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Properties of the network for data transmission based on IP protocol.


Modern communication networks are using exclusively Internet Protocol ( IP ). The IP protocol was developed in an attempt to enable building up of the public network infrastructure which can support a large numbers of nodes. For this reason, the key feature of the IP protocol is precisely extendibility (scalability). Network based on IP protocol, adhere to the fundamental principle of construction of computer protocols defined in the model of open systems connection (OSI model-Open System Interconnection). IP protocol is the base the public telecommunication networks construction. All other properties are required from such a network must adapt to the IP protocol, that is they must exploit some of standard methods available in the IP protocol to ensure security, expandability, transport isolation and quality of service (Williamson, 1999). It is therefore necessary to know the way in which the IP protocol and networks built on that protocol work. The network must support data transmission through the use of IP protocol, must contain the nucleus whose task is the transfer of large amount of data in an efficient manner with assurance of quality of services, and access part using which the connection with clients has been created. Supervision and management is also a key part of any public network for data transmission. There are rules to build the core and network access part, which delivers optimal solutions with respect to the capacity of the network, the type and amount of users, quality of service, etc.


The IP protocol is the basis of the construction of the public telecommunication network. All other properties which are required from such network must adapt to IP protocol, that is must exploit some of standard methods available in the IP protocol to ensure security, expandibility, transmission isolation, and services quality. For that reason, it is necessary to know the way IP and network constructed on the basis of this protocol work, as well as the transmission properties which can occur in the networks constructed in such a way. That is package protocol without connection what means that all information are transmitted between nodes in packages and that between the end destinations is not established a direct communication channel. Nodes within the IP network are virtually connected, each node has its address on the basis of which any other node can direct towards it packages. A special header is added to the packages, which contains all information by which the network can decide how to direct an individual package up to end destination. The most important information within the IP header are the source and destination address. The source does not know in advance which way the package will use to pass through the network, neither can it guarantee that the package will successfully reach the destination. Each router will independently decide where to forward the IP package at the moment of package arrival on basis of the best currently available data. Information about where to direct the traffic towards particular destination is called a route. Routing table contains a series of routes that determine direction to all available destinations (Halabi, 2000). Dynamically filling routing table gives an additional advantage in what IP routers can be aware of network topology and on basis decide on which interface to forward an IP package. The principle of work of the IP protocol is shown in Figure 1. This principle has been selected because it provides exceptional flexibility and scalability of traffic routing. Successful communication in the IP networks presumes adjustment of all types of data transmission by means of the IP protocol. Development of IP has been flowing parallel with development of B-ISDN model, and conditions within the telecommunication industry have led to its universal applications in all types of network. Telecommunication networks on one side have been building a very elaborated and conceived B-ISDN which was the most exemplary model for use in the public telecommunication networks. On the other side, end users have built their networks on the basis of universally available, extendable and cheap IP standard. The end users, who require that the telecommunication networks support directly IP protocol that is highly represented in their networks were victorious. Besides that, the basic properties of the IP protocols are directly adapted to the building up of large public networks which enable communication between a large numbers of nodes. The popularity of Internet results in a number of new challenges.



The self similar and long range dependent TCP/IP traffic is mainly caused by new complex interactions between protocols and technologies and by other information transported by voice. (Van Miegham, 2006). TCP protocol can be found at the transport layer of OSI model and is responsible for ensuring the correct transmission of data between two end points in the IP network ( IP does not guarantee the correct transmission ). Beside that, the TCP performs an additional function that is traffic control and jam prevention. In order to recognize different communication sessions between the various destinations it applies special TCP header which is added to each IP package after the IP header. Among the properties which the TCP posses in order to ensure safe transfer and there is a relatively sophisticated mechanism for traffic control. The sending of traffic in the TCP protocol is based on the principle of sliding window. The nodes signalize to each other data about which package has been received directly and how many more packages can be sent prior to arrival of the next confirmation of reception. By expanding or reducing of windows it is effectively the quantity of data in transmission, and thus indirectly also the speed of communication (Boudani et al., 2004). The size of windows represents data quantity which the source can send without the confirmation of reception. Sending speed is determined on the basis of rhytm of the confirmation of receipt, because the knot that sends, knows how fast the receiver receives packages on the basis of rhytm in which the confirmation of receipt comes back. The more the rhytm is faster, the greater the speed by which the sender can send the transmission. That speed increases to the moment in which receipt information lacks. The lack of confirmation of receipt signalizes that somewhere in the communication channel occurred congestion and because of that the sent package did not arrived back to the source. In reality, the TCP source at the beginning sending traffic exponentially increases the amount of data sent after each receipt confirmation up to the limit of exponential growth, after which linearly increases the amount of data sent to the limit of maximal windows size. As soon as a confirmation of receipt lack, source reduces the amount of sent traffic to the half, after which the previously described mechanism of windows increase activates. The principle of work is shown in Figure 2.



A special protocol is used for an efficient and simple data transfer through the IP network for transfer of users ' packages (UDP-User Datagram Protocol) (Boudani & Cousin, 2003). Its functionality is very simple: a package of data that should be sent is made, to that package is added the UDP header, which consists of the number of source and of the destination port, then such package is directed to the destination. The UDP ports are necessary in order to identify unambiguously the source and destination application which exchange transmission between them. UDP does not have any mechanism to check off if the reception of a package is correct, not the mechanism to repeat the sending in case of data loss, or the mechanism of controlling traffic flow. For that reason the UDP will send the traffic with determined speed, regardless of the availability of resources. This kind of traffic is called inelastic traffic. Since it is one-way traffic, standard mechanism of traffic control is useless. It means that the IP network must ensure data reception in sequence, under strict control of timing of transmission parameters, congestion solving and control of packages loss. This protocol is extremely useful for multimedia applications that need at an efficient way send large amount of transmission which required a transfer in real time respecting limit of delays and delays variations. The effectiveness of the UDP protocol for multimedia applications in function of limits of delays and variations of delays will be carried out within further research.


In this work has been set the fact that in modern networks the IP protocol is the base of service integration. The basic task of the IP protocol as of the protocol of network layer is to ensure communication between end destinations in the global communication network. The protocol as such does not represent any additional properties of such communication as the speed and quality of service, and along with that it works properly when applied to any technology of data and physical layer. The basic property of the protocol the extendibility that is scalability is sufficiently strong principle on which it is possible to build very sophisticated global communication network. For this reason, as well as for the fact of open protocol, the IP has got huge popularity in all kinds of communication network and put out all other application concept.


Boudani, A. & Cousin, B. (2003). A New Small Multicast Routing Protocol, the 10th International Conference on Telecommunications, February 2003, Tahiti, French Polynesy

Boudani, A.; Guitton, A.& Cousin, B. (2004). Generalized Explicit Multicast Routing Protocol, The 9th IEEE Symposium on Computers and Communications, June 2004, Alexandria, Egypt

Halabi, S.(2000). Internet Routing Architecture, Cisco Press, ISBN-13:978-1-57870-233-6; Indianapolis, SAD

Van Miegham, P. (2006). Performance Analysis of Communications Networks and Systems, Cambridge University Press, The Edinburgh Building ISBN 978-0521-10873-7, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK

Williamson, B. (1999). Developing IP Multicast Networks, Volume I, Cisco Press ISBN-10: 1-5787-077-9, Indianapolis, SAD

*** (2009). Paterson University of New Jersey, Communications, a monthly journal published by ACM, Accessed on: 2009-04-14
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Author:Macura, Arijana
Publication:Annals of DAAAM & Proceedings
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:4EUAU
Date:Jan 1, 2009
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