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Protection of Eyes: An extremely useful informative book in Urdu for eye diseases and eye care.

Health education and preventive measures to control and eliminate various diseases and their complications is extremely important. That is why any effort which is directed at creating awareness about diseases, educating the public about diseases and their management is commendable. It is in this context that this 128-page book in Urdu "Protection of Eyes" is an extremely useful and informative book on ophthalmic diseases and eye care. Apart from the public, the Family Physicians who are the first one to be consulted by the patients in primary care and medical students will also find it very useful to understand the common ophthalmic diseases and their management.

The book contains twenty two chapters and it starts with a detailed anatomical structure of the eye wherein retina, macula, optic nerve, vitreous, lens, pupil, iris, and cornea is shown in a diagram to help the readers understand better the structure of the eye. The objective of writing this book, Dr. Mazhar Qayum says was to create awareness in public about eye care, emphasize the importance of early identification of eye problems and timely consultation and treatment which can save their eye sight. The information it contains, he further says, is based on what he has been telling his patients all these years during his practice. Normal eyesight is known as 6/6. He then describes in detail how eyesight checking is simplified, talks about refractive error, myopia or near sightedness. Myopia normally starts from childhood and keeps on increasing till the age of sixteen to seventeen years but if by the time it has gone upto minus6,(-6) then the chances are that it may increase further.

Hypermetropia also starts in childhood when one needs spectacles for reading. Cataract is the biggest cause of blindness. Senile cataract starts at the age of fifty or sixty years. Cataract can also develop due to diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure, smoking, alcohol use and it can also be congenital. The book provides guidance how to get cataract operated. Blood sugar test is essential before cataract surgery to avoid any serious complications. People with diabetes can have intra ocular lenses (IOL) implanted and it is safe. One usually has to stop taking Aspirin if one is taking it three to four days before surgery. Those suffering from heart diseases are also advised to get themselves check up by cardiologist before cataract surgery. Those patients who are taking drugs for prostate problems must inform the ophthalmic surgeon before surgery. Cataract surgery is now done through phacoemulcification but previously it used to be done through extra capsular cataract.

After phacoemulcification, the surgeons put in foldable lenses. What precautions the patient have to take after cataract surgery are also given in detail to avoid any damage or complication.

Glaucoma is another important common eye disease which if detected early is curable otherwise it leads to permanent blindness. In this condition the intra ocular pressure in the eye rises which puts pressure on optic nerve and retina. Gradually they stop working. To avoid development of glaucoma, he advises regular annual ophthalmic check up. It is also the duty of the doctor to check intra ocular pressure in the patient's eyes whenever they come to consult them for any disorder but unfortunately it is seldom practiced. IOP can be reduced and it can become normal with the use of medications but these drugs can have some adverse effects on patients who are suffering from asthma and high blood pressure. Hence these patients should be careful and tell their ophthalmologist before surgery so that he takes the precautionary measures. In case of symptoms of sudden severe glaucoma, it is extremely important to consult an ophthalmologist within 24-48 hours.

Failing this, it could lead to permanent blindness. Symptoms of congenital glaucoma have also been described in detail.

Diabetes is quite common and some of its complications include diabetic retinopathy which can affect optic nerve, may lead to cataract or glaucoma. In this condition the optic nerve gets blocked or due to leakage it results in haemorrhage. This can then result in macular oedema. It can be treated with either laser or through the use of injections for three months. During pregnancy, these injections should be avoided. Pan Retinal photocoagulation has been described and what needs to be done in such a condition. Diabetic retinopathy usually develops once the patient has diabetes for ten years or more. Control of blood pressure is important. Redness in the eye is another common eye condition which is known as conjunctivitis, it could be due to some allergy or due to some infection. Use of steroids or anti allergic medications is very helpful in this condition. After LASIK procedure, contact lenses are not needed.

These days computer use is very common hence it's increased use also leads to a disorder known as Computer Vision Syndrome. These people can also complain of dry eyes. Use of antiglare screen is very helpful. Some of the preventive and protective measures like avoiding too much light in the room, direct light on the computer have been suggested to avoid this condition. Direct injury to eye can also lead to various disorders which need immediate attention.

Squint is very common in children though it can also affect adults. As soon as it is noticed, one should get the appropriate treatment. Diabetes and high blood pressure can also result in squint in adults. Yet another cause could be some lesion in the brain. If the cornea becomes opaque, corneal transplant is the answer. The author has also discussed some ethical issues related to corneal transplant and given different viewpoints. Those who are suffering from some eye disease, infection, HIV, Hepatitis or Rabies cannot donate their cornea for transplant because the recipient can get these infections and diseases. Signs and symptoms of watery eye, dry eye, their causes and treatment have been discussed. Contact lenses are an alternative to the use of spectacles. Different types of contact lenses i.e. daily wear, extended wear, continuous wear have been described in detail. Now even disposable contact lenses are also getting popular but everybody certainly cannot afford it.

Other topics covered in this book include eye diseases in children, low vision aids. Various misconceptions about eye care have also been clarified in the last chapter and it has been pointed out that IOL can be successfully implanted in patients with diabetes.

The author of the book Dr.Muhammad Mazhar Qayum graduated from Dow Medical College in 1972 and then did MCPS and Fellowship in Ophthalmology from CPSP. He served as consultant eye surgeon at Abbasi Shaheed Hospital at Karachi. In 1986 he went to UK and then did FRCS from Royal College of Ophthalmologists. He returned to Pakistan in 1991 and joined Al-Shifa Trust Eye Hospital Rawalpindi and also served as Director of Postgraduate training in Institute of Ophthalmology. At present he is Chief Consultant Eye Surgeon at Mazhar Eye Hospital located in Sadder, Rawalpindi. He is former President of Ophthalmological Society of Pakistan, was elected President of Pakistan Medical Association Rawalpindi-Islamabad. He was awarded Gold Medal by Ophthalmological Society of Pakistan in recognition of his services while he was also presented Distinguished Services Award by the Asia Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology. He has dedicated this book to his patients.

It is published by Maktaba Daneyal and is economically priced at Rs. 240/- For contact or
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Publication:Pulse International
Article Type:Book review
Date:Jul 15, 2017
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