Printer Friendly

Psittacanthus corderoi, a new species of Loranthaceae from the Colombian Amazonia.

Psittacanthus corderoi, una nueva especie de Loranthaceae de la Amazonia colombiana


With nearly 120 stem hemiparasitic species, Psittacanthus is the most specious genus of Loranthaceae in the Americas (Kuijt 2009, 2015). The genus is characterized by the following traits: stem hemiparasites rarely with long epicortical roots; bisexual flowers ultimately arranged in dichasia, often with the central flower aborted, and subtended by a main bract and two lateral bracteoles (Suaza-Gaviria et al. 2016); distal portion of the pedicel dilated and cup shaped, hereafter called cupular pedicel; calyx often truncate and entirely surrounding the ovary; corolla slender, tubular, to 10+ cm in length, the tube formed by six free but marginally interlocking petals which are brightly colored (red, orange or yellow); and six epipetalous stamens with dorsifixed anthers that are either tetrasporangiate and longitudinally dehiscent, or each theca secondarily divided by transverse septae and apparently dehiscent through numerous apertures. Flowers of Psittacanthus species play an important role as nectar or pollen reward especially for hummingbirds (Rosero-Lasprilla & Sazima 2004, Azpeitia & Lara 2006, Wilson & Calvin 2006), although ornithophily appears to be facultative as successful cleistogamy is likely to occur (Suaza-Gaviria et al. 2016).

The distribution of the genus ranges from NW Mexico (Baja California) and the Antilles to northern Argentina, although its highest diversification has occurred in the Amazonian region (Kuijt 2009). Fifteen species of Psittacanthus were previously reported by Duenas & Franco-Roselli (2001) for Colombia, although this number appears to be higher. At least 28 species of Psittacanthus grow in the Colombian Amazonia or adjacent Amazonian forests from Venezuela and Brazil (Kuijt 2009). These are: P. acinarius (Mart.) Mart., P. baguensis Kuijt, P. biternatus (Hoffmanns.) G. Don, P. brachvnema Eichler, P. cinctus (Mart.) Mart., P. clusiifolius Eichler, P. crassifolius (Mart.) Mart., P. crassinenns Kuijt, P. crassipes Kuijt, P. cucullaris (Lam.) G. Don P cyclophyllus Kuijt, P. dilatatus A. C. Sm., P. eucalyptifolius (Kunth) G. Don, P. geniculates Kuijt, P. gentrvi Kuijt, P. irwinii Rizzini, P. lasianthus Sandwith, P. montisneblinae Rizzini, P. ophiocephalus Kuijt, P. peronopetalus Eichler, P. plagiophyllus Eichler, robustus (Mart.) Mart., P. schultesii Kuijt, P. stergiosii Kuijt, P. sulcatus Kuijt, P. truncatus Kuijt, and P. tubatus Kuijt. In addition, the specimen Zarucchi 1205 (LEA) from Vaupes, was provisionally identified by Kuijt (2009) as P. bolbocephalus Kuijt; if this identification is confirmed, this species would be an interesting disjunct between the Atlantic and the Amazonian forests. Cardenas et al. (2009) reported the occurrence of P. julianus Rizzini in the Inirida fluvial confluence, but this name is a synonym of P. irwinii (Kuijt 2009).

While studying floral development and morphology in Loranthaceae, a specimen collected in the Colombian department of Amazonas was found to be especially notable, as it does not matchany of the species recognized so far by the comprehensive local monographs of the genus, especially those by Eichler (1868), Rizzini (1956, 1982) and Kuijt (1986, 2009). Thus, we proceed here to describe the new species.

Psittacanthus corderoi F. Gonzalez, F.J. Roldan & Pabon-Mora, sp. nov. TYPE: COLOMBIA. Amazonas: Corregimiento La Pedrera, Resguardo Indigena Curare Los Ingleses, Comunidad Curare, orillas del quebradon Curare (aguas negras), arriba de la bocana del cano Madrono hasta cerca de las cabeceras del quebradon ca 1[grados]'17'S, 69[grados]44'W, 100 m, 21 May 2004 (fl), Z. Cordero & E. Tanimuka 818 (Holotype COL) (Figs. 1, 2).

Species similar to Psittacanthus lasianthus, from which it differs by the sympodial, densely puberulous, three-angled stems, ternate leaves, terminal dichasia, perfoliate bracts, a neck-bearing, not inflated corolla densely laciniate on its outer surface and a triangular, ligule on the inside of each petal, a ring-like nectary, and a micropapillose stigma versus percurrent, glabrous, circular stems, paired leaves, axillary dichasia, not perfoliate bracts, a neck-lacking, inflated corolla without laciniae on its outer surface and a finger-like ligule on the inside of each petal, a 4-lobed nectary, and a smooth stigma in P. lasianthus.

Stem hemiparasites with sympodial shoots. Internodes 2.5-5 cm long, densely puberulous, three angled when young; nodes not swollen. Leaves three per node, shortly petioled; petiole 2-3 mm long; lamina widely elliptic, 3.5-6 x 2.3-3.2 cm, fleshy, glabrous on both surfaces, venation obscure especially on the upper surface, formed by a midvein and two pairs of pinnate secondary veins, base decurrent, apex obtuse. Inflorescences formed by one terminal and two subterminal (lateral) double dichasia (triads), rarely with the terminal flower of the dichasium aborted resulting in the atypical formation of dyads; internodes 5-16 mm long. Inflorescence axes, bracts, bracteoles and cupular pedicels red, densely finely puberulous; first order and second order bracts widely ovate, 2-4 x 1.5-3.0 mm, shortly perfoliate. Lateral flowers of each dichasium subtended by triangular bracteoles to 1.5 x 0.5 mm, finely puberulous, almost completely adnate to the short cupular pedicel that reaches 1 mm long, also finely puberulous. Flowers tubular, straight; calyx of the lateral flowers mostly surrounded by the cupular pedicel. visible only the nearly truncate 1-2 mm border; corolla not inflated and with a conspicuous neck to 3 mm long; petals six, narrowly oblong, 2-4 x 0.1-0.12 cm, apex obtuse, clavate, slightly separated only along the neck during anthesis, outer surface densely laciniate, the laciniae to 2 mm long, membranous, patent or pointing backwards, the entire outer surface (including the laciniae) puberulous, the proximal half bright red, the distal half yellow, the inner surface finely puberulous and with a narrowly triangular ligule to 4 mm long at the base of each petal; androecium formed by two alternating series of long and short stamens halfway attached to the petals, anthers oblong, tetralocular, 2-2.5 mm long with an apical horn to 0.7 mm long, latrorsely dehiscent; ovary barrel-shaped, completely surrounded by the calyx, nectary ring-like, surrounding the base of the straight, glabrous style to 3.6 cm long, stigma clavate, micropapillose. Fruits unknown.

Etymology. The new species is named in honor of Zaleth Cordero, an outstanding field botanist whose work in the Colombian Amazonia led to the collection of the new species.

Distribution and phenology. Psittacanthus corderoi is known only from the type collection made in La Pedrera, Amazonas, Colombia. It was collected with numerous inflorescences in May. Fruits remain to be collected.

Taxonomic notes. The presence of numerous laciniae to 2 mm long in the petal outer surface of Psittacanthus corderoi is unique in the genus. The new species is similar to Psittacanthus lasianthus, from Guyana and Venezuela, in the overall shape of the leaves and the puberulous outer surface of the petals (e-images of the type collection and additional specimens of P. lasianthus are available in https://plants. filter=name&so=ps_gro up_by_genus_species+asc&Query=Psitta canthus+lasianthus; see also illustrations in Hollowell et al. 2004, and Kuijt 2009). The presence of P. lasianthus in Colombia reported by Rosero-Lasprilla & Sazima (2004) was not confirmed in the monograph by Kuijt (2009). Table I summarizes the vegetative and the floral traits that clearly distinguish P. corderoi from its similar P. lasianthus.

Ecological notes. The ecological role of Psittacanthus species, like those of the genera Aetanthus and Tri sie rix. relies in the large, tubular flowered species, with copious nectar and pollen rewards for birds, especially hummingbirds. In fact, RoseroLasprilla & Sazima (2004) found that flowers of Psittacanthus are by far the most used ornithophilous flowers in terra firme Amazonian forests in Chiribiquete.


FG and NLP detected the new species, and prepared the preliminary texts and illustrations. FG, FJR and NLP examined the type specimen and literature, wrote the final version of the manuscript, agreed in the final content of the text, and responded to the reviewers comments and suggestions. FG made dissections and illustrations that accompany the photographs of the type specimen.


Thanks to Sebastian Gonzalez (Universidad Nacional de Colombia), for taking the photographs that illustrate the new species.



Azpeitia, F. & C. Lara. 2006. Reproductive biology and pollination of the parasitic plant Psittacanthus calyculatus (Loranthaceae) in central Mexico. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 133: 429-438.

Cardenas, D., N. Castano & S. Sua Tunjano. 2009. Flora de La Estrella Fluvial de Inirida (Guarnia, Colombia). Biota Colombiana 10: 1-30.

Duenas, H. & P. Franco-Roselli. 2001. Sinopsis de las Loranthaceae de Colombia. Caldasia 23: 81-99.

Eichler, A. W. 1868. Loranthaceae. Pp. 156-198. In: C.F.P. von Martius (ed.), Flora Brasiliensis, Vol. 3(1). Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig.

Hollowell, T., T. McDowell, V. A. Funk & O. L. Kelloff. 2004. Smithsonian plant collections, Guyana: 1990-1991, Tim McDowell. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 50: 1-150.

Kuijt, J. 1986. Eremolepidaceae, Loranthaceae and Viscaceae. Pp. 1-197. In: G. Harling & B. Sparre (eds.), Flora of Ecuador, Vol. 24. Swedish Research Council, Stockholm, Sweden.

Kuijt, J. 2009. Monograph of Psittacanthus (Loranthaceae). Systematic Botany Monographs 86: 1-361.

Kuijt, J. 2015 Santalales. Pp. 1-18. In: J. Kuijt & B. Hansen (eds.), The families and genera of vascular plants, Vol. 12, Flowering plants: Eudicots; Santalales, Balanophorales. Springer, Cham, Switzerland.

Rizzini, C. T. 1956. Pars specialis prodromi monographiae Loranthacearum Brasiliae terraramque finitimarum. Rodriguesia 28/29: 87-234, t. 1-29.

Rizzini, C. T. 1982. Loranthaceae. Pp. 7-316. In: Z. Luces de Febres & J. A.Steyermark (eds.), Flora de Venezuela, Vol. 4. Instituto Nacional de Parques, Caracas.

Rosero-Lasprilla, L. & M. Sazima. 2004. Interacciones planta-colibri en tres comunidades vegetales de la parte suroriental del Parque Nacional Natural Chiribiquete, Colombia. Ornitologia Neotropical 15(Suppl.): 183-190.

Suaza-Gaviria, V., N. Pabon-Mora & F. Gonzalez. 2016. Development and morphology of flowers in Loranthaceae. International. Tournai of Plant Sciences 177(7): 559-578. DOI: 10.1086/687280.

Wilson, C. A. & C. L. Calvin. 2006. Character divergences and convergences in canopydwelling Loranthaceae. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 150:101-113.

Recibido: 21/02/2016

Aceptado: 8/08/2016

Favio Gonzalez

Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Facultad de Ciencias, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, A4 7495, Bogota. fagonzalezg(a)unal. edu. co

Francisco Javier Roldan

Natalia Pabon-Mora Universidad de Antioquia, Instituto de Biologia, Medellin

Leyenda: Figure 1. Psittacanthus corderoi. a. Photograph of the holotype (Cordero & Tanimuka 818). b. Detail of a dichasium; note the perfoliate bract at the base and the minute bracteoles at the flanks of the lateral flowers, c. Triangular ligule on the base of the inner side of the petal, d. Inner surface of the distal portion of the petal; note the prints left by the stigma, the long anther and the short anther, e. Cut off corolla apex showing two short stamens, one long stamen (dotted) partially covered by the style, and the micropapillose stigma. Scale bars = 1 cm in a, b; 2 mm in c-e.

Leyenda: Figure 2. Psittacanthus corderoi (Cordero & Tanimuka 818; Holotype COL), a. Double dichasial inflorescence, b. Detail of base of the double dichasium. c. Detail of the base of a single dichasium. d. Laciniae and puberulous trichomes on the outer surface of the petals, e. Distal portion of hexamerous corollas, f. Detail of the corolla necks, g. Dissected apex of flower showing long and short stamens, style and stigma, h. Petal and stamen, i. Anther, br, bracteole; ca, calyx; cp, cupular pedicel; fb, first order bract, 1st, long stamen; p, petal; s, stigma; sb, second order bract; sst, short stamen; sy, style; Scale bars = 5 mm in a, b, d, h; 2 mm in c, e, f; 1 mm in g, i.
Table 1. Comparative traits between the newly described
Psittacanthus corderoi and its closest relative
P. lasianthus.

Trait                    Psittacanthus            Psittacanthus
                         corderoi                 lasianthus

Growth                   Sympodial due to the     percurrent

Internodes               densely puberulous, to   glabrous, 1.5-3 cm
                         5 cm long, three-        long, circular in
                         angled when young        contour when young

Number of leaves per     three                    two

Length of the petiole    2-3 mm long              to 1 cm long

Shape of the leaf        widely elliptic          ovate to orbicular

Size of the leaf         to 6 x 3.2 cm            to 8 x 5 cm

Position and             terminal, formed by      axillary, solitary,
architecture of the      five double dichasia     single dichasia

Length of the            5-16 mm                  [less than or equal
inflorescence                                     to] 5 mm

Indument of the          puberalous               glabrous

Base of the bracts       perfoliate               slightly cordate, not

Shape of the corolla     not inflated and with    basally inflated to 5
                         a conspicuous neck to    mm, neck obscure
                         3 mm long

Margins of the petals    entire                   toothed

Outer surface of the     densely laciniate        puberalous but not
petals                   (laciniae to 2.5 mm      laciniate
                         long) and puberalous

Inner surface of the     finely puberalous        glabrous except around
petals                   throughout               the basal ligule

Ligule                   narrowly triangular,     finger-like, to 2 mm
                         to 4 mm long             long

Anthers                  2-2.5 mm long, with an   4.5-6 mm long, with an
                         apical horn to 0.7 mm    apical horn 1-1.5 mm
                         long                     long

Nectary                  ring-like                4-lobed

Stigma                   micropapillose           smooth

Geographic               Amazonas (Colombia)      Ayangana and Kaieteur
distribution                                      plateaus, Pakaraima
                                                  Mountains, Cuyuni-
                                                  Regions (Guyana);
                                                  Amazonas (Venezuela).
COPYRIGHT 2016 Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Instituto de Ciencias
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2016 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Title Annotation:Taxonomia y Sistematica
Author:Gonzalez, Favio; Javier Roldan, Francisco; Pabon-Mora, Natalia
Date:Jul 1, 2016
Previous Article:Nueva clave para los generos de Hepaticas de Colombia.
Next Article:Sobre la morfologia de Pectrohyla chryses (Anura: Hylidae; Hylini), con comentarios sobre algunos caracteres controversiales, sus relaciones...

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2020 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters