Psychological profile of rock climbers: state and trait attributes.
The sport of rock climbing evolved from this ancient tradition of climbing mountains. Climbing skills and techniques were developed by mountaineers attempting to climb the lower, steeper mountains and cliffs (Haas & Meyers, 1995; Long, 1993). Safety equipment was finally introduced in the early 1900's, and the development of lightweight shoes, improvements in equipment design, and artificial climbing aids during the 1960's enabled climbers to focus more on style and technique. These advances in technology have facilitated a new level of competitive rock climbing resulting in enormous popularity within the last decade (Haas & Meyers, 1995; Long, 1993; Watts, Martin, & Durtschi, 1993). To meet the demands of this growing sport, an annual international World Cup circuit has been in existence since 1988 (Watts et al., 1993). As of 1989, it was estimated that over 100,000 individuals were rock climbing in the United States (Addis & Baker, 1989).
Although prior studies have indicated that elite climbers display dedication to training and skill advancement similar to other professional athletes (Haas & Meyers, 1995), a limited variety of research has been conducted on rock climbers. Studies have focused on the physiological and anthropometric profiles of climbers (Mace, 1979; Watts et al., 1993), energy expenditure (Billat, Paileja, Charlaix, Rizzardo & Janel, 1995; Hardy & Martindale, 1982), muscular strength and capacity (Martin, Martin, Cometti & Pousson 1992; Muro, Vila, Vives & Gutierrez, 1994; Rougier & Blanchi, 1992), kinematics (Nougier, Orliaguet & Martin, 1993), and injuries (Haas & Meyers, 1995; Maitland, 1992; Shea, Shea & Meals, 1992). Research addressing the psychological attributes of climbers, however, has been limited. Studies have addressed topics such as risk taking and personality (Levenson, 1990), stress seeking (Robinson, 1985; Rossi & Cereatti, 1993), self esteem (Ewert, 1985, 1994; Freischlag & Freischlag, 1993; Goma I. Freixanet, 1991; Iso-Ahola, LaVerde & Graefe, 1988; Magni, Rupolo, Simini, De Leo & Rampazzo, 1985), and psychophysiological relationships (Delignieres, Famose, Thepaut-Mathieu & Fleurance, 1993; Edwards, 1967; Hardy & Whitehead, 1984; Missoum, Rosnet & Richalet, 1992; Ryn, 1971).
Because a rock climber is directly affected by inclement weather and situations beyond his/her control while in a potentially dangerous situation, it may be appropriate to examine psychological attributes from a state as well as a trait perspective. Prior research on state attributes of rock climbers has suggested that self esteem is enhanced as a result of the quality of the rock climbing experience (Iso-Ahola, LaVerde & Graefe, 1988), and that self appraisal and competence were increased towards the end of a rock climbing session (Lefebvre, 1980).
Studies have also suggested a positive relationship between various trait attributes and rock climbing ability. These attributes include increased self esteem, competitiveness, perfectionism, life satisfaction, and sensation seeking (Freischlag & Freischlag, 1993; Zuckerman, 1983). In addition, individuals exhibiting a high level of sensation seeking have shown a marked tendency to underestimate risk (Rossi & Cereatti, 1993; Zuckerman, 1983). Elite rock climbers have also been categorized as being low in anxiety in both daily life and during competition (Robinson, 1985). Irrespective of skill level, research indicates that rock climbers are more social and antistructural than the norm (Levenson, 1990), and respond higher than controls in boredom susceptibility, disinhibition, experience seeking, thrill, and adventure (Rossi & Cereatti, 1993).
A number of psychological profile studies have been conducted on athletes in other sports. These include studies on mood states (Meyers, Bourgeois, Murray & LeUnes, 1993; Meyers, Sterling, Bourgeois, Treadwell & LeUnes, 1994; Morgan, 1980, 1984; Morgan, O'Connor, Ellickson & Bradley, 1988; Morgan & Pollock, 1977), competitive anxiety (Martens, 1977; Starkes & Allard, 1983; Weinberg & Genuchi, 1980), motivation (Willis, 1982; Willis & Layne, 1988), locus of control (Daiss, LeUnes & Nation, 1986; Levenson, 1981; Meyers et al., 1993; Nation & LeUnes, 1983; Rotter, 1966), and personality characteristics (McGill, Hall, Ratliff & Moss, 1986; Meyers, Sterling & LeUnes, 1988; Morgan et al., 1988; Nation & LeUnes, 1983; Silva, 1984). While several of these studies have attempted to define the psychological profile necessary for optimal performance, no studies have taken a comprehensive look at this unique sport population. With the growing interest and rise in extreme sports such as rock climbing, it may become increasingly important to have a greater understanding of these nontraditional athletes. Therefore, this study attempted to quantify both state and trait attributes of rock climbers by skill level and gender.
Subjects and Procedures
Psychological attributes of 57 rock climbers (mean age 28.5 [+ or -] 7 years; 35 males, 22 females) were assessed during the winter of 1996. Subjects consisted of members of a climbing club in Bozeman, MT, as well as individuals from Seattle, WA, New Haven, CT, and San Diego, CA. Subjects were contacted in person or over the phone and agreed to participate in the study. Following written informed consent, a battery of psychometric inventories with a biodata forth was administered or mailed to each subject. Each battery consisted of the Profile of Mood States (POMS; McNair, Lorr, & Droppleman, 1971), the Sport Competition Anxiety Test (SCAT; Martens, 1977), the Sports Attitude Inventory (SAI; Willis, 1982), Levenson's Locus of Control (IPC; Levenson, 1981), and the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI; Eysenck & Eysenck, 1982).
Climbers were also asked to rank their overall climbing ability according to the level at which they consistently and comfortably climb. Ratings were in accordance with the Yosemite Decimal System (YDS; Peters, 1982). In this system, the easiest climbs requiring ropes and safety procedures are rated 5.0, while the most difficult climbs are rated 5.14. Within the 5.10-5.14 categories, the subgrades of a, b, c, and d are used to denote finer distinctions of climbing difficulty and skill (Graydon, 1992; Vogel, 1992). The climbers randomly pursued for this study were moderate (5.6-5.9) and advanced (5.10a-5.14d) competitors (Freischlag & Freischlag, 1993; Graydon, 1992).
State attributes were assessed utilizing the Profile of Mood States and the Sport Competition Anxiety Test:
Profile of Mood States. The POMS is a 65-item inventory which assesses six dimensions of mood state: tension-anxiety (TEN), depression-dejection (DEP), anger-hostility (ANG), vigor-activity (VIG), fatigue-inertia (FAT), confusion-bewilderment (CON), and a composite score, i.e., total mood disturbance [TMD = (TEN+DEP+ANG+FAT+CON)-VIG] (Morgan & Pollock, 1977). Answers range from strongly agree to strongly disagree. All POMS inventory questions were standardized using procedures of Albrecht and Ewing (1989). Later research by Morgan (1984) coined the term "iceberg profile" to reflect a model of mental health deemed necessary for optimal performance.
Sport Competition Anxiety Test. The SCAT was developed to determine the level of anxiety typically felt prior to competition (Martens, 1977). Also referred to as the Illinois Competition Questionnaire to minimize response bias, the scale is comprised of 15 statements with a 3-point Likert-type scoring format ranging from hardly ever to often. Scores range from 10 to 30, demonstrating low to high competitive anxiety, respectively. Test-retest reliability and validity have been confirmed (Martens, 1977). Stress, anxiety, and tension have been determined to both negatively and positively affect competitive response dependent on the type of sport and level of ability (Gerson & Deshales, 1978; Starkes & Allard, 1983; Weinberg & Genuchi, 1980).
Trait attributes were assessed utilizing the Sports Attitude Inventory, Levenson's Locus of Control Scale, and the Eysenck Personality Inventory:
Sports Attitude Inventory. The SAI was developed to evaluate three forms of competition-specific motivation: motivated by power, motivated to achieve success, and motivated to avoid failure (Willis, 1982). The inventory consists of 40 statements with a 5-point Likert-type format, ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree. Construct and concurrent validity has been established and normatives developed across numerous sport populations and gender (Willis & Layne, 1988).
Levenson's Locus of Control Scale. Originally conceived by Rotter (1966) as a way to quantify the influence of reinforcement on behavior, the IPC scale evaluates three dimensions of control over one's life: internal, powerful other, and chance oriented (Levenson, 1981). Subjects respond to 24 statements via a 6-point Likert format, with scores ranging from 0 to 48 on each dimension. An extensive amount of research has been conducted in this area (Rotter, 1975; Throup & MacDonald, 1971), substantiating both validity and reliability across numerous competitive populations (Blau, 1984; Daiss et al., 1986; Levenson, 1981).
Eysenck Personality Inventory. Consisting of 57 yes/no questions, the EPI reveals enduring psychological traits such as extroversion-introversion and neuroticism-stability (Eysenck & Eysenck, 1982). Earlier work by Morgan (1980) asserted that some prediction of sport performance might be gathered from the EPI. Prior research with highly successful athletes indicates higher extroversion scores and low neuroticism response when compared to appropriate norms (Eysenck & Eysenck, 1982; Morgan, 1980).
Climbers were grouped by skill level (moderate, advanced) and by gender. Of the 57 participants, 28 possessed moderate ability and 29 were classified as advanced climbers. Two by two factorial multivariate analyses (MANOVA) were applied utilizing General Linear Model procedures of [SAS.sup.R] Proprietary Software version 6.08 running on a VAX/VMS platform (SAS Institute, Carey, NC). Significance was determined at the .05 level of confidence.
Psychological responses of rock climbers by skill are shown in Table 1. Although Wilks's lambda indicated no significant skill effects across state, F(8,46) = .2926, p = .9650, or trait, F(8,46) = .3437, p = .9440, attributes, advanced climbers tended to exhibit higher tension, depression, anger, confusion, and total mood disturbance than moderately skilled climbers.
[TABULAR DATA FOR TABLE 1 OMITTED]
A comparison of psychological attributes by gender are shown in Table 2. Wilks's lambda indicated no significant gender effect across either state F(8,46) = .3585, p = .9364, or trait, F(8,46) = 1.9740, p = .0713, attributes. There was a tendency, however, for males to be more power oriented and to be more motivated to achieve success as compared to females. In addition, male climbers exhibited less mood disturbance than the female competitors.
This study was undertaken to quantify state and trait attributes among rock climbers by skill level and gender. Although no significant differences with regard to skill or gender were observed, perceptual differences in this sport sample between moderate and advanced climbers were evident. The more advanced climbers scored higher (6-14%), on average, in most state attributes as well as total mood disturbance (35%) than moderately skilled competitors. Female climbers reflected a 64% increase in total mood disturbance, as compared to their male counterparts.
The nonsignificant differences in response between groups may be attributed to small sample size, subject selection, or greater psychologic variability among climbers. While this study was limited to only two groups, the possibility of adding an elite group ([greater than or equal to] 5.12) and a novice group ([less than] 5.6) may have elucidated more distinct differences in psychological profiles. Similarly, the wide range of ages (15-49 years) used in this study may have influenced the observed response. While the results of this study possibly indicate that rock climbers may be a heterogeneous population, further inquiry with a larger sample size, a wider range of skill level, and attention to possible influence of age is warranted.
Results do indicate, however, that rock climbers as a group exhibit attributes similar to athletes in other sports. When compared to team athletes involved in rugby (Maynard & Howe, 1987), football (Daiss et al., 1986; McGowan & Shultz, 1989; Simpson & Newby, 1994) and college rodeo (Meyers et al., 1988), rock climbers revealed a more pronounced "iceberg profile" as defined by Morgan (1980). Climbers were higher in vigor (26%), and were lower in tension (38%), depression (44%), anger (51%), confusion (68%), and total mood disturbance (86%). Climbers appear to be less motivated to achieve success (13%), less reliant on others to control their destiny (25%) than football players (Daiss et al., 1986; Willis, 1982), and less extroverted (16%) than either rugby or soccer players (Reid & Hay, 1979). Other state and trait attributes in this sport sample reflect similarities to traditional team athletes.
State attributes of rock climbers, when compared to individual athletes involved in running (Markoff, Ryan & Young, 1982; Morgan & Pollock, 1977; Morgan et al., 1988), [TABULAR DATA FOR TABLE 2 OMITTED] speed skating (Gutmann, Pollock, Foster & Schmidt, 1984), tennis (Meyers et al., 1994), triathalons (Bell & Howe, 1988), weight training (Tucker, 1982; 1983a; 1983b) and equestrian sports (Meyers et al., 1993), also elucidated a pronounced iceberg profile. When compared to other individual events, climbers were higher in vigor (30%), lower in tension (24%), depression (56%), confusion (59%), and total mood disturbance (86%). Interestingly, fatigue response was substantially higher (78%) among climbers. Trait attributes of rock climbers paralleled those of individual athletes, with the exception of being less motivated to achieve success.
In summary, rock climbers appear to parallel the psychological profile of both team and individual athletes. It is interesting to note, however, that the difference in responses between rock climbers and more traditional athletes discussed in this paper vary radically (from 586%). This difference may be due, in part, to the unique nature of this high-risk sport where an individual faces challenging new courses and environment changes on a daily basis, prompting a more extreme psychological mindset.
While further research is warranted, for the present it appears that rock climbers may be able to still utilize cognitive intervention strategies gathered from other sports in order to optimize psychological preparation and performance outcome. Further studies should be directed toward psychological preparation of rock climbing as it relates to performance outcome and physiological response, as well as investigate possible psychological differences between various types of climbing. Additional information would be of value should existing psychological strategies require sport-specific modification to effectively assist this unique sport population.
Addiss D.G., & Baker, S.P. (1989). Mountaineering and rock climbing injuries in U.S. national parks. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 18, 975-979.
Albrecht, R.R., & Ewing, S.J. (1989). Standardizing the administration of the Profile of Mood States (POMS): Development of alternative word lists. Journal of Personality Assessment, 53, 31-39.
Bell, G.J., & Howe, B.L. (1988). Mood state profiles and motivations of triathletes. Journal of Sport Behavior, 11(2), 66-77.
Billat, V., Palleja, P., Charlaix, T., Rizzardo, P., & Janel, N. (1995). Energy specificity of rock climbing and aerobic capacity in competitive sport rock climbers. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 35, 20-24.
Blau, G. (1984). Brief note comparing the Rotter and Levenson measures of locus of control. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 58, 173-174.
Cleare, J. (1980). Mountaineering (pp. 6-8, 139). United Kingdom: Blandford Press Ltd.
Daiss, S., LeUnes, A., & Nation, J. (1986). Mood and locus of control of a sample of college and professional football players. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 63, 733-734.
Delignieres, D., Famose, J-P., Thepaut-Mathieu, C., & Fleurance, P. (1993). A psychophysical study of difficulty rating in rock climbing. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 24, 404-416.
Edwards, T.R. (1967). The personality profiles of potential climbers with particular reference to anxiety. Research in Papers in Physical Education, 1(5), 15-25.
Ewert, A. (1985). Why people climb: The relationship of participant motives and experience level to mountaineering. Journal of Leisure Research, 17(3), 241-250.
Ewert, A. (1994). Playing the edge: Motivation and risk taking in a high-altitude wilderness environment. Environment and Behavior, 26(1), 3-24.
Eysenck, H.J., & Eysenck, S.B.G. (1982). Manual for the Eysenck Personality Inventory. San Diego, CA: Educational and Industrial Testing Service.
Freischlag, J., & Freischlag, T. (1993). Selected psycho-social, physical and technical factors among rock climbers: A test of the flow paradigm. In W.K. Simpson, A. LeUnes & J.S. Picou (Eds.), Applied Research In Coaching and Athletics Annual (pp. 109-122). Boston, MA: American Press.
Gerson, R., & Deshaies, P. (1978). Competitive trait anxiety and performance as predictors of precompetitive state anxiety. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 9, 16-26.
Goma I. Freixanet, M. (1991). Personality profile of subjects engaged in high physical risk sports. Personality and Individual Differences, 12(10), 1087-1093.
Graydon, P. (Ed.). (1992). Mountaineering: The freedom of the hills (5th ed.; p. 431). Seattle, WA: Mountaineers.
Gutmann, M.C., Pollock, M. L., Foster, C., & Schmidt, D. (1984). Training stress in Olympic speed skaters: a psychological perspective. Physician and Sportsmedicine, 12(12), 45-51.
Haas, J.C., & Meyers, M.C. (1995). Rock climbing injuries. Sports Medicine, 20(3), 199-205.
Hardy, L., & Martindale, K. (1982). Some physiological parameters in rock climbing. Physical Education Review, 5(1), 41-44.
Hardy, L., & Whitehead, R. (1984). Specific modes of anxiety and arousal. Current Psychological Research and Reviews, 3(3), 14-24.
Iso-Ahola, S. E., LaVerde, D., & Graefe, A. (1988). Perceived competence as a mediator of the relationship between high risk sports participation and self-esteem. Journal of Leisure Research, 21(1), 32-39.
Lefebvre, L.M. (1980). Somato-psychological experience during rock climbing. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 11(3), 153-164.
Levenson, H. (1981). Differentiating among internality, powerful others, and chance. In H. Lefcourt (Ed.), Research with locus of control construct, Vol. 1 (pp.1-39). New York: Academic Press.
Levenson, M.R. (1990). Risk taking and personality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58(6), 1073-1080.
Long, J. (1993). Rock climb (pp. 5-9). Evergreen, CO: Chockstone Press.
Mace, R. (1979). Physiological arousal in climbers. Physical Education Review, 2(2), 141-149.
Magni, G., Rupolo, G., Simini, G., De Leo, D., & Rampazzo, M. (1985). Aspects of the psychology and personality of high altitude mountain climbers. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 16, 12-19.
Maitland, M. (1992). Injuries associated with rock climbing. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sport Physical Therapy, 16(2), 68-73.
Markoff, R.A., Ryan, P., & Young, T. (1982). Endorphins and mood changes in long-distance running. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 14(1), 11-15.
Martens, R. (1977). Sport Competition Anxiety Test manual. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Martin, L., Martin, A., Cometti, G., & Pousson, P. (1993). The muscular capacity of the elbows and wrist flexors of climbers. Science & Sports, 7(4), 229-233.
Maynard, I.W., & Howe, B.L. (1987). Interrelations of trait and state anxiety with game performance of rugby players. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 64, 599-602.
McGill, J.C., Hall, J. R., Ratliff, W.R., & Moss, R.F. (1986). Personality characteristics of professional rodeo cowboys. Journal of Sport Behavior, 9, 143-151.
McGowan, R.W., & Shultz, B.B. (1989). Task complexity and affect in collegiate football. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 69, 671-674.
McNair, D. M., Lorr, M., & Droppleman, D.F. (1971). Profile of Mood States manual. San Diego, CA: Educational and Industrial Testing Service.
Meyers, M.C., Bourgeois, A. E., Murray, N., & LeUnes, A. (1993). Comparison of psychological characteristics and skills of elite and sub-elite equestrian athletes. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 25, S 154.
Meyers, M.C., Sterling, J.C., Bourgeois, A. E., Treadwell, S., & LeUnes, A. (1994). Mood and psychological skills of world-ranked female tennis players. Journal of Sport Behavior, 17, 156-165.
Meyers, M.C., Sterling, J.C., & LeUnes, A. D. (1988). Psychological characterization of the collegiate rodeo athlete. Journal of Sport Behavior, 11(2), 59-65.
Missoum, G., Rosnet, E., & Richalet, J.P. (1992). Control of anxiety and acute mountain sickness in Himalayan mountaineers. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 13, S37-S39.
Morgan, W. P. (1980). The trait psychology controversy. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 51, 50-76.
Morgan, W. P. (1984). Selected psychological factors limiting performance: A mental health model. In D. H. Clark & H.M. Eckert (Eds.), Limits of human performance (pp.7080). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Morgan, W. P., O'Connor, P.J., Ellickson, K. A., & Bradley, P.W. (1988). Personality structure, mood states, and performance in elite male distance runners. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 19, 247-263.
Morgan, W. P., & Pollock, M. L. (1977). Psychologic characterization of the elite distance runner. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 301,. 382-403.
Muro, I., Vila, R., Vives, J., & Gutierrez, J. A. (1994). Estudio medico-deportivo de la escalada deportiva. Apunts: Medicina de l'Esport, 31(120), 141-149.
Nation, J., & LeUnes, A. (1983). Personality characteristics of intercollegiate players as determined by position, classification, and redshirt status. Journal of Sport Behavior, 6, 92-102.
Nougier, V., Orliaguet, J-P., & Martin, O. (1993). Kinematic modifications of the manual reaching in climbing: Effects of environmental and corporal constraints. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 24, 379-390.
Ogilvie, B.C. (1968). Psychological consistencies within the personality of high level competitors. Journal of the American Medical Association, 205, 780-786.
Peters, E. (Ed.). (1982). Mountaineering.' The freedom of the hills (4th ed.; p. 532-534). Seattle, WA: Mountaineers.
Reid, M.R., & Hay, D. (1979). Some behavioral characteristics of rugby and association footballers. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 10, 239-251.
Robinson, D.W. (1985). Stress seeking: Selected behavioral characteristics of elite rock climbers. Journal of Sport Psychology, 7, 400-404.
Rossi, B., & Cereatti, L. (1993). The sensation seeking in mountain athletes as assessed by Zuckerman's sensation seeking scale. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 24, 417-431.
Rotter, J. (1966). Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychological Monographs, 80, No. 1 (Whole No. 609).
Rotter, J. (1975). Some problems and misconceptions related to the construct of internal versus external control of reinforcement. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 43, 56-67.
Rougier, P., & Blanchi, J.P. (1992). Mesure de la force maximale volontaire a partir d'une posture quadrupodale en escalade: influence du niveau d'expertise. Science and Sports, 7, 19-25.
Ryn, Z. (1971). Psychopathology in alpinism. Acta Medica Polona, 12(3), 454-467.
Shea, K. G., Shea, B. A., & Meals, R.A. (1992). Manual demands and consequences of rock climbing. Journal of Hand Surgery, 17A(2), 200-205.
Silva, J.M. (1984). Personality and sport performance: Controversy and challenge. In JM Silva & R.S. Weinberg (Eds.), Psychological foundations of sport (pp.59-69). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Simpson, S., & Newby, R. (1994). Scores on profile of mood states of college football players from nonscholarship and scholarship programs. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 78, 635-640.
Starkes, J.L., & Allard, F. (1983). Perception in volleyball: The effects of competitive stress. Journal of Sport Psychology, 5, 169-196.
Sweet, W. E. (1987). Sport and recreation in ancient Greece (pp. 153-160). New York: Oxford University Press.
Throup, W., & MacDonald, A. (1971). Internal-external locus of control: A bibliography. Psychological Reports, 28, 175-190.
Tucker, L. A. (1982). Weight training experience and psychological well-being. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 55, 553-554.
Tucker, L. A. (1983a). Effect of weight training on self-concept: A profile of those influenced most. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 54(4), 389-397.
Tucker, L. A. (1983b). Muscular strength: A predictor of personality in males. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 23, 213-220.
Vogel, R. (1992). Joshua Tree rock climbing guide (2nd ed.; p. 8). Evergreen, CO: Chockstone Press.
Watts, P.B., Martin, D. T., & Durtschi, S. (1993). Anthropometric profiles of elite male and female competitive sport rock climbers. Journal of Sports Sciences, 11, 113-117.
Weinberg, R., & Genuchi, M. (1980). Relationship between competitive trait anxiety, state anxiety, and golf performance: A field study. Journal of Sport Psychology, 2, 148-154.
Willis, J. D. (1982). Three scales to measure competition-related motives in sport. Journal of Sport Psychology, 4, 338-353.
Willis, J. D., & Layne, B.H. (1988). A validation study of sport-related motive scales. Journal of Applied Research in Coaching and Athletics, 3, 299-307.
Zuckerman, M. (1983). Sensation seeking and sports. Personality and Individual Differences, 4(3), 285-293
|Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback|
|Author:||Feher, Paola; Meyers, Michael C.; Skelly, William A.|
|Publication:||Journal of Sport Behavior|
|Date:||Jun 1, 1998|
|Previous Article:||Type A/B behavior pattern and athletic participation: attitudes and actual behavior.|
|Next Article:||Towards a clearer definition and application of the centrality hypothesis in English professional association football.|