were found to have references to "network analysis" and "social network analysis," respectively, in abstracts. For each article, the use of social network was analyzed in relation to the study's primary research question, subject group, main area of psychology, and techniques for the analysis of the network data. We found that primarily (1) social network analysis was used in peer influence and selection mostly in children/adolescents; (2) longitudinal network data were often collected; and (3) most of the analysis still focuses on the descriptive features of social networks. Overall, network analysis is still underutilized and has a great potential to answer novel psychological questions. Broad training on social network analysis is necessary to increase the use of the related techniques.

Social Stigma, Belonging, and Social Influence: The Autism Experience. Rebecca Kapetansky, Michigan School of Professional Psychology

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complicated diagnosis which includes a myriad of characteristics, making the diagnosis challenging to understand. The purpose of this literature review is to increase the understanding of the experience of autism. The review centers on how people diagnosed with autism experience social stigma, belonging, and social influence. The author outlines and clarifies the ASD diagnosis. In the sections of Social stigma, belonging, and social influence, the author defines the concepts. The definitions are followed by a review of the research on these concepts related to ASD. The author discusses the past and current research findings, gaps in the research, and implications of the research. An examination of the effect of applied behavior analysis (ABA) on the social experience of people with ASD then follows. The author examines the strengths and weaknesses of ABA in relation to treating ASD. The review concludes with a discussion of the therapeutic applications and areas for future study.

Social Support in the Treatment of Pain. Evan I. MacAdams, Michigan School of Professional Psychology

Social support is an important factor in understanding and treating patients with pain. There is a growing body of research on the pain-buffering effects of social support. It follows that support is a key component in the psychotherapeutic treatment of patients experiencing pain. Using a systematic literature review, the relationship between social support and pain, as well as helpful strategies for enhancing feelings of social support through therapy, will be discussed. Additionally, the similarities and differences of addressing social support in patients experiencing physical pain versus emotional pain, as well as patients with co-morbid pain, will be explored. The major themes examined include the impact of social support on pain, the element of social support in psychotherapy, and how therapy can increase feelings of social support in patients, thereby mitigating pain and increasing feelings of well-being. The results of this literature review suggest that psychotherapy enhances feelings of social support in patients, making it easier to cope with pain.

Tip-of-the-Tongue Phenomenon: Bilinguals Word Frequency and Lexical Development. Kelsey Fernandez, Andrews University

The tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon is a state of frustration when people cannot recall a word. We will examine whether differences in language development, orthography, and word frequency affect the frequency of tip-of-the-tongue phenomena in bilingual subjects compared to monolinguals (Kim, McGregor, and Thompson, 2000). We plan to draw inferences about mechanisms behind tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon. Monolingual subjects will be asked to read definitions and recall 36 English words using these definitions as cues (half high frequency and half low frequency). Bilinguals will also be asked to recall 36 words, half in English and half in their other language. Within each language, half the total words will be high frequency and half low frequency. We expect more tip-of-the-tongue states induced for low-frequency words overall. We expect more frequent tip-of-the-tongue states for English-Spanish bilinguals compared to English monolinguals because of similarities in orthography and phonological overlap. We also expect Korean-English bilinguals to have similar levels of tip-of-the-tongue states as monolinguals, because of lower phonological similarity and limited orthographic overlap across the two languages. We hope to draw conclusions about whether tip-of-the-tongue states are more related to phonological blocking or semantic relationships.

Tipping Rates in NYC. Kenneth Cramer and Diana Shino, University of Windsor

The present study examined the relationship between tip amounts by the type of New York City Cab ride (whether spontaneously hailed or arranged through dispatch) from July 2016 to June 2017 (13.7M fares). We hypothesized that by a gratitude effect, tipping would be higher during winter months for hailed cab rides; and further hypothesized that tipping would be higher during key holidays for all types of rides. Results from a time-series repeated-measures ANOVA (comparing hailed vs. dispatched cabs across a 12-month timespan) showed that tipping was consistently low throughout the year for riders who randomly hailed a cab; however, tips varied widely by time of year for dispatched rides. For both trip types, tips decreased markedly from a high in October through to January. These results suggest that riders during high-spending holiday seasons may become more frugal to stay within budget constraints.

The Procrastination Game: Understanding the Relationship between Procrastination, Stress, Resilience, Rumination, and Academic Performance. Torian Hill, Harvey J. Burnett, Jr, and Karl G. D. Bailey, Andrews University

We used a Temporal Motivation Theory (TMT) framework to examine how stress, resilience, rumination, and procrastination contribute as independent self-regulatory behaviors to academic performance. Based on this model, we hypothesize that stress and procrastination are independent predictors of academic performance. Data were collected from 353 subjects who completed a demographic questionnaire, the Perceived Stress Scale, the Resilience Scale, the Response Styles Questionnaire, and three measures of procrastination (Irrational, General, and Decisional Procrastination Scales). Subjects self-reported their estimated overall GPA as a measure of academic performance. Inverse correlations between academic performance and stress, resilience, rumination, and procrastination ranged between -.09 and -.26; academic performance and resilience were positively correlated (r = .17). A nested linear regression revealed that adding perceived stress and procrastination to the model explained significant variance in GPA, with the full model explaining 10% of the variance. Irrational procrastination accounted for the greatest amount of unique variance of the three procrastination measures. Notably, stress was still a significant predictor even when resilience and procrastination were added to the model. Although the estimate of GPA restricted the available variance, we believe that our data suggest a model where stress and procrastination are independently related to lowered academic performance.

Aspects of Empathy but Not Theory of Mind, Decline with Age. Robert Hutton, Rania Hannan, and Jennifer Vonk, Oakland University

The current study sought to replicate findings of age-related declines in Theory of Mind (ToM) and empathy. Relatively little research regarding ToM extends beyond childhood, and existing research is typically narrow in scope, primarily relying on cursory measures of ToM, such as emotion recognition. Thus, we extended previous findings by including a novel measure designed to assess participants' interpretations of others' intentions in social situations--a social causal reasoning task (SCR). We also included the standard Reading the Mind in the Eyes test (RMET), and another measure of advanced ToM--the Hinting task. Empathy was measured using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI). Surveys were distributed via MTurk to 284 participants ranging in age from 19 to 75. Regression analyses examining effects of age, sex, and their interaction revealed no effect of age on any of the ToM measures, contrary to previous findings. There were main effects of sex on empathic concern, RMET, and Hinting scores with females scoring higher than males. There were no interaction effects. Age-related decline was significant only for the "negative" aspects of empathy: fantasy and personal distress. Thus, it seems unlikely that age-related declines in empathy are related to age-related deficits in ToM.

Empathic Skills, Whether Natural, Learned, or Trained: Are These Necessary for the Caring Professions and Can Adult Learning Theories Help with the Process of Improvement? Alison Jolliff, Oakland University

This paper explores empathy and its various facets, including neurological research into "mirror neurons", with a view to improving empathic skills in the caring professions. Utilizing a systematic literature review, general training and the development of empathy are considered with respect to healthcare, teaching, and legal advocacy. Adult learning theories and models of learning are discussed in relation to the findings from research on the development of empathy through childhood to adulthood. These include Knowles's Adult Learning Theory (KALT); Illeris's Three Dimensions of Learning; Jarvis's Model of Transformative Learning through Experience; Grow's Staged Self-directed Model; Amman's Somatic Learning; and Narrative Learning. Training methods are broached, including problem-based learning (PBL) and psycho-dramatic learning. It appears that individual differences in both personality and life experiences currently inhibit the application of a generalized theory.

Effects of Crowds on Captive Pig Behavior. Audrey Robeson, Molly McGuire, Zoe Johnson-Ulrich, and Jennifer Vonk, Oakland University

Past research has shown that large numbers of zoo visitors are associated with increased rates of aggression and abnormal behaviors and decreased affiliative behaviors in various captive species (e.g., domestic pigs, chimpanzees, and gorillas). Previous research conducted with captive pigs has been restricted to a petting zoo setting. The current study examined whether these patterns of results generalized to pigs housed in a typical zoo setting. Five pigs of three different species housed at the Detroit Zoo participated in an observational study during the months of September to November in 2016. All behavior was captured on video and coders were instructed to rate the behavior of the pigs as a function of visitor density on a scale of one to seven with the low end of the scale representing agonistic behaviors and the high end representing affiliative behaviors. The overall stress level of each pig was also assessed. We predicted that pigs would behave more agonistically when larger numbers of human visitors were present.

A Study on Creativity, Schema, and Cognitive Context. Shinming Shyu, Eastern Michigan University

Creativity, a remarkable mental faculty, takes place when individuals encounter situations where the existing systems, conditions, or performances are incapable of meeting current needs or emerging challenges. Prompted by the environmental stimuli and internal drive, creative ideas, whether vague or concrete, impractical or feasible, start to germinate as signs of cogitative power. The mental process of creating innovative ideas has been considered as a complex form of cognitive operations on information that is highly likely to extend beyond an individual's actual experience (Anderson, 1980; Sternberg, 2003). The proposed study argues that the evolutionary formation of creative ideas is comparable to Piaget's developmental theory of equilibration, in which children seek a balance between the challenges encountered in the environments and their own cognitive schema via assimilation, accommodation, and equilibrium (Sternberg, 2003). In addition, probing into the notion of schema and mental representation involved in cognitive activities, the study holds that Minsky's theoretical model of frame and K-line (1988) seems to deserve renewed research attention in understanding human's cognitive structure of knowledge. Finally, the cognitive context of innovation termed "idea landscape" by Koutstaal and Binks (2015) and its related constituents, concept, perception, motivation, and emotion, will be adopted as a framework to further our understanding of innovation and creativity.

Maclean's University Rankings 2018: Misled Again. Kenneth Cramer and Denise DeBlock, University of Windsor

Using a protocol of statistical tools and procedures, we provide a data-based examination of Maclean's 2018 magazine rankings of Canadian universities by approximately 40 indices. Analyses were divided by Canadian university category (Medical Doctoral, Comprehensive, and Primarily Undergraduate), and included: (a) Spearman rho correlations of index scores to final ranks, (b) a Wilcoxon rank-sum test to compare higher- versus lower-ranked institutions, and (c) a cluster analysis to derive comparable families of similar institutions. Canadian universities, in reality, resemble and relate to each other in a way very different than the system of final rank ordering and formal classification that Maclean's claims to use. Overall, our analysis showed nonsignificant and largely inconsistent relationships based on both the correlation between index scores and final ranks and trivial differences between higher and lower-ranked institutions. Additionally, and consistent with years prior, we found that Maclean's annual analyses using a rank-based approach to evaluate universities offers inadequate practical use, different from their continually advertised intentions of providing consumers all they need to know to choose the right university. The ranking system utilized by Maclean's may cause a variety of very real consequences, not only ill-fated to student consumers' well-being but also to the universities and their surrounding communities.

Gender Differences in Mate Selection. Abigail Hall, Herbert W. Helm Jr., and Karl G. Bailey, Andrews University

For the past 78 years, "Campus Values In Mate Selection" (Hill, 1939) has aimed to understand what characteristics college-aged men and women find most desirable in a potential mate. This study looks at further expanding previous data and considers how religious internalization may affect ranking. In a sample taken from undergraduate students at Andrews University, participants were asked to complete an online survey which had them rank 18 characteristics. One hundred eighty-eight participants (55 male, 133 female) evaluated each characteristic, assigning a personally appropriate rating: 4 = indispensible, 3 = mportant, 2 = desirable, 1 = irrelevant. Participants then completed a 12-questions "Christian Religious Internalization Scale" (Ryan, Rigby, and King, 1993) predicting their adherence to two kinds of religious internalization regulation: introjected and identified, as well as a short set of demographics. The means for each mate selection characteristic were calculated and ranked (1-18) for males and females and an ordinal regression was computed for each variable based on values of religious internalization. We found that the differences in ranks of mate selection variables generally support evolutionary/biological theories, and that religious introjection regulation affected more characteristics than identified regulation in both males and females.

How Unconscious Processes Lead to Consciousness: swLORETA Experiments. Gonzalo Munevar, Lawrence Technological University

Even though Tononi and colleagues have developed a dependable biomarker for consciousness, establishing the neural correlates of consciousness is still needed to understand the nature of consciousness. To this end, my team proposes an approach that is new in terms of the technology employed and the questions asked. We will use functional brain imaging technology based on qEEG: statistically weighted low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (swLORETA). The spatial resolution is good, while the temporal resolution is excellent, down to perhaps 2 milliseconds. The latter is a great advantage over fMRI, which has a temporal resolution of seconds. One of the experiments deals with perceptual consciousness and takes advantage of synesthesia, which is strictly a conscious process, in order to localize the relevant neural correlates very precisely, as soon as a word becomes colored, both spatially and temporally. The other experiment deals with volitional consciousness. It is a recreation of Libet's famous 1985 experiment, in which he determined that a conscious decision to flex a hand takes place 350 ms after the readiness potential and 200 ms before the hand flexes. Our interest, though, lies in determining the activation of the brain at 350 ms, which the temporal precision of swLORETA will make possible.

Religiosity and Acceptance of Rape Myth in Conservative Christian College Students. Jordanne Howell-Walton, Andrews University

Freymeyer (1997) reported a positive correlation between religiosity and the acceptance of rape myth among men who claimed to pray more, but the opposite pattern for women. We examine this pattern in terms of commitment to core beliefs of the church (orthodoxy).

We surveyed 180 students from a conservative Christian college. Subjects completed measures of religious orthodoxy and rape myth acceptance. We examined the differences between men's and women's acceptance of rape myths using t-tests on the a range of rape myth acceptance subscales.

Five of seven subscales showed significantly higher acceptance of rape myth by males, with effect size ranging from d = 0.33 to d = 0.60. As men identified as being more religious, their acceptance of rape myth resulted in a negative correlation aside from the subscale of "she lied." For women the relationship between religiosity and each rape myth subscale was also consistently negative.

Unlike Freymeyer (1997), our results suggest that both men and women show decreasing acceptance of rape myths with increasing religious orthodoxy. However, women still showed less acceptance of rape myths overall, suggesting that while gender differences may be attenuated, they are still present in this sample.

Behavioral and Physiological Responses to Affective and Non-Affective Touch. Joshua Campbell, Reina Makki, Phillip McMurry, Michaela Quigley, Alexander Lanzetta, Madison Bamewold, Danielle Kuhn, and Franco Delogu, Lawrence Technological University

Implicit biases regarding race and gender can be difficult to determine, considering that they are subconscious and not acknowledged by the biased observer. In this study, we hypothesized that perceiving hand-to-arm interpersonal passive touch from a person of a different racial group would cause a greater self-reported discomfort than perceiving the same touch from a person of the same racial group. Each participant reported subjective levels of discomfort while being touched on the forearm with a hand by subjects varying in gender and race. Two kinds of touch were used, affective touch lasting 5 seconds and non-affective touch lasting 2 seconds. While tested, participants' physiological reactions including electro-dermal activity (EDA), respiration and heart rate were recorded. Participants also completed a touch-sensitivity survey. The results show that there were no significant differences between the non-affective and affective touches. The EDA results demonstrate that there were no significant differences in the baseline condition in the touch conditions in regards to race. We interpret these results as there being no implicit biases towards members of a different race or gender when being touched. This project serves as a pilot study for incorporation of VR based tasks.

The Relationship between Language Phonology and Semantics Using Mandarin Chinese on Non-Mandarin Speakers. Phillip McMurray and Franco Delogu, Lawrence Technological University

Language is the primary mechanism that humans use to communicate with one another. Language is comprised of phonological elements (speech) and semantic elements (context), but to what extent semantics is interdependent on phonology is unclear; specifically, how much information speech can convey in the absence of all semantic cues. This study separates semantics from phonology by using a language that the participants did not know (Mandarin Chinese). The goal of this study was to examine if humans can receive semantic information from speech in the absence of explicit semantic cues. In the first task, participants saw two pictures after hearing the Chinese word and had to choose which picture correctly represented the word's definition. In the second task, participants were asked to rate the positivity or negativity of the Chinese word on a scale of 1 (least positive) to 10 (most positive). Participant ratings were correlated with ratings from native speakers. Results showed that participants' responses were mostly neutral in the rating task (no correlation with Chinese sample). Participants were not able to choose the correct definitions above chance in the definitional task, suggesting that speech alone without semantics is not sufficient to convey the full context of words' meanings.

Hostility towards Women Moderates the Relationship between Sex to Cope and Sexual Assault Perpetration in a Male Collegiate Sample.

Matthew P. Lico, David G. Andrews, Daniel Lanni, Daniel J. Gildner, Mitchell Kirwan, Michele R. Parkhill, and Scott M. Pickett, Oakland University

Previous research suggests that men who have hostile attitudes toward women (HTW; Loh, Gidycz, and Lobo, 2005) and use sex as a means to cope with negative affect (Jung and Jamieson, 2014) may be at a higher risk of perpetrating sexual assault.

Participants were 276 male college students who completed the Motivations for Sex Scale (Cooper et al., 1998), the Sexual Experiences Survey (Parkhill and Abbey, 2008), and the Hostility towards Women Scale (Lonsway and Fitzgerald, 1995).

Results of the hierarchical regression revealed a significant interaction between HTW and having sex to cope to predict sexual assault perpetration ([beta] = 0.91, t = 4.16, p < 0.001). Simple slopes analysis revealed that when there was low HTW there was no association between having sex to cope and perpetration ([beta] = 0.08, t = 1.00, p = 0.36). However, when there was high HTW there was a significant association between having sex to cope and perpetration ([beta] = 0.461, t = 6.67, P < 0.001).

Our results suggest that men who have hostile attitudes toward women and attempt to cope with negative affect through the use of sex are most likely to perpetrate sexual assault. Thus, future intervention work should focus on both attitude change and proper emotion regulation.

Stigmatization: The Effects on Self-Perception. Erika A. Collins, Michigan School of Professional Psychology

Diversity, multiculturalism, and marginalization are terms commonly used to demonstrate differentiation between individuals whether mentally, physically, or socially, existing in a society where oppression overtly and covertly thrives as it relates to class, gender, race and sexual orientation. Individuals are finding themselves in a social debate between how society views them, how they see themselves, and if they fit within the privileged social constructions from an ideological, political, or even economic viewpoint. Default beliefs are created based on the stereotypes of these social constructs, leading to the categorization of individuals and groups of people. The result of stereotyping, categorization, discrimination and prejudice is stigmatization. Ultimately, after repeated beliefs are imposed on the target individual, it's arguable that the target begins to identify with the beliefs, altering their self-perception. Utilizing a systematic literature review, the effect stigmatization has on self-perception was explored. Findings suggested if one identifies with a stigmatized group, self-perception can be influenced because of the biased belief placed upon the group that is then internalized by the individual. Findings also suggested that self-perception of stigmatized individuals is not always negatively affected, as a result of resiliency, increased ingroup identification, and rejecting the perceived discrimination of the outgroup.

Experiences with Diversity: Microaggresions, Religiosity, and Psychological Wellbeing in a Diverse College Sample. Jessica Stelfox, Andrews University

Racial microaggressions are subtle statements and behaviors that unconsciously communicate denigrating messages to people of color (Nadal, 2011). This project seeks to measure students' beliefs about the existence of racial discrimination on the Andrews campus and how often they experience behaviors classified as microaggressions. By including multiple racial groups, as opposed to targeting a particular subpopulation on campus, this study expands examination of the relationship between microaggressions and religiosity, diversity, social dominance, and psychological wellbeing. Subjects will fill out a survey online via the undergraduate research participation pool containing a demographic questionnaire, Intrinsic/Extrinsic Religiousity items (Francis et al., 2016), the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (Hills and Argyle, 2002), Social Dominance items (Pratto et al., 1994), questions on childhood diversity, and the Racial and Ethnic Microaggression survey (Nadal, 2011). Correlation Analysis and Qualitative Comparative Analysis (Thiem, 2016) will be performed once data collection has been completed. Identifying which variables account for the most variance in microaggression will provide greater insight in approaching micro-aggressions on college campuses. This study will suggest that diversity, religiosity, and social dominance are predictors in the study of microaggressions.

5 Reasons Why Not: General Ethical Principles Portrayed in Media. Dominique Giroux, Olivet College

One of Netflix's most controversial shows was released in 2017, which portrayed the life of a teenage girl who committed suicide and left tapes for friends to figure out why. The following literature review explores the ethical issues behind Netflix administering 13 Reasons Why online. By using the American Psychology Association general ethical principles and codes, the author discusses possible solutions for producers to follow to ensure media is presenting dense topics consistently and ethically. The author suggests that Netflix should have an ethical guideline that producers must follow before publishing a series that has potential to harm or encourage harm to viewers. By creating an ethical guideline code for Netflix, the media will bear more of a positive influence when audiences immerse themselves in dark, relatable story lines.

Reactions to Displays of Mixed and Matched Loyalty Illustrate Principles of Coalitional Psychology. Michael Falbo and Daniel J. Kruger, University of Michigan

Social psychologists have long recognized the importance of group loyalty as a fundamental aspect and product of socialization. Coalitional biases are extensively documented. We propose a social norm that one cannot simultaneously be a supporter of two competing groups or teams. Respondents (N = 325, M age = 19, SD age = 2, 67% female, 33% male) from the home states of two universities with rival football teams completed an on-line survey. The survey included items adapted from the Inclusion of Other in Self (IOS) scale (Aron, Aron, and Smollan, 1992) assessing the degree of identification with each team and also the degree to which the teams' identities overlap. Participants were presented with images of a male undergraduate research confederate wearing combinations of apparel displaying matching and mixed loyalty to the rival universities in randomized order. Participants rated a matrix of reactions based on basic emotion categories (e.g., Ekman, 1992) and cognitive reactions (i.e., confusion). As predicted, participants who highly identified with one team tended to have high separation from the rival team. Participants also tended to see the teams' identities as highly separated. As predicted, participants were more surprised and confused by displays of mixed loyalty.

Helplessness, Ambiguity and Somatic Complaints in the Workplace. Sami Farhat and Linda Slowik, University of Detroit Mercy

Somatic complaints are one of the most widely endorsed symptoms of stress and anxiety, however little is known about their development. Furthermore, stress and anxiety are often explored as diagnostic constructs within clinical populations, and less so as within the highly functioning individual. This study focuses on the utilization and extension of anxiety models in the prediction of the development of somatic complaints within highly functioning individuals in a workplace. It also explored the effects of social support within the workplace as a possible mitigating factor. Co-worker and Supervisor Social Support, Somatic Complaints, Helplessness, and Role Ambiguity scales were used and completed by 94 participants. Multiple linear regression analyses and a path analysis were conducted for the purpose of analyzing data. A cross-sectional design was utilized. Results partially supported the stated hypotheses, and supported similar developmental components between general anxiety and somatic complaints. Results did not however fully explain the development, nor did they indicate predictive power of social support on somatic complaints. Implications of the findings suggest that individuals may be vulnerable to interventions at early stages of the development of somatic complaints, consistent with generalized anxiety.

Impact of Attachment and Communication on Employee Perceived Work Climate. Eliza Gedge and Linda Slowik, University of Detroit Mercy-Interpersonal relationships and attachments are a significant part of an adult's life, generally with roots in childhood. Attachments are fostered through the interactions that occur with others, of which communication is a core component. Work is also generally a significant part of an adult's life, with people experiencing varying levels of commitment to and perceptions of the work climate. This poster describes a study in which the relationship between attachment, communication, and perceived work climate was explored, extrapolating on the adult attachment literature in the form of organizational commitment. Findings from the hierarchical multiple regression will be presented.

One hundred and thirty-five participants completed a survey online. Measures included two items for communication, three items for work climate, and items as assessed by Meyer and Allen (1991) for organizational commitment as a surrogate for attachment. The psychometric properties of the newly developed scales were examined through a principle components analysis. Results provided support for interpreting attachment as a relevant variable in the organizational setting. The results also indicated that attachment and communication relate to the perceived work environment but do not interact to create either an improved or worse perceived work environment. The limitations and suggestions for future research are discussed.

The Impact of Child Maltreatment on Attachment. Sarah Chehab, Michigan School of Professional Psychology

In 2015, there were 683,000 children estimated to be victims of maltreatment nationally. Of these children, 91.6% were victims of maltreatment by one or both of their parents. Child maltreatment contributes to a number of risk factors, including intimate partner violence, substance use, depression, suicide attempts, early sexual activity, and adolescent pregnancy, to name a few. Utilizing a systematic literature review, the effects of child maltreatment on attachment in social relationships is explored within this paper. Research suggests that the type of attachment, whether it be secure, insecure-avoidant, insecure-ambivalent, or disorganized/disoriented that children develop with their parental figures during the crucial time of development can have a lifelong impact. Maltreatment impacts children in many ways, such as their ability to make and maintain successful relationships, be autonomous, form healthy relationships, regulate their emotions, and have confidence in their ability to succeed. The aim of this paper is to understand the impact and consequences of child maltreatment on attachment.

Social Influence and Persuasion in Psychotherapy. Farah Zoabi, Michigan School of Professional Psychology

The power of social influence and persuasion in psychotherapy begins with the ability to receive, understand, and use information about ourselves and our external environment(s). Specific persuasion tactics are employed in clinical settings to promote therapeutic change. Furthermore, the use of persuasion and social influence has been proposed to be an essential element in understanding the psychotherapeutic process. Nonetheless, social influence and persuasion processes are often not recognized by clients. The idea that individuals make progress in therapy due to the use of persuasion tactics recognizes therapy as an interpersonal process. Still, it fails to account for individual differences in persuasion processes. Using a systematic literature review, the linking of psychotherapy to persuasion and social influence will be discussed. Additionally, persuasion tactics used by mental health clinicians will be identified and explained. The research includes explanations to how persuasion leads to attitude and behavior change. Other primary factors contributing to the promotion of therapeutic change will be identified. The results of this literature review suggest that social influence and persuasion can enhance treatment outcomes in psychotherapy.

Conceptual and Methodological Discrepancies in Ethnicity Research. Aubrey Mercer and Matthew McLarnon, Oakland University

The construct of ethnicity is referenced across a multitude of research disciplines, yet despite its popularity, the term is seldom clarified to the same degree as other variables of interest within psychology. There is a high potential for terminological confusion because ethnicity is commonly presented in literature alongside similar constructs such as race and nationality. While definitional differences were once easier to discern between these terms, recent advancements in global interconnectivity necessitate the development of a more flexible and comprehensive definition. The current review delineates the issues that may arise from this lack of specificity, and advocates for a standard conceptualization of the meaning of ethnicity across all human research fields in order to promote a common understanding and to encourage more accurate conclusions in studies that seek to compare results within or across ethnic groups. Accordingly, in an effort to enhance the construct validity of such measures, a new method is proposed for the measurement of ethnicity across research fields. This method strives to incorporate the plethora of combinations that could potentially comprise one's ethnic identity. Implications for the impact of this broader, more inclusive understanding of ethnicity on diversity training for organizations are explored.
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Title Annotation:Morra as predictor of scores in cognitive tests, facial affect, verbal fluency and eye movement
Publication:Michigan Academician
Article Type:Report
Date:Sep 22, 2018
Words:7443
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