Psychological factors and the use of e-library resource among undergraduates in South-West Nigeria.
Libraries hold enormous store of information that users (such as students) need to access for academic excellence. According to David and Felix (2006), the dynamics of globalization, plus the introduction of information and communication technologies (ICT) resulted in its deployment in sectoral and national development. To this end, libraries now have both printed document as well as electronic information resources in their collection. Studies such as Borgman, Smat, Milwood and Finley (2005); Talja, Vakkari, Fry and Wouters (2007); Vakkari (2008); and Nov and Ye (2009) affirmed that electronic libraries have become an increasingly important way in providing library services to users. Users which in this study are conceptualized as students need information to satisfy their needs, and also to promote and enhance their academic pursuit during their course of study in the university. The mandate of the university library is therefore to provide adequate and relevant information resources both in print and online for users. The print information resources includes journals, textbooks, magazines, newspapers and reference materials and non-print includes CD-ROM, audio-visual materials, microfilms, micro fiches, databases and online resources. These are needed to support class work, assignments, research/project work, term papers, seminar presentation by providing relevant information and services for effective and efficient achievement of academic pursuit.
However, Sullivan-Windle (1993) noted that, students sometimes have difficulty using their university library and that libraries are seen as daunting and intimidating places especially in the era of the deployment and use of ICT for library services which is termed electronic library (e-library). Drabenstott (1994) cited by Koohang (2004) defined e-library as include: the digital library is not a single entity; the digital library requires technology to link the resources of many; the linkages between the many digital libraries and information services are transparent to the end users; universal access to digital libraries and information services is a goal; and digital library collections are not limited to document surrogates: they extend to digital artifacts that cannot be represented or distributed in printed formats.
Although, according to Liu (2008) and Ahmad et al., (2011) cited by Sivathaasan, Murugathas and Chandrasekar (2014), users are often restricted from the use of electronic resources in the library. However, Brennan, Hurd, Blecic and Weller (2002) affirmed that e-library users make fewer visits to the library and read more e-journals than the print era. Adoption of e-resources has made changes in the trend of information behavior of university users. To encourage users to accept and continually use digital libraries, library designers and managers need good understanding of the factors that influence users' adoption. Hong, Wong, Thong and Tam(2002); Venkatesh (2000) and Nov and Ye (2009) state that the use of e-library are determined by a variety of factors including user perceptions of system characteristics, computer-related personal traits, and general personalities.
Different approaches have been deployed to measure personality differences of individuals such as the big Five personality factors, Myer-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI); Holland personality assessment; among others. In this study, the big five personality trait is deployed. This is because the big five personality factors area global accepted and commonly used personality traits. The foundational work of the five trait theory of personalities primarily comes from the work of Allport and Odbert (1936), Norman (1963),Cattell (1945), Fiske(1949); Barick and Mount(1991); Saucier and Goldberg (1998), among others. In addition, there is a claim that nearly all models of personality can be classified among the five major dimensions. These dimensions are as follows openness; conscientiousness; extraversion; agreeableness; and neuroticism. On a general note, openness to experience are individuals who show appreciation for art, adventure, new ideas, and imagination. Conscientiousness individuals have the tendency to show self-discipline and aim for achievement. Extraversion individuals possess social energy and the desire to seek the company of others. Agreeableness individuals have the tendency to be compassionate and cooperative toward others. Also, neuroticism individuals are those who have the tendency to easily experience negative feelings such as anger, anxiety, or depression.
Studies have shown that there exist a relationship between personality traits and e-library use. Behrenbruch, Sollner, Leimeister and Schmidt (2013) revealed that personality traits of individual users such as students could pose a significant effect on the use of e-library. Although, these studies provided an existence relationship between personality differences of users and the use of e-library nevertheless, it is expedient to understand the pattern and extent of their relationship- this is a major gap this study seeks to fill. Also, attitude towards the use of computer is another important variable in this study as factor affecting e-library use among users. Radjagopal and Chinnasamy (2013) defined attitude as a mental state of readiness exerting directive or dynamic influence upon individual's response to all objects and situations with which it is related. With respect to this study, individual response conceptualised as e-library use. Attitudes regarding use of electronic information resources vary among people (Sivathaasan et al., 2014). Earlier study showed that a positive attitude towards a behavior could influence actual behavior (Walberg and Tsai, 1985; Davis, Bagozzi and Warshaw 1989).
According to Ray and Day (1998), students graduate from the universities without necessary skills to cope within the information based society especially in this era of ICT. In addition, Liew (2000) opined that reading an e journal is not the same as reading a printed issue, as many users which include students have come to acknowledge that electronic resources offer users advanced features and novelforms of functionality beyond those in the printed form. Necessary factors and characteristics that may be deemed important in the use of e-library may not come to play in the use of the traditional library. Furthermore, Rajagopal and Chinnasamy (2013) affirmed that, in the era of ICT and its deployment in library services, there is a growing interest in electronic information resources among users which include students. Thus, Okiki(2012) confirmed that it is important to understand the attitude towards the use of e-library and thus actual use of e-library. To this end, this study tends to investigate the psychological factors influencing the use of e-library resource among undergraduates in south-west Nigeria. The study would provide answers to the following research questions:
i. Do undergraduate students have a high level of attitude towards the use of computer?
ii. What is the level of e-library use among undergraduate students?
Also, the following hypotheses would be subjected to testat 0.05 level of significance:
Ho1: There is no significant relationship between the elements of personality traits and e-library use among undergraduates in south-west Nigeria
Ho2: There is no significant relationship between the computer attitude and e-library use among undergraduates in south-west Nigeria
Ho3: There is no significant difference in the use of e-library among students' demographic characteristics
Personality types and use of e-library
The concept of personality is very broad and many theorists have attempted to quantify it and apply various forms of taxonomy (Engler, 2006 cited by Jackson, 2008). According to Wagner (2008), personality is made up of the characteristic patterns of thoughts, feelings and behaviors that make a person unique. It arises from within the individual and may remain fairly consistent throughout life however, at other times, it has been consistently argued and concluded that it can also be a result of interaction between the individual and the environment. According to Holland (2010),personalitydifferences make people to prefer some environment to others. According to Phares (1991), personality is an inborn temperament and features arising in different situations and a combination of the characteristics of a person which separate him/her from other people. Also, personality is the unique features of every human being; exhibition of characteristic adaptations; unique identifications towards life and a set of cultural differences (Hogan, Hogan & Roberts, 1996; McAdams & Pals, 2006).
As can be understood from the definitions, personality is discussed in terms of specific traits and factors. The personality traits which were put forward by Eysenckand Eysenck(1975) on the basis of biological stimuli are classified as follows: extraversion, neuroticism, and psychosis. Accordingly, a relationship between personality and other factors such as attention, learning and the arousal levels of memory has been discovered. Furthermore, it has also been discovered that these stimuli have focused on a variety of factors (Daderman, 1999; Erdheim, Wang & Zickar, 2006). Although there is no complete agreement on the definition of personality traits, by taking into account of certain factors, there seems to be a broad consensus over five universal factors which determine personality traits (McCrae and Costa, 1987; Digman, 1990; Costa and McCrae, 1992).
Most models of personality usually employ four or five broad dimensions. Although many researchers and personality theorists use different names for these dimensions, the language descriptions of these dimensions tend to hold constant which allows for a general taxonomy of personality to be applied (John and Srivastava, 2001). The most common taxonomy of personality is known as the Big Five. The Big Five factor is based on the works of Digman (1990); Barick and Mount(1991); Costa and McCrae (1992); Barrick and Mount (1993);Barrick, Mount, and Piotrowski (2002),and Gupta (2008). These personality traits can be classified among these five major dimensions. These dimensions are as follows:
1. Openness--appreciation for art, adventure, new ideas, and imagination
2. Conscientiousness--tendency to show self-discipline and aim for achievement
3. Extraversion--social energy and the desire to seek the company of others
4. Agreeableness--tendency to be compassionate and cooperative toward others
5. Neuroticism--tendency to easily experience negative feelings such as anger, anxiety, or depression (Digman, 1997).
Although closely related to the Big Five, other personality theorists have developed four-dimensional models. Jung's (1957) work laid the foundation for the development of the Myer-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) in 1944. McRae and Costa (1989) correlated the MBTI to the Big Five model and found a high level of correlation with the exception of the Neuroticism factor which is absent from the MBTI. Similarly, the DiSC instrument used in this study is based on Marston's work and has a strong connection to the Big Five model with the absence of the Openness and Neuroticism factors (Inscape Publishing, 1996). DiSC is an acronym for four dimensions of Marston's personality theory--dominance, influence, steadiness, and conscientiousness (The small "i" in DiSC is a trademark symbol of Inscape Publishing). These four dimensions are determined by the possible combinations of perceived power and favorability in the environment..
Dominance reflects how one shapes the environment by overcoming opposition to accomplish results in an organization. The tendencies of person to be strong in this dimension include getting immediate results, causing action, accepting challenges, making quick decisions, questioning the status quo, and taking authority (John, 1990). There is a strong correlation between this dimension and the Extraversion factor of the Big Five. Influence is also correlated with the Extraversion factor, but is separated in Marston's theory. This dimension emphasizes a person's tendency to shape the environment by influencing or persuading others through making favorable impressions, being articulate, motivating others, generating enthusiasm, entertaining people, and seeking participation in the decision-making process (Inscape Publishing, 1996 and 2001).
Steadiness reflects the level at which a person cooperates with others within the current environment to carry out a task. People that score high in this dimension perform tasks in a predictable manner, demonstrate patience, develop specialized skills, help others, show loyalty, calm excited people, and create a stable work environment. This dimension is nearly directly correlated to agreeableness in the Big Five. Finally, conscientiousness emphasizes a person's ability to work carefully within existing circumstances to ensure quality and accuracy. These set of people adhere to standards and policies, concentrate on details, think analytically, are diplomatic with other people, use an indirect approach to conflict, check for accuracy, and are systematic in their approach. It also correlates to the conscientiousness factor of the Big Five (Inscape Publishing, 1996 and 2001).
According to McCrae (2002) as cited in Simoncic (2012) the big five factor model of personality explains that openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism are all components of personality that vary from person to person. Also, Behrenbruch, Sollner, Leimeister and Schmidt (2013) have shown that personality traits of users such as students which include openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism can affect their use of e-library. Although Behrenbruch, Sollner, Leimeister and Schmidt (2013) revealed an established relationship between personality trait factors and the use of e-library, it only provide a basis for this study however, they have failed to provide the extent to which this relationship can be explained- this is a major gap this study seeks to fill.
Computer attitudes and use of e-library
From time, the concept of attitude has attracted scholars however, it has been approached in different ways with respect to its conceptualization and field of experience. For example, a motivational preacher stated that attitude is everything (Harrell, 2005). According to Radjagopal and Chinnasamy (2013), attitude is defined as a mental state of readiness exerting directive or dynamic influence upon individual's response to all objects and situations with which it is related. Individual response could also be conceptualised as e-library use. Earlier study showed that a positive attitude towards a behavior could influence actual behavior (Walberg and Tsai, 1985; Davis, Bagozzi and Warshaw 1989). Some studies have found that attitude does not actually influence actual behavior. For example, Omiunu (2015), have found that attitude does not affect actual behavior such as use. In addition, attitudes, in regards to the use of electronic information resources vary among people (Sivathaasan et al., 2014). For example, Sivathaasan, Murugathas and Chandrase (2014) found that readers' type such as academic staff and students, the year of study of the students and user category such as include lecturer, senior lecturer, professor and students have shown significant mean difference towards the attitude of usage of electronic information resources. However,genderwhich include male and female readers and age group have roughly same level of opinion, which is insignificant (Sivathaasan, Murugathas and Chandrase, 2014).Thus, one can affirm the place of demographic characteristics in the relationship between attitude of users and use of electronic resources such as e-library. According to Rajagopal and Chinnasamy (2013), users' attitudes is significantly important in this era of growing interest in electronic information resources among students in universities. However, according to Okiki (2012) in the study of electronic information resources such as e-library, awareness, attitude, and use by academic staff members of Universities in Nigeria are low. However, Enakrire and John (2012) have found that undergraduate students in Nigerian universities have positive attitudes towards the use of e-resources such as e-journals. When one considers the works of Okiki (2012) and Enakrire and John (2012), the results are somewhat confusing. As the low state of attitude could hamper e-library use so also, these confused results could hamper the drive and development of e-library use in Nigeria. To solve this and ameliorate this low or rather confusing state, the present study seeks to investigate computer attitude and e-library use among undergraduate students in Universities in South western Nigeria.
Psychological factors (personality factors and computer attitude) and the use of E-library resource
The study would adapt the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) of Davis, Bagozzi and Warshaw (1989). From TAM, selected variables for this present study are external variables, attitude, and actual system use.
The external variables used in this study are the demographic characteristics of respondents, and psychological factors deployed. Demographic characteristics of respondents to be deployed and use include gender, age and institutions of students. Psychological factors deployed include the personality traits and computer attitudes of students.
A major variable in this proposed study is personality traits. To this end, the study adapts the big five factors of Digman (1990). The big five factors model includes personality variables which are extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, openness to experience, and neuroticism. According to Costa and McCrae (1992) and Barrick, Mount, and Piotrowski (2002), extraversion is an indicator of one's assertiveness and confidence and individuals with high level of extraversion are known to be sociable, assertive, active, bold, energetic, adventuresome, and expressive. In addition, they are self confident, talkative, gregarious, and spontaneous. Also, individuals who have low level of extraversion seem to be timid, submissive, silent, and inhibited (Gupta, 2008). In addition, agreeableness personality dimension is denoted by individual characteristics such as being helpful, generous, and courteous and is primarily a dimension of interpersonal tendencies. Agreeable individuals are warm, likable, emotionally supportive, and nurturing (Gupta, 2008). Also, Barrick and Mount (1993) noted that conscientiousness are individual who have attributes which include being neat, punctual, careful, self-disciplined, and reliable. Openness to experience is another personality factor that includes being imaginative, creative, cultured, original, broadminded, intelligent, and artistically sensitive. Neuroticisms are individuals who tend to be self-conscious and highly self-monitors.
The study tends to establish a relationship between personality traits and e-library use. It also tends to establish a relationship between computer attitude and e-library use among undergraduates in south-west Nigeria. Furthermore, it is also hypothesized that there could be significant difference in the use of e-library among demographic characteristics.
The study adopted a correlational survey research design and a sample size of 900 respondents was used. The target population for the study comprised the undergraduate students in private universities in Southwest Nigeria. These universities to be considered were private universities in Ekiti, Lagos, Ondo, Osun, Ogun and Oyo states. There are a total of sixteen private universities in the southwest of Nigeria as at 2015. The simple random sampling technique was adopted for the purpose of this study. The sampled respondents for this study were drawn from the total population of 18,000 undergraduate students from private universities in southwest Nigeria. Twenty-eight percent (28%) of the population from each university was used as the sample size for this study. With this, the sample size for the study was 900 respondents, which spreads across 16 private universities in south-west.
Questionnaire was the main instrument used for the data collection and was divided into four sections namely demographic characteristics, personality traits, computer attitudes, and use of e-library among students in the private universities in Nigeria. Also, the validity and reliability of the instrument was determined. To ensure validity, content and construct validity was done with respect to the research objectives, questions and hypotheses of the study. To ensure reliability, twenty respondents were administered questionnaire in the university of Ibadan and subjected to Cronbach alpha test, and yielded results of 0.71 for personality traits, 0.78 for computer attitudes, and 0.82 for the use of e-library. Information obtained from the field survey were subjected to analysis using descriptive (frequency and percentage) and inferential (regression analysis and t-test and ANOVA) statistics.
Results and Discussions of Study
The demographic characteristics of the students are presented in table 1.
The finding in table 1 reveals the selected demographic characteristics of students. The result shows that males and the females are approximately the same in their use in this study. The result also reveals that respondents between the age brackets 16-20 years were higher (approx 55%) than other age groups, while those above 41 years have the least percentage (.1%).
Research questions of the Study
Research Question One: Do undergraduate students have a high level of attitude towards the use computer
The distribution of computer attitude of students is presented in table 2.
The result in table 2 reveals the computer attitudes of students. The result shows that 86% stated that they think working with computers would be enjoyable and stimulating; 85% of the students are not scared of the computer; 85% stated that they would like working with computers; 85% stated that knowing how to work with computers will increase their job possibilities; 83% stated that learning about computers is worthwhile; 81% stated that they have a lot of self confidence when it comes to working with computers; 81% stated that they would feel ok about trying a new problem on the computer. This implies that students in this study have positive attitude towards the use of computer. The result of this study supported the work of Sivathaasan et al., (2014) that attitudes regarding use of electronic information resources vary among people.
Research Question Two: What is the level of e-library use among undergraduate students? The level and type of e-library use is presented in table 3.
The result in table 3 shows level and type of electronic resource used among students. From the table, CD-ROM databases is mostly used on a daily basis (36.6%) and weekly basis (24.1%) among the students from the selected private universities more that other electronic library resource however, only 11% never used it. Also, the result shows that 29% and 18.4% of the students use E- books on a daily and weekly basis respectively while only 9% never used it. Furthermore, e-theses and dissertations were the least used on a daily basis with only 16% and 22% using it on a daily and weekly basis respectively while 15% of the students never used it. This implies that, the use of e-library resources among students of in the selected private institutions in Nigeria is very high as for the CD-ROM databases, approximately 89%; 91% use the e- books; while 85% use e-theses and dissertations. Therefore, there is a high level of use of e-library resources among students.
This buttressed the studies of Borgman et al. (2005); Talja et al. (2007); Vakkari (2008); and Nov and Ye (2009) that electronic libraries have become an increasingly important way in providing library services to users. The result of this study contrasts the study of Sullivan-Windle (1993) who noted that, students sometimes have difficulty using their university library and that libraries are seen as daunting and intimidating places especially in the era of the deployment and use of ICT for library services which is termed electronic library (e-library). This difference in the use of e-library between the study of Sullivan-Windle (1993) and this present study could be due to the fact that, from 1993 to present (2017), there could have a been an increased development in the literacy level in the use of e-library among users which could not longer make it impossible for students to use e-library resources. The result of this study also contrasts the studies of Liu (2008); Ahmad et al., (2011); Sivathaasan, Murugathas and Chandrasekar (2014), that users are often restricted from the use of electronic resources in the library. It also contrast the work of Brennan et al., (2002) e-library users which in this present study are students of private universities in Nigeria make fewer visits to the library and read more e-journals than the print era.
The following hypotheses would be subjected to test at 0.05 level of significance:
Ho1: There is no significant relationship between the elements of personality traits and e-library use among undergraduates in south-west Nigeria
The regression analysis test of hypothesis one is given in table 4.
The result of the regression result shows that only introvert individuals significantly use e-library resource (p<0.05), while extrovert students do not have significant influence on use of e-library (p>0.05). This shows that introvert personality traits have significant influence on use of e-library among students. This supported the works of Hong et al. (2002); Venkatesh (2000) and Nov and Ye (2009) that the use of e-library are determined by a variety of factors such as personal traits of users. In addition, the result of this study bolstered the work of Behrenbruch, Sollner, Leimeister and Schmidt (2013) that personality traits of individual users such as students posed a significant effect on the use of e-library. Also the result of this study supported the work of Holland (2010) who stated that personality differences make people to prefer some environment to others as individuals with introvert personality preferred using e-library resources than the extroverts. In addition, this buttressed the works of Behrenbruch, Sollner, Leimeister and Schmidt (2013) that personality traits of users can affect their use of e-library.
Ho2: There is no significant relationship between the computer attitude and e-library use among undergraduates in south-west Nigeria
The regression analysis test of hypothesis two is given in table 5.
The result in table 5 shows that there is significant relationship between the computer attitude and e-library use among undergraduates in south-west Nigeria (p<0.05). This implies computer attitude of students from the selected private universities in Nigeria affect their use of e-library. This supported the works of Walberg and Tsai(1985); Davis, Bagozzi and Warshaw(1989) that positive attitude towards a behavior could influence actual behavior such as in the use of e-library among students. Also, this buttressed the study of Okiki (2012) that it is important to understand the attitude towards the use of e-library and thus actual use of e-library. However, the study contrasts the work of Omiunu (2015) that attitude does not affect actual behavior such as use.
Ho3: There is no significant difference in the use of e-library among students' demographiccharacteristics
The ANOVA table for hypothesis three testing is presented in table 6.
The result of table 6 shows that, age of students, degree in view and department of students were observed to have significant effect on e-library use among students. Also, there is also then interaction main of the demographic characteristics of students. For example, the interaction of age of students with the level of study of students has significant effect on students e-library use.
Also, the interaction of age of students and department of students has significant effect on students e-library use. Degree in view and level of study; and degree in view and department of students also have interactive significant effect on students e-library use. In addition, the institution students belong, age of students and the level of study of students also play a significant effect on e-library use among students (p<0.05). This implies that demographic characteristics of students play significant role in affecting use of e-library resources. This bolstered the work of Sivathaasan, Murugathas and Chandrase (2014) that users' demographic characteristics are important factors in affecting use of e-library.
Conclusion and Recommendations
In conclusion, students' personality traits and computer attitude are important factors affecting the effective use of e-library resources among students. Also, students' demographic characteristics are also important to put into consideration in the use of e-library resource. To this end, the study recommends that:
i. School authorities should endeavour set up counseling bodies within the school to help students geared their personality towards achieving a better academic activities and performances towards the use of e-library resources from the unset of their admission into the institutions.
ii. Also, activities that would be geared towards ensuring positive attitude of students in the use of e-resources and use of computer should be introduced such as giving students assignments, and telling them to use the IT lab, etc. Also, lectures can be held in these IT labs where students would demonstrate and relate with ICT tools to fray aware every fears and anxiety (if there are any) as this would assist them to be conversant with the systems and this could have impetus on their use e-library.
iii. School authority should therefore also automate their library to ensure that e-resources are available to make sure students have access and are also motivated to use e-library resources.
iv. School authorities should make the school environment conducive to use for e-library resource and thus putting a place various infrastructural designs and structures that would tend to facilitate the easy use of e-library among students.
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Fehintoluwa E. Omosebi Mrs.
Lead City University, Ibadan, Nigeria, firstname.lastname@example.org
David O. Okhakhu Mr.
Lead City University, Ibadan, Nigeria, email@example.com
Caption: Figure 1: Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) (Davis, Bagozzi and Warshaw, 1989)
Caption: Figure 2: Research Framework for the Study (Source: The author)
Table 1: Demographic characteristics of the students Demographic characteristics Frequency Percentage Gender Male 398 49.8 Female 402 50.3 Total 800 100.0 Age of students 61 7.6 No response 438 54.8 16-20 years 263 32.9 21-25 years 32 4.0 26-30 years 3 .4 31-35 years 2 .3 36-40 years 1 .1 Above 41 years 800 100.0 Total Table 2: Computer attitude of students S\N Computer attitudes SD D A 1 Computers do not scare me 33 84 310 at all (4.1%) (10.5%) (38.8%) 2 I think working with 45 71 347 computers would be (5.6%) (8.9%) (43.4%) enjoyable and stimulating 3 I would like working 47 73 373 with computers (5.9%) (9.1%) (46.6%) 4 Knowing how to work with 33 84 387 computers will increase (4.1%) (10.5%) (48.4%) my job possibilities 5 Learning about 48 84 363 computers is (6.0%) (10.5%) (45.4%) worthwhile 6 I have a lot of self 42 104 368 confidence when it comes (5.3%) (13.0%) (46.0%) to working with computers 7 I would feel ok about 56 98 346 trying a new problem on (7.0%) (12.3%) (43.3%) the computer S\N Computer attitudes SA Mean S.D 1 Computers do not scare me 373 3.28 .81 at all (46.6%) 2 I think working with 337 3.22 .83 computers would be (42.1%) enjoyable and stimulating 3 I would like working 307 3.18 .82 with computers (38.4%) 4 Knowing how to work with 296 3.18 .78 computers will increase (37.0%) my job possibilities 5 Learning about 305 3.16 .84 computers is (38.1%) worthwhile 6 I have a lot of self 286 3.12 .83 confidence when it comes (35.8%) to working with computers 7 I would feel ok about 300 3.11 .88 trying a new problem on (37.5%) the computer Table 3: level and type of e-library use among students S\N Electronic Resources Never Annually Biannually 1 CD-ROM databases 85 68 38 (10.6%) (8.5%) (4.8%) 2 Computer and internet 82 59 38 facilities (10.3%) (7.4%) (4.8%) 3 Electronic books 70 26 81 (8.8%) (3.3%) (10.1%) 4 Online search engines 70 29 116 (8.8%) (3.6%) (14.5%) 5 Electronic databases 75 27 31 (9.4%) (3.4%) (3.9%) 6 Online newspapers and 78 36 82 magazines (9.8%) (4.5%) (10.3%) 7 E-journals 91 23 84 (11.4%) (2.9%) (10.5%) 8 Online encyclopedia 88 36 64 (Britannica.com, Encarta, (11.0%) (4.5%) (8.0%) etc) 9 Electronic indexes and 94 48 53 abstracts (11.8%) (6.0%) (6.6%) 10 E-reports 92 53 59 (11.5%) (6.6%) (7.4%) 11 Electronic 99 61 61 newsletters\directories (12.4%) (7.6%) (7.6%) 12 Online public access 81 42 95 catalogue (OPAC) (10.1%) (5.3%) (11.9%) 13 E-theses & dissertations 123 43 84 (15.4%) (5.4%) (10.5%) 14 Online conference 100 82 136 proceedings (12.5%) (10.3%) (17.0%) 15 Microforms 141 95 49 (17.6%) (11.9%) (6.1%) S\N Electronic Resources Quarterly Monthly Weekly 1 CD-ROM databases 47 76 193 (5.9%) (9.5%) (24.1%) 2 Computer and internet 71 130 125 facilities (8.9%) (16.3%) (15.6%) 3 Electronic books 105 140 147 (13.1%) (17.5%) (18.4%) 4 Online search engines 87 98 140 (10.9%) (12.3%) (17.5%) 5 Electronic databases 118 188 195 (14.8%) (23.5%) (24.4%) 6 Online newspapers and 87 160 113 magazines (10.9%) (20.0%) (14.1%) 7 E-journals 56 109 302 (7.0%) (13.6%) (37.8%) 8 Online encyclopedia 144 165 147 (Britannica.com, Encarta, (18.0%) (20.6%) (18.4%) etc) 9 Electronic indexes and 132 162 171 abstracts (16.5%) (20.3%) (21.4%) 10 E-reports 106 217 127 (13.3%) (27.1%) (15.9%) 11 Electronic 120 141 161 newsletters\directories (15.0%) (17.6%) (20.1%) 12 Online public access 145 172 133 catalogue (OPAC) (18.1%) (21.5%) (16.6%) 13 E-theses & dissertations 109 171 177 (13.6%) (21.4%) (22.1%) 14 Online conference 104 134 124 proceedings (13.0%) (16.8%) (15.5%) 15 Microforms 90 159 150 (11.3%) (19.9%) (18.8%) S\N Electronic Resources Daily Mean S.D 1 CD-ROM databases 293 5.14 2.10 (36.6%) 2 Computer and internet 295 5.08 2.05 facilities (36.9%) 3 Electronic books 231 4.98 1.89 (28.9%) 4 Online search engines 260 4.97 1.97 (32.5%) 5 Electronic databases 166 4.96 1.78 (20.8%) 6 Online newspapers and 244 4.91 1.96 magazines (30.5%) 7 E-journals 135 4.89 1.90 (16.9%) 8 Online encyclopedia 156 4.66 1.88 (Britannica.com, Encarta, (19.5%) etc) 9 Electronic indexes and 140 4.62 1.90 abstracts (17.5%) 10 E-reports 146 4.59 1.89 (18.3%) 11 Electronic 157 4.57 1.98 newsletters\directories (19.6%) 12 Online public access 132 4.51 1.83 catalogue (OPAC) (16.5%) 13 E-theses & dissertations 93 4.33 1.93 (11.6%) 14 Online conference 120 4.18 1.95 proceedings (15.0%) 15 Microforms 116 4.18 2.09 (14.5%) Table 4: Regression analysis test of hypothesis one Coefficients (a) Model Unstandardized Standardized t Sig. Coefficients Coefficients B Std. Error Beta 1 (Constant) 33.679 6.339 5.313 .000 Introvert 1.350 .221 .247 6.115 .000 Extrovert -.189 .200 -.038 -.947 .344 (a.) Dependent Variable: ELECTRONIC RESOURCES Table 5: Regression analysis test of hypothesis two Coefficients (a) Model Unstandardized Standardized t Sig. Coefficients Coefficients B Std. Error Beta 1 (Constant) 25.584 5.943 4.305 .000 Computer attitude .686 .092 .256 7.492 .000 (A.) Dependent variable: electronic resources Table 6: ANOVA table for hypothesis six Tests of Between-Subjects Effects Dependent Variable:ElectronicLibrary Resources Source Type III Sum of df Squares Corrected Model 199010.045 (a) 243 Intercept 251248.673 1 Nameof Institution 3754.289 15 Ageof Students 6792.847 6 Degreeinview 9702.736 4 Levelofstudy 1990.844 3 Department 7604.704 2 Nameofinstitution * Ageofstudents 18020.794 34 Nameofinstitution * Degreeinview 4983.968 20 Nameofinstitution * Levelofstudy 19986.193 44 Nameofinstitution * Department 8.319 2 Ageofstudents * Degreeinview 2252.698 4 Ageofstudents * Levelofstudy 15839.590 7 Ageofstudents * Department 20061.289 3 Degreeinview * Levelofstudy 4351.657 4 Degreeinview * Department 13585.965 1 Levelofstudy * Department .000 0 Nameofinstitution * Ageofstudents 161.323 3 * Degreeinview Nameofinstitution * Ageofstudents 24608.772 34 * Levelofstudy Nameofinstitution * Ageofstudents 155.141 2 * Department Nameofinstitution * Degreeinview 210.715 8 * Levelofstudy Nameofinstitution * Degreeinview 129.754 1 * Department Nameofinstitution * Levelofstudy .000 0 * Department Ageofstudents * Degreeinview * .000 0 Levelofstudy Ageofstudents * Degreeinview * .000 0 Department Ageofstudents * Levelofstudy * .000 0 Department Degreeinview * Levelofstudy * .000 0 Department Nameofinstitution * Ageofstudents .000 0 * Degreeinview * Levelofstudy Nameofinstitution * Ageofstudents .000 0 * Degreeinview * Department Nameofinstitution * Ageofstudents .000 0 * Levelofstudy * Department Nameofinstitution * Degreeinview .000 0 * Levelofstudy * Department Ageofstudents * Degreeinview * .000 0 Levelofstudy * Department Nameofinstitution * Ageofstudents .000 0 * Degreeinview * Levelofstudy * Department Error 261050.515 617 Total 4630938.000 861 Corrected Total 460060.560 860 Source Mean Square F Sig. Corrected Model 818.971 1.936 .000 Intercept 251248.673 593.833 .000 Nameof Institution 250.286 .592 .883 Ageof Students 1132.141 2.676 .014 Degreeinview 2425.684 5.733 .000 Levelofstudy 663.615 1.568 .196 Department 3802.352 8.987 .000 Nameofinstitution * Ageofstudents 530.023 1.253 .157 Nameofinstitution * Degreeinview 249.198 .589 .922 Nameofinstitution * Levelofstudy 454.232 1.074 .349 Nameofinstitution * Department 4.160 .010 .990 Ageofstudents * Degreeinview 563.174 1.331 .257 Ageofstudents * Levelofstudy 2262.799 5.348 .000 Ageofstudents * Department 6687.096 15.805 .000 Degreeinview * Levelofstudy 1087.914 2.571 .037 Degreeinview * Department 13585.965 32.111 .000 Levelofstudy * Department Nameofinstitution * Ageofstudents 53.774 .127 .944 * Degreeinview Nameofinstitution * Ageofstudents 723.787 1.711 .008 * Levelofstudy Nameofinstitution * Ageofstudents 77.571 .183 .833 * Department Nameofinstitution * Degreeinview 26.339 .062 1.000 * Levelofstudy Nameofinstitution * Degreeinview 129.754 .307 .580 * Department Nameofinstitution * Levelofstudy ... ... ... * Department Ageofstudents * Degreeinview * ... ... ... Levelofstudy Ageofstudents * Degreeinview * ... ... ... Department Ageofstudents * Levelofstudy * ... ... ... Department Degreeinview * Levelofstudy * ... ... ... Department Nameofinstitution * Ageofstudents ... ... ... * Degreeinview * Levelofstudy Nameofinstitution * Ageofstudents ... ... ... * Degreeinview * Department Nameofinstitution * Ageofstudents ... ... ... * Levelofstudy * Department Nameofinstitution * Degreeinview ... ... ... * Levelofstudy * Department Ageofstudents * Degreeinview * ... ... ... Levelofstudy * Department Nameofinstitution * Ageofstudents ... ... ... * Degreeinview * Levelofstudy * Department Error 423.096 Total Corrected Total (a.) R Squared = .433 (Adjusted R Squared = .209)
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|Author:||Omosebi, Fehintoluwa E.; Okhakhu, David O.|
|Publication:||Library Philosophy and Practice|
|Date:||Jul 1, 2017|
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