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Projecting the Past: Ancient Rome, Cinema and History.

The ten papers making up (B)(**)Inventing Ancient Culture(1) are reputed to be `informed by the issues of continuity and change' (8), a claim not always realised in performance. Too much here represents essentially the recycled, especially in Part I where, for example, Kilmer write on male -- male homoerotic scenes on pots, Konstan on philia, and Dixon on `family feeling(s)'. I much prefer, from Part II, Ian Morris on the concept of the Dark Age and Sourvinou-Inwood tracing the transformation of the Eleusinian cult from an agricultural cult to one which `included a significant eschatological/soteriological component' (159). A recent visit to Bodrum and its castle in order to see the Carian Princess Hall left me very much in two minds about what is legitimate when it comes to museum display and what can be thought historically acceptable, but in no doubt about the seductive power of facial reconstruction, and that is an impression strongly reinforced by a reading of the enthusiastically assembled (*)Making Faces,(2) an account of this procedure as practised in the case of Philip II, King Midas, the burials from Grave Circle B at Mycenae, the victims of earthquake found at Crete's Anemospilia, the Etruscan Seianti, and Halicarnassus' Ada I (who may have boasted a `Greek' nose but it was still `a very unqueenly runny nose', 211). I continue to suspend judgement but am definitely wavering on the side of the true believers. As intriguing a story as it is undoubtedly gruesome but not devoid of a touch of humour as when it is noted that `waste polyester proved ideal for the task [of packing the inside of skulls during casting] -- the most convenient supply was sold as hamster bedding from a local pet shop in suburban Manchester' (119). The analysis of myth advanced in (B)(**)The Fall of Troy in Early Greek Poetry and Art(3) has much to recommend it, but I am altogether less enthusiastic about its interpretation of tragedy where representative examples are provided by the Agamemnon and Eumenides, Andromache, and Troades, well trodden ground which scarcely qualifies as `early' though discussion of iconography, including the Mykonos relief pithos and Attic pottery with subjects like the recovery of Helen, murder of Priam, and rape of Cassandra, is more enlightening. But mythological parallels are skilfully investigated, even if some, e.g., that between the theft of the Palladion and the wooden horse are more convincing than others, e.g., between the wooden horse and the ships of Paris, while further insight is provided by, for instance, the correlation, and opposition, between father and son (Achilles and Neoptolemos) and between victims and survivors (Priamids and the family of Aeneas, though here again I rather recoil at the `ironic correlation' between Achilles and Aeneas as second-class members of their respective communities). The author certainly ranges widely considering also, on the mythological side, the nostoi and the sack of Troy by Heracles and of Athens by the Dioskouroi, all of which is well worth reading. In (B)(**)Ethnic Identity in Greek Antiquity(4) the argument is advanced, and convincingly upheld, that `ethnicity is a social rather than a biological phenomenon' (32), promoted, for example, by myths of ethnic origin, such as the return of the Herakleidai tradition, and already established by the time the earliest texts appear, i.e., in the eighth and seventh centuries. Wider in its scope than might be anticipated in considering earlier scholarship in its context and in referring to analogous but distant evidence, this study is all the more informative as it contemplates ethnicity and archaeology and linguistics while also discussing the populations of the Argolid as part of a case-study. This is an exciting book and deserves very serious consideration for its approach and methodology as much as for it subject-matter and conclusion. It is even more helpful if read in conjunction with a book like The Macedonian Conflict (see this issue, pages 123-4). (B)(**)Athens and Persia in the Fifth Century BC(5) examines the evidence for Perserie (cf. Chinoiserie) or the Athenian receptivity to Persian culture made possible by booty, trade, private interaction, and diplomatic activity (= `Spheres of Contact'). Such cultural exchange is shown to be represented by black-gloss pottery which imitated, adapted or responded more generally to Achaemenid metalware, by items of dress (kandys, sleeved chiton, ependytes), and by luxury goods as varied as peacocks, parasols, fans, and flywhisks and slaves to wield them, and eunuchs. Much more thrilling is the link suggested between that very strange building Pericles' Odeion, apparently a rectilinear structure with a pyramidal roof and, possibly, no walls, and the Persian hypostyle audience hall, both being expressions of imperial power. Argument is fully supported by generous illustrations. The seventeen speeches translated in (*)Trials from Classical Athens(6) fall into half a dozen groups -- Homicide Cases (Lysias 1 and Antiphon 1, 5, and 6); Assault and Wounding (Lysias 3, Demosthenes 54, and Isocrates 20); Suits concerning Property (Lysias 32, Isaeus 3 and 4, and Demosthenes 55); Cases concerning Commerce (Hyperides 3 and Demosthenes 35 and 37); Cases concerning Citizenship (Demosthenes 59 and 57); and Slander (Lysias 10) -- and these are accompanied by a `broad', and most useful, introduction to the Athenian legal system (1-25). The onesided nature of what is said and the huge gaps in our knowledge of the law (and in some of the texts themselves) can be terribly frustrating, but valuable insight is given into Athenian attitudes, particularly towards women and slaves. At the same time I can see what Carey means when he describes one case as being `at first sight impenetrable to the modern reader' (164). Carey also makes the point `that Athenian juries . . . were in general more interested in the thrust of a law than in its wording' (239), something not unknown in our own legal system since The Times of 13/6/97, for instance, reported that the Law Lords claimed that whether tax should be paid depended on the meaning of the tax laws rather than the strict letter of the law; in fact `it was not necessary to interpret the relevant taxing position in the traditional literal way' and that `it should be read in terms of its underlying purpose'. The oldest `literary' (if a commentary seemingly devoted to the interpretation of an Orphic theology can be described as literary) papyrus to be found and found, moreover, in Greece, the Derveni Papyrus inspired its own conference in 1993 and its own collection of papers four years later, (B)(**)Studies on the Derveni Papyrus.(7) A translation, but still as yet no authorized text, is followed by a survey and four general articles on interpretation, author, and Near Eastern parallels, four discussions of specific columns (Col. 1-VII, Col. IV and its reference to Heraclitus, Col. XII, and Col. XXV), and bibliography. We complain about archaeologists and the delay in producing excavation reports, but here we have a crucial text for the student of religion which was discovered in 1962 but which to date has appeared merely as an anonymous publication based on a preliminary transcription and only then twenty years after discovery. Really! (**)Dionysian Imagery in Fifth-Century Athens(8) takes as its primary sources the more than 4,000 representations of Dionysos and his companions to survive from fifth-century Athens and that, of course, means, essentially, vases and architectural sculpture. So many individual `trees' make it easy to lose sight of the collective forest but interesting if not devastating points are made about the god's Thracian background (most obviously in the Lykourgos; story), nymphs and not mortal women as his female companions, the `back-flung head' as an indication of song rather than ecstasy, Dionysos' loss of beard (a change which surely does not mark a change in religious outlook), and the imagery of Bacchae, Frogs, and on Attic vases. Little may be referred to cult performance, especially when nymphs replace maenads, and that is a disappointment. A lot of effort has clearly been expended but little new, I fear, has emerged. Unpretentious and compact. The River Gods of Greece(9) achieves what it sets out to do -- to describe the rivers of the Hellenic peninsula and their associated myths, beginning in the North West with the Acheloos and ending in the Peloponnese with the Neda. The photos of the actual rivers evoke the fondest memories. Systematic is, I suspect, the word which best describes (B)Gender and Immortality,(10) an investigation into the Greek heroine which includes a detailed catalogue of these females (173-235). It is this list, together with the helpful index, which I have found myself consulting or checking to confirm a reference. I would prefer more in the way of interpretation but perhaps I expect too much. Or have I been spoiled by the dozen essays making up (B)Medea,(11) four on `mythic representations' (the outsider and initiatrix, reproductive demon, foundation heroine, and illustration of sibling relationship), four on `literary portraits' (as to be seen in Pindar, Euripides, Apollonius, and Ovid), and a pair each on philosophical exploitation (a few desultory comments from John Dillon and Nussbaum on Seneca's Medea) and on oriental costume in Medea's iconography and twentieth-century stage presentations of Medea as, for example, a freedom-fighter. `Exciting' is my judgement of this collection. A three-fold division, into Judaica, Greeks and Romans, and Christian Traditions, 54 items, mainly including translations, and almost as many contributors make (B)Prayer from Alexander to Constantine(12) an extensive collection of addresses to, or celebrations of, a deity. Part II features a pair of Cato's prayers, Cleanthes' Hymn to Zeus, pieces from Catullus, Virgil, Livy, and Diodorus Siculus, and some altogether more esoteric offerings. It's about time Lacey was up-dated and this has now been achieved by the publication of (B)Families in Classical and Hellenistic Greece.(13) Less stimulating than I anticipated or hoped but at its best when discussing particular families, e.g., that of Demosthenes, this account of family, heredity, death, and occupations is certainly well organized and invariably sensible as when, for instance, it argues that `analogy with Athens, rather than polarity, is the key to understanding Spartan families' (62). Its author, the redoubtable Pomeroy, by her interest in gender studies and by her training as a papyrologist, is splendidly equipped to conduct us through often complex or incomplete material, especially as she appears to have read everything and is anxious to leave no avenue unexplored. (B)(*)Friendship in the Classical World(14) is said to be 'the first comprehensive study in English' of this topic (23). The subject is tackled on a chronological basis -- archaic Greece (i.e., from Homer to Theognis), the classical city (down to Aristotle), the Hellenistic world, Rome, and Christian and pagan -- and particular words, most obviously philos and amicus, and particular passages are examined in some detail. Friendship is shown, both for Greeks and for Romans, to be not as sordidly materialistic as is often assumed and, even less expectedly, `the claim that networks of close friends were the basis of political activity in the (Athenian) democracy' is challenged though `doubtless, intimates often stuck together in politics' (65); `Cicero's relationship with Atticus is a world apart from those with Metallus or Antony, and Romans of his class were conscious of the difference between intimate friendships and polite or useful connections in public life' (128). A real change comes with Christianity and the fourth century when the ideal of friendship was displaced by a more extreme emphasis on brotherhood but that I would not call unexpected. Primary evidence is cited throughout and on a generous scale. Chapters 2 and 3 of the first volume of A History of Young People in the West(15) cover Greece and Rome: the former is a touch old-fashioned and very Gallic in its concentration on initiatory ritual (= Homer and Age Cohorts, Cretans and Spartans, the Athenian Ephebe, Young Men and the Hunt, Hunting as Initiation [but with no mention of Odyssey 19 and the hero's scar], Images of Youth, Mythical Founders), and what follows continues much the same story using, however, this time the evidence of vase painting and discussing, towards the close, young women as well; the latter opens with Romulus and Remus and then the festival of Lupercalia and the combat between the Horatii and the Curiatii, all of which, somehow or other, leads on to a more orthodox if uneven look at a young man's progress through his early years, from the assumption of the toga virilis to military service with consideration on the way of the relationship between young and old, such as sons and fathers, and of organizations catering for young men. Only a partial story is told in both chapters, and the secondary literature quoted in the notes needs to be greatly revised for an English-speaking audience if gaps are to be filled by further reading. (**)Painter and Poet in Ancient Greece(16) is a collection of twenty papers by Eva C. Keuls originally printed in a variety of journals or similar publications between 1969 and the present day. Subjects considered include New Comedy, painting and vase painting, and women. The most interesting (and least convincing?) are an interpretation of the Alexander Mosaic (= Memnon's attack on Nestor at Troy who is saved by his son Antilochus; cf. The Alexander Mosaic, 106ff.) which would make it an `intricate joke' (267) and the argument that an indirect result of the introduction of medicine at the end of the fifth century was the development of legal and moral sanctions against institutionalized pederasty at Athens. Robert Palmer is associated with the study of Roman religion and in (B)(**)Rome and Carthage at Peace(17) he examines the evidence for commercial contact between these two states before their conflicts, and proceeds to argue that victories in the First Punic War and defeats in the Second Punic War persuaded the Romans to adopt deities from North Africa, namely Janus, Spes, Hercules, Saturn, Erycine Venus, and Apollo. Quarters at Rome named Vicus Africus and Vicus Sobrius, the latter once having a cult of the African god Mercurius Sobrius, further suggest the presence, for hundreds of years, of Carthaginian traders at Rome -- hence the audience's appreciation of Plautus' comedy Poenulus whose `pious' Hanno speaks Punic on his first entrance. All highly technical but not without interest. A symposium dating back to 1993 and devoted to the subject `Beyond the Consumer City' is the source of the nine papers gathered together as (B)(**)Roman Urbanism.(18) Especially striking are studies of social mobility by Henrik Mouritsen (`the "old versus new" model ignores the importance of clientelism and social control in Roman society, 77), of the elite's economic exploitation of the urban centre by Helen Parkins; (`the income they [the elite] derived from rural rents may have provided the bedrock of their social status and wealth, but the city helped to supply more immediate cash needs', 108), and of the archaeological evidence from Pompeii as an indicator of domestic behaviour by Penelope Allison (`current concepts . . . owe much to masculinist interpretations ... and to contemporary Northern European and Anglo-Saxon patriarchal cultural analogy', 143). Penelope Allison also contributes the last piece, a very similar essay, to (**)The Roman Family in Italy,(19) this time thirteen papers aimed at a wide readership though I rather doubt myself whether the non-specialist will make much of some of these discussions of Roman kinship (Richard Saller), lower-class families (Jane Gardner), Junian Latins (Paul Weaver), senatorial families (Werner Eck), slaves and sons in St Paul, Lactantius, and Augustine, an enthralling contribution from Peter Garnsey, the elderly (Tim Parkin), family conflicts where Cicero's relatives loom large (Suzanne Dixon), the language of epitaphs (Nielsen), the well illustrated iconography of childhood (Rawson and Huskinson), the heavily statistical regional approach to familial structures (Gallivan and Wilkins), and domestic space (Lisa Nevett and, separately, Michele George). (**)Alexandria in Late Antiquity(20) only too clearly reveals how turbulent civic life might be as pagan and Jew or Alexandrian and Roman or the Christian church and virtually everybody else, including `deviant' factions, clashed repeatedly, an almost unavoidable consequence of the city's ethno-religious bodies providing `a primary group affiliation'. It was Christianity which, in the end, established the hegemonic culture but its triumph remained much in doubt for most of the fourth century. An instructive story which a relative abundance of source material enables us to trace in a fair measure of detail and with some plausibility. There is more of interest in (B)(**)Piscinae: Artificial Fishponds in Roman Italy(21) that you might imagine -- chapters on the construction and operation of fishponds, on species of fish raised, and on the social implication of being the owner of a fishpond. But the bulk of this book is devoted to a gazetteer of fishponds in Etruria, Rome and Latium, Pontine Islands, Campania, and Lucania. A remarkable number of these structures is listed, especially at sites like Baiae, Herculaneum, and Pompeii, though it was the identification of fishponds at Paestum which surprised me most. Is it significant that all three papers forming Part II Rhetoric and society of `Roman Eloquence(22) are by women but none of the four pieces comprising Part I Theories, transitions and tensions and only two of the seven grouped together as Part III Rhetoric and genre (= epic, satire, tragedy, comedy, erotic poetry, historiography, philosophy)? Amy Richlin, as usual, wins our attention by considering mainly 'gender construction in the rhetorical schools' (91), though, also as usual, going well over the top on occasions as when she states `it is startling to realize that a Roman orator must have looked more like a hula dancer than like a television anchorman' (100) ; the much more sober Elaine Fantham reveals a total command of the sources as she surveys `the contexts and occasions of Roman rhetoric' over the three hundred years from the elder Cato to Tacitus and the younger Pliny. An outline of the history of Roman law, the sources and their survival, procedure, and problems posed by the sources are the headings under which (B)(*)The Sauna of Roman Law,(23) clearly and concisely, introduces the student to a type of evidence many find daunting but, hopefully, no longer for we are now in a much stronger position to answer those basis questions -- `How really classical is the law of the jurists?' and `How far do the legal sources reflect actuality?' For Robinson Justinian could only have ordered the Digest, for example, because he wanted to preserve much of the law of the classical period. When it comes to real life, the legal sources alone are inadequate; they need to be used in conjunction with literary, epigraphic, and perhaps archaeological evidence. (B)(**)Authority and Tradition in Ancient Historiography(24) concentrates `on the explicit attempts by the ancient historians to convince the reader of their authority to narrate the deeds, and to portray themselves as believable narrators of those deeds' (258). Despite his range, from Herodotus to Ammian, and despite a preference for topic treatment rather than separate, distinct assessment of individual historians, Marincola exercises a complete and a masterly control over the great mass of material he presents. Chapters on `inquiry', i.e., the examination of eyewitnesses or those with access to eyewitnesses, and on the qualifications demanded of the historian (= experience, effort, impartiality) are quite outstanding and so too are the concluding couple of pages on the differences between Greek and Latin historiography and the fifth appendix on how historians choose from among variant versions by appeal to eyewitnesses, numbers, the more persuasive, native tradition, and character of source. This book is a `must'. We have been waiting some time for a book like (B)(*)Projecting the Past,(25) an exploration of cinematic reconstructions of Roman history based on four case studies or films about Spartacus, Cleopatra, Nero, and the city of Pompeii. These films, of course, tell us much more about prevailing attitudes at the time when they were produced than about the world of Rome: thus the Kirk Douglas Spartacus gives `an extremely sinister turn' to `the familiar Cold War rhetoric of vigilant patriotism' (67), an emphasis not unexpected when you recall it is based on a novel by Howard Fast adapted by Dalton Trumbo, both of whom were members of the notorious Hollywood Ten. Less surprising perhaps though I doubt it is Nero as `a symbol of virility, luxury and the pleasures of consumerism for 1950s America' (110) as exemplified by an advert for rayon boxer shorts! Even more significant, and also from the 1950s, are the biblical epics such as The Robe or Ben Hur or Quo Vadis (notice the absence, for reason of historical accuracy, of the question mark), the last of which `was treated as a threatening weapon of enemy ideology by the Communist rulers of Eastern Europe' (144) but note `a slight qualification' offered by the `engaging' figure of Petronius (= `the repression of the film industry's creativity which constant vigilance against Communism has required'). It is quite devastating, and intriguing at the same time, to learn that the 1935 The Last Days of Pompeii reveals its American background in owing more to `the narrative codes of the contemporary gangster film' (175) (= the pursuit of materialistic values leads to the hero's fall in the last reel) than to the excavation of that city. Though, sadly, this film flopped commercially, it's about time Pompeii featured once again now that the disaster genre of movie is so popular. Finally a very minor point: it is inaccurate to state that Goering took a number of crates of Pompeian antiquities `from their Vatican haven' (181) -- these creates never got that far. Aelian, Historical Miscellany(26) is the latest addition to The Loeb Classical Library. Living apparently in Rome in the late second and early third century A.D., Aelian compiled in Greek what is termed a `collection of nuggets and narratives' or `engaging anecdotes'. A quick look at the index is perhaps the easiest way of discovering what is covered and at what length: thus the letter `w' has four entries, single references to `Water snakes' and `weasels' and rather more listed under `wrestling' and very much more under `wine'. Notice also the frequent reference to Alexander the Great, courtesans, Diogenes, Dionysius; II, Homer, love, painting (see pages 9-10 for this interest), Persia(ns), Philip, Plato, Socrates, and Sparta(ns). A true miscellany? The World's Classics translation (B)(*)Apollodorus, The Library of Greek Mythology(27) is a surprisingly fat volume with a substantial introduction (vii-xxvii), a `select' but useful bibliography (xxxi-xxxiv), genealogical tables (9-25), and full notes '177-261) Even fatter, however, is The World's Classics (B)(*)Galen, Selected Works,(28) actually `My own books', `The order of my own books', `The best doctor is also a philosopher', `An exhortation to study the arts', `To Thrasyboulos', `The affections and errors of the soul', `The soul's dependence on the body', `The construction of the embryo', `Mixtures I-III', `The best constitution of our bodies', `Good condition', `The exercise with the small ball', `The thinning diet', `The pulse for beginners', and `The art of medicine', a fascinating string of tides and one abundantly supported by an Introduction (vii-xlii) and Explanatory Notes (397-436). The intention behind this selection is to give an overview of Galen's thought. Only three of the translated works, moreover, have appeared before in English (xl n. 17). Thanks to (**)Pseudo-Hecataeus, On the Jews(29) I now know that the ethnographer Hecataeus of Abdera was not the author of the sparse fragments and testimonia we owe to Josephus' attack on the anti-Jewish writers of the Roman period. The actual passages and their translation from Against Apion occupy less than eight pages (46-53) but have inspired a study of nearly 400 pages in order to identify the true author, a Diaspora Jew living in Egypt and attempting to justify Jewish residence in that country about 100 B.C. It is not only the evangelical movement which is likely to applaud the publication of translations of the few, sparse Donatist texts to have survived. Both title and sub-tide of `Donatist Martyr Stones: the Church in Conflict in Roman North Africa(30) make the context of these seven hagiographies quite evident, and the inclusion of legal and literary notes helps to clarify `the history of a community largely obscured by the propaganda of the victors' (xvii). Something of a mixture, (B)(**)Women, Men and Eunuchs: Gender in Byzantium(31) has Avril Cameron suggesting `that the appropriation into the religious sphere of the language of erotic love is a primary factor to reckon with in assessments of Byzantine gender' (17), Robin Cormack arguing `that the supposed special importance of women in the promotion of icons is a chimera' (43), an assessment of the augusta Helena as a symbol and of the Macedonian princesses Zoe and Theodora, queen Tamar, and the Alexiad's author, Ruth Webb illustrating from the story of Salome and her mother Herodias how `the male depictions of dancing women reveal a concept of female sexuality as active' (140), and general surveys of the Byzantine eunuch and configuration of masculinity. The product of a seminar series and, as a result, a trifle disjointed (and deceptive in that men and eunuchs are not all that prominent?). Billed as the first complete translation into English, (**)The Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor(32) is particularly important for the period A.D. 602 to 813 when it becomes a primary source, utilizing writings almost entirely lost. Characterized as `a file of extracts borrowed from earlier sources' (lxxiv), this historical survey and its compiler are set in their context by a lengthy introduction (xliii-c), and frequent notes further supplement the translation. (B)(**)Kings, Courtiers and Imperium(33) looks at the Regnum Francorum, Visigothic Spain, Lombard Italy, and Anglo-Saxon England, concluding that `seventh-century continental rulers appear less decadent than has often been supposed' (172). Of an especial interest to the classical historian is the continuation of Roman/imperial traditions such as the adventus ritual. But even more instructive is the analysis of the character and limitations of the relevant sources -- little can be taken for granted or at its face value. If you dip into (**)Lexicographica Graeca(34) (but preferably only after having first read the somewhat acerbic but highly enlightening introduction on LSJ and its Supplement), you may well be surprised at what you discover especially in the case of the longer entries, e.g., [GREEK TEXT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] words, after all, common enough. This book made me appreciate the depth of my ignorance more than many others of a considerably greater length. Don't be deterred if it's confined to the reference section; it has much to offer both in respect of method and in respect of substance. (B) Medieval Latin(35) acts as both an introduction (= Part Two: Medieval Latin Philology, Varieties of Medieval Latin from Christian and Biblical Latin to the terminology of mills and milling and Part Three: Varieties of Medieval Latin Literature from epic to translations) and bibliographical guide (= Part One: General Reference and Research Tools and the Select Bibliographies accompanying later entries). Very much a tool for the postgraduate and scholar, so weighty a volume certainly supports its assertion `that thousands of publications relevant to the field are now appearing every year' (5).

((*) denotes that a book is specially recommended for school libraries; (**) that it is suitable for advanced students only; (B) that a bibliography is included.)

NOTES

(1.) Inventing Ancient Culture. Historicism, Periodization, and the Ancient World. Edited by Mark Golden and Peter Toohey. Routledge, London and New York, 1997. Pp. x + 238, with 9 plates. Paper 14.99 [pounds sterling].

(2.) Making Faces. Using Forensic and Archaeological Evidence. By John Prag and Richard Neave. British Museum Press, London, 1997. Pp. 256, with 20 colour and 130 black-and-white illustrations and 1 map. 18.99 [pounds sterling].

(3.) The Fall of Troy in Early Greek Poetry and Art. Oxford Classical Monograph. By Michael J. Anderson. Oxford U.P., 1997. Pp. xi + 283, with 10 illustrations. 40-00 [pounds sterling].

(4.) Ethnic Identity in Greek Antiquity. By Jonathan M. Hall. Cambridge U.P., 1997. Pp. xviii + 228, with 27 figures. 35.00 [pounds sterling].

(5.) Athens and Persia in the Fifth Century BC. A Study in Cultural Receptivity. By Margaret C. Miller. Cambridge U.P., 1997. Pp. xiv + 331, with 150 figures and 2 maps. 60.00 [pounds sterling].

(6.) Trials from Classical Athens. By Christopher Carey. Routledge, London and New York, 1997. Pp. viii + 247. Hardback 45.00 [pounds sterling], paperback 14.99 [pounds sterling].

(7.) Studies on the Derveni Papyrus. Edited by Andre Laks and Glenn W. Most Oxford U.P., 1997. Pp. viii + 204. 30.00 [pounds sterling].

(8.) Dionysian Imagery in Fifth-Century Athens. Oxford Monographs on Classical Archaeology. By Thomas H. Carpenter. Oxford U.P., 1997. Pp. xiii + 157, with frontispiece and 47 plates. 45.00 [pounds sterling].

(9.) The River Gods of Greece. Myths and Mountain Waters in the Hellenic World. By Harry Brewster. I. B. Tauris, London and New York, 1997. Pp. x + 116, with 40 illustrations and 1 map. 25.00 [pounds sterling].

(10.) Gender and Immortality. Heroines in Ancient Greek Myth and Cult. By Deborah Lyons. Princeton U.P., 1997. Pp. xvii + 270, with 8 figures. 27.50 [pounds sterling].

(11.) Medea. Essays on Medea in Myth, Literature, Philosophy, and Art. Edited by James J. Clauss and Sarah Iles Johnston. Princeton U.P., 1997. Pp. xiii + 374, with 5 illustrations. Cloth 45.00 [pounds sterling], paper 14.95 [pounds sterling].

(12.) Prayer from Alexander to Constantine. A Critical Anthology. Introduced and edited by Mark Kiley et al. Routledge, London and New York, 1997. Pp. xx + 332. Hardback 50.00 [pounds sterling], paperback 15.99 [pounds sterling].

(13.) Families in Classical and Hellenistic Greece. Representations and Realities. By Sarah B. Pomeroy. Oxford U.P., 1997. Pp. x + 261, with 3 plates and 10 figures. 35.00 [pounds sterling].

(14.) Friendship in the Classical World. Key Themes in Ancient History. By David Konstan. Cambridge U.P., 1997. Pp. xiv + 206. Hardback 35.00 [pounds sterling], paperback 12.95 [pounds sterling].

(15.) A History of Young People in the West. Volume One Ancient and Medieval Rites of Passage. Edited by Giovanni Levi and Jean-Claude Schmitt. Harvard U.P., 1997. Pp. vi + 396, with illustrations. 23.50 [pounds sterling].

(16.) Painter and Poet in Ancient Greece. Iconography and the Literary Arts. Beitrage zur Altertumskunde Band 87. By Eva C. Keuls. Teubner, Stuttgart and Leipzig, 1997. Pp. 430, with 103 figures. Price not stated.

(17.) Rome and Carthage at Peace. Historia Einzelschriften 113. By Robert E. A. Palmer. Steiner Verlag, Stuttgart, 1997. Pp. 152. Limp DM. 68.

(18.) Roman Urbanism. Beyond the Consumer City. Edited by Helen M. Parkins. Routledge, London and New York, 1997. Pp. xvi + 227, with 13 figures and 2 tables. 45.00 [pounds sterling].

(19.) The Roman Family in Italy. Status, Sentiment, Space. Edited by Beryl Rawson and Paul Weaver. Humanities Research Centre, Canberra and Oxford U.P., 1997. Pp. xvi + 378, with frontispiece, figures, and tables. 45.00 [pounds sterling].

(20.) Alexandria in Late Antiquity. Topography and Social Conflict. Ancient Society and History. By Christopher Haas. Johns Hopkins U.P., 1997. Pp. xviii + 494, with 26 figures, 2 plans, and 3 maps. 37.00 [pounds sterling].

(21.) Piscinae: Artificial Fishponds in Roman Italy. Studies in the History of Greece and Rome. By James Higginbotham. University of North Carolina Press, 1997. Pp. xix + 284, with 109 figures. $49.95.

(22.) Roman Eloquence. Rhetoric in Society and Literature. Edited by William J. Dominik. Routledge, London and New York, 1997. Pp. xii + 268. Paper 14.99 [pounds sterling].

(23.) The Sources of Roman Law. Problems and Methods for Ancient Historians. Approaching the Ancient World. By 0. F. Robinson. Routledge, London and New York, 1997. Pp. xi + 155. Paper 10.99 [pounds sterling].

(24.) Authority and Tradition in Ancient Historiography. By John Marincola. Cambridge U.P., 1997. Pp. xvi + 361. 45.00 [pounds sterling].

(25.) Projecting the Past. Ancient Rome, Cinema, and History. The New Ancient World. By Maria Wyke. Routledge, London and New York, 1997. Pp. x + 237, with illustrations. Hardback 45.00 [pounds sterling], paperback 12.99 [pounds sterling].

(26.) Aelian, Historical Miscellany. LCL 486. Edited and translated by N. G. Wilson. Harvard U.P., 1997. Pp. 514. 11.95 [pounds sterling].

(27.) Apollodorus, The Library of Greek Mythology. Translated by Robin Hard. Oxford U.P., 1997. Pp. xxxiv + 291. Paper 6.99 [pounds sterling].

(28.) Galen, Selected Works. Translated with an Introduction and Notes by P. N. Singer. Oxford U.P., 1997. Pp. lii + 448. Paper 7.99 [pounds sterling].

(29.) Pseudo-Hecataeus, On the Jews. Legitimizing the Jewish Diaspora. Hellenistic Culture and Society Vol. XXI. By Bezalel Bar-Kochva. University of California Press, 1996 Pp. xii + 396, with 4 plates and 5 maps. 45.00 [pounds sterling].

(30.) Donatist Martyr Stories. The Church in Conflict in Roman North Africa. Translated Texts for Historians Volume 24. Translated with Notes and Introduction by Maureen A. Tilley. Liverpool U.P., 1996. Pp. xxxvi + 101, with 1 map. Paper 9.95 [pounds sterling].

(31.) Women, Men and Eunuchs. Gender in Byzantium. Edited by Liz James. Routledge, London and New York, 1997. Pp. xxiv + 207, with 6 plates and I figure. Paper 14.99 [pounds sterling].

(32.) The Chronicle of Theophanes Confessor. Byzantine and Near Eastern History AD 284-813. Translated with Introduction and Commentary by Cyril Mango and Roger Scott. Oxford U.P., 1997. Pp. c + 744. 80.00 [pounds sterling].

(33.) Kings, Courtiers and Imperium. The Barbarian West 565-725. By P. S. Barnwell. Duckworth, London, 1997. Pp. ix + 261, with 5 maps and 4 genealogical tables. 40.00 [pounds sterling].

(34.) Lexicographica Graeca. Contributions to the Lexicography of Ancient Greek. By John Chadwick. Oxford U.P., 1996. Pp. vi + 343. 45.00 [pounds sterling].

(35.) Medieval Latin. An Introduction and Bibliographical Guide. Edited by F. A. C. Mantello and A. G. Rigg. The Catholic University of America Press, 1996. Pp. xiv + 774. Paper. Price not stated.
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Author:Walcot, P.
Publication:Greece & Rome
Article Type:Book Review
Date:Apr 1, 1998
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