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Progression of powdery mildew, Alternaria blight and bacterial leaf blight of cluster bean in relation to weather parameters.

Cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) is an important leguminous herb, highly adapted to arid and semi-arid parts of the world requiring low inputs and care. The seeds are highly valued for industrial gum. It is cultivated mainly in rainy season as a rainfed crop in arid zones of India and various other parts of the world (Pathak et al. 2009). Sustainable cluster bean cultivation is continuously challenged by diseases that cause quantitative and qualitative losses in yield. The crop is suffering from number of fungal, bacterial, viral and mycoplasmal diseases. Among them the fungal diseases like Alternaria cyamopsidis causing blight, Leveillula taurica, causing powdery mildew, Macrophomina phaseolina causing dry root rot, Cercospora canescens causing cercospora leaf spot and Curvularia lunata causing curvularia leaf spot and Xanthomonas axonopodis pv cyamopsidis causing bacterial blight. Apart from this a number of fungi viz. Collectotrichum capsici f.sp. cyamopsicola, Fusarium moniliforme, Pseudomonas cyamopsicola, and Ascochyta are known to be carried by seeds and pathogenic to cluster bean and causes reduction in seed germination and loss of early seedling vigour. Bacterial blight has become a serious problem in many cluster bean production areas, during monsoon season i.e. July-October (Patel et al 1953; Srivastava and Rao 1963). Early infection may reduce the yield to a great extent (Gandhi and Chand 1985). Management of these infecting pathogens is difficult due to unavailability of commercial resistant varieties to these diseases. The disease progress curve, referred to as the signature of an epidemic, represents the integration of all the host, pathogen and environmental effects during the epidemic (Campbell and Madden 1990). The Area under Diseased Progress Curved (AUDPC) was decreased significantly for all different weather parameters. The correlation between AUDPC and weather parameters was varied. AUDPC was strongly correlated with all the meteorological attributes. The value of AUDPC was negatively correlated to different weather attributes proving that the pathogen had a damaging effect on the crop attributes of cluster bean.

The natural epidemics of blights are strongly influenced by environmental conditions and severe disease appears every year in India. Hence, the present study was confined on the epidemiological aspects of blights and powdery mildew of cluster bean was undertaken. In spite of a lot of work done on the chemical management of these diseases, invariably it was found ineffective in its economic management. One of the reasons would be insufficient information in the epidemiological aspects of the diseases.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

To understand the effect of various weather factors on development of powdery mildew, Alternaria blight and bacterial leaf blight of cluster bean, disease development was studied on plants by staggered weekly sowing. Based on disease severity, area under disease progress curve (AUDPC) was calculated. The experiment was conducted to find out the effect of weather conditions on development of Powdery mildew, Alternaria blight and Bacterial leaf blight on susceptible cluster bean cultivar. Pot experiments were laid out in completely randomized design (CRD) with five replications separately for each of the three diseases i.e., powdery mildew, Alternaria blight and bacterial leaf blight to find out the effect of environmental factors on the development of the three diseases on susceptible local cultivar in Kharif, 2014 in the cage house, at Department of Plant Pathology, RCA Udaipur. Cluster bean plants were raised in 25 cm earthen pots having soil: FYM (3:1) mixture from organic field where organic farming is practiced for past six years. Staggered sowings for each of the three diseases was done from 1stJuly and dates were as followed 7th, 14th and 21st July, 2014, after germination, 20-day s-old plants were inoculated on 21st July, 27th July, 3 rd Aug. and 10th Aug. in year 2014 respectively for each of the sowings. Inoculations were made with a spore suspension of inoculum concentration of 1 x 103 conidia ml-1 for Alternaria cyamopsidis and 2.5x108cfu/ml for X. axonopodis pv. cyamopsidis, and L. taurica was studied under un-inoculated natural conditions.

Powdery mildew naturally infected plants, Alternaria blight and bacterial leaf blight inoculated plants were periodically observed for disease severity and area under disease progress curve (AUDPC) calculation. Considerable variations were observed in AUDPC in four different dates of sowing and correlation with weather factors on disease development. To know the relationship between the dependent variable i.e., disease severity (s) and six independent variables weather factors (max. temp., min. temp., max. RH, min. RH, sunshine and rainfall) multiple regression analysis was done starting with 1stJuly and dates were as followed 7th, 14th and 21st July, 2014. By fitting equations, the contribution of weather factors in the development of powdery mildew, Alternaria blight and bacterial leaf blight was observed.

Periodical observation on disease progress of Pm, Alt. and Bac. Blight was recorded during disease prevailing period using five-point rating scale as described by Adinarayana et al, 2012, Pandey et al. 2003. Weather variables viz., temperature, RH, sunshine hours and rainfall etc. were also recorded for crop season and correlation was worked out.

Per cent disease index (PDI) was calculated based on each reading till physiological maturity of crop. The per cent infection index described by (Chester, 1959 and Wheeler, 1969) Weekly meteorological data on maximum and minimum temperature morning and evening relative humidity, rainfall and duration of sunshine hours were obtained from agro met observatory, Agronomy farm, RCA, Udaipur for the period between disease recordings to establish their correlation with disease development. Multiple regression equation, correlation coefficient and coefficient of multiple determination (R2) were calculated as per the standard statistical formula Y = a + b1X1 + b2X2 + b3X3 + b4X4 + b5X5 where Y = Percent disease index, a is intercept/constant value, b1 ... b5 are regression coefficient of corresponding independent weather variables, X1 ... X5 are independent weathers variables. Area under disease progress curve (AUDPC) was calculated as described by Campbell and Madden (1990) as follows:

AUDPC = [n-1.summation over (i=1)] ([y.sub.i] + [y.sub.i] + 1/2) ([t.sub.i] + 1-[t.sub.i])

Where,

[Y.sub.i] = The cumulative disease index expressed as a proportion at the ith observation

[t.sub.i] = Time (days after planting) at the ith observations.

n = Total number of observations

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The area under disease progress curve (AUDPC) is a quantitative measure of disease intensity with time. It is used in plant pathology to indicate and compose level of resistance to disease among, effect of weather factors and different date of sowing. Lower AUDPC represented slower disease progression and the high AUDPC represents faster disease progression

Powdery mildew

The cluster bean grown in kharif season indicated that powdery mildew incidence started in the month of September. In the present study, powdery mildew AUDPC values were lower during 21st July to 16th September when temperature ranges in 21.4-28.7[degrees]C and relative humidity 63.0-92.4 per cent. The AUDPC values were moderate during 17th September to 30th September 2014. While increase in temperature (20.0-33.9[degrees]C) during 1st October to 6th November 2014 period, the disease progression was much faster and high AUDPC values were obtained. It appeared that despite different ages of the cluster bean plants, the temperature of 19.4- 31.8[degrees]C and 16.6 to 33.2[degrees]C were the most confined during 24th September to 29th October 2014. These observations are useful for timely application of organic pesticides for checking further spread of the disease. This seems to be crucial stage when prophylactic control measures may be applied to suppress the disease. Manipulation of sowing time has some effect on the incidence and severity of many diseases. Many field crops can escape various diseases with the shifting of sowing time (Sud and Singh, 1984). This was supported by (Hedge and Anahosur, 1994). The multiple regression equation was Y = 92.13-0.166 X1-2.248 X2+0.255 X3-0.715 X4-1.514 X5 + 0.008 X6, and coefficient of multiple determination (R2), 1.0 mean 100 per cent these six independent weather variables are contributing for disease development. R2 were 0.97 (97%). It indicated that there was 97% influence of six meteorological factors and the remaining 3% variations were unexplained (Table-1).

Alternaria blight

Alternaria blight AUDPC values were low during 22nd July to 3rd September when temperature ranges in 22.8-29.1[degrees]C and relative humidity 76.1-89.3 per cent. The AUDPC values were moderate during 10 th September to 30th September 2014. While increase in temperature (20.0-33.9[degrees]C and 18.4-31.4[degrees]C) during 1st October to 6th November 2014, the disease progression was much faster and high AUDPC values were obtained. It appeared that despite different date of sowings of the cluster bean, the temperature of 18.1-34.4[degrees]C and 18.4 to 31.4[degrees]C were the most confined during 8 th October to 6th November 2014. Some of the workers have studied various weather factors for disease development of A. solani (Gupta & Paul 2001, Dragomir 1995, Tong et al. 1994). The multiple regression equation was = 124.545-0.421X1 -3.387 X2 + 0.126 X3**--0.505 X4-1.170 X5 + 0.025 X6** Multiple correlation coefficients (R2) were 0.95 (95%). It indicated that there was 95 % influence of six meteorological factors and the remaining 5% variations were unexplained (Table2). The period between 17th Sept. to 6th Nov. (2014) was found to be highly favorable for disease development and more severity during this period was observed in comparison to progressive phase. The minimum and maximum temperature range was 16.6-20.0[degrees]C and 31.4-34.4[degrees]C accompanied with minimum and maximum relative humidity i.e. between 21.5-52.0 and 71.4-84.1% respectively in progress phase AUDPC value range from 206.1 -378.3% disease was found almost stable (Table2). Meteorological conditions have a great effect on the development and severity of the disease (Humpherson-Jones & Phelps 1989, Marchegay et al. 1990, Hong & Fitt 1995, Hong et al. 1996, Shrestha et al. 2005).

Bacterial leaf blight

Bacterial leaf blight AUDPC values were low during 16th to 22nd July when temperature ranges in 24.3-31.9[degrees]C. The AUDPC values were high during 23rd July to 20th August 2014, when temperature range 23-30.10C and relative humidity 76.6-86.0 per cent. While decrease in temperature (23.0-31.8[degrees]C and 21.4-28.7[degrees]C) during 27st August to 10th September 2014, the disease progression was much faster and high AUDPC values were obtained. In 17th September to 1st October 2014 AUDPC constantly declined. From, 8th October to 6th November 2014 AUDPC sharply decreased due to increase in temperature, sunshine and decrease in RH & rainfall. These observations are useful for timely application of organic pesticides for checking further spread of the disease. The multiple regression equation = 76.56-4.4212X1 + 1.6873X2** - 0.04743X3 + 0.3028X4** + 7.348X5** + 1.1303 X6. Multiple correlation coefficients (R2) were 0.72 (72%). It indicated that there was 72% influence of six meteorological factors and the remaining 28% variations were unexplained (Table-3). In the pots having plants sown on 14th July and inoculated on 3rd August exhibited maximum bacterial blight and the disease recorded was higher as compared to other dates of sowing. The AUDPC abruptly increased from 4th to 5th week of inoculation from 289.4 to 444.5 reaching to its maximum 455.3 in 6th week of inoculation, due to increase and fluctuating in rainfall and relative humidity. The disease thereafter started gradually declining (Table-3). However, The disease progress curve, referred to as the signature of an epidemic, represents the integration of all the host, pathogen and environmental effects during the epidemic (Campbell and Madden 1990).

CONCLUSION

Powdery mildew severity increased with increasing in temperature (16.6-33.2[degrees]C) & Sunshine hours, during 21st Oct. to 6th Nov., the disease progression was much faster and AUDPC values of 313.2-333.9 were observed due to dry spell. Alternaria blight severity increased with increasing in temperature (19.8-32.5[degrees]C) & Sunshine hours, decreasing in rainfall & RH during 17th Sep. to 6th Nov. period, the disease progression was much faster and AUDPC values of 206.1-378.3 were observed. Bacterial blight severity increased with decreasing in maximum temperature (22.8-29.1[degrees]C) AUDPC abruptly increased from 289.4 to 444.5 reaching its maximum 455.3 due to fluctuations in rainfall and relative humidity.

REFERENCES

(1.) Hedge, VM. and Anahosur, K.H. 1994. Influence of sowing dates of mustard on the epidemiology of white rust. Indian Phytopath. 47(4): 391-394.

(2.) Sud, VK. and Singh, B.M. 1984. Effect of sowing dates and row spacing on the development of leaf spot (Cercospora canescens) on Urdbean. Indian Phytopath. 37: 288-293.

(3.) Campbell CL and Madden LV 1990. Introduction to plant disease epidemiology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, New York, pp.193.

(4.) Dragomir N 1995. Contributions to the study of the epidemiology and control of the fungi Alternaria porri f.sp. solani and Cladosporium fulvum attacking the outdoors early tomato crops. Anale-institutul-de-Cercetari-pentru-Legumicultuirta-si-F loricultura-Vidra13:235-242.

(5.) Gandhi S K and Chand J N. Yield lo sses in guar due to bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. cyamopsidis; Indian Phytopathol. 1985; 38, 516-519.

(6.) Gupta VK and Paul YS. Diseases of Vegetable Crops. Kalyani Publishers, 2001; pp.7-25.

(7.) Hong CX & Fitt BDL, Effects of inoculum concentration, leaf age and wetness period on the development of dark leaf and pod spot (Alternaria brassicae) on oilseed rape (Brassica napus). Ann Appl Biol, 1995; 127, 283-295.

(8.) Hong CX, Fitt BDL & Welhalm SJ, Effects of wetness period and temperature on development of dark pod spot (Alternaria brassicae) on oilseed rape (Brassica napus). Plant Pathol, 1996; 45, 1077-1089.

(9.) Humpherson-Jones FM & Phelps K, Climatic factors influencing spore production in Alternaria brassicae and Alternaria brassicicola. Ann Appl Biol, 1989; 114, 449-458.

(10.) Humpherson-Jones FM, Survival of Alternaria brassicae and Alternaria brassicicola on crop debris of oilseed rape and cabbage. Ann Appl Biol, 1989; 115, 45-50.

(11.) Marchegay P, Thorin N & Schiavon M, Effects of climatic conditions on the aerial liberation of spores of Alternaria brassicae (Berk) Sacc. and epidemiology of blackspot diseases in rape crops. Agronomie, 1990; 10, 831-839.

(12.) Pandey KK and Pandey PK, Survey and surveillance of vegetable growing area for prevalence of major diseases in this region. Vegetable Science, 2003; 30: 128-134

(13.) Pathak Rakesh, Singh Manjit and Henry A. Genetic divergence in cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) for seed yield and gum content under rainfed conditions. Indian J. Agric. Sci. 2009; 79, 559-561

(14.) Patel M K, Dhande G W and Kulkarni Y S, Bacterial leaf spot of Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub.; Curr. Sci., 1953; 22, 183.

(15.) Shrestha SK, Munk L & Mathur SB, Role of weather on Alternaria Leaf Blight Disease and its effect on Yield components of mustard. Nepal Agric Res J, 2005; 6, 62-72.

(16.) Srivastava D N and Rao Y P, Bacterial blight of guar; Indian Phytopathol., 1963; 16: 69-73

(17.) Tongh-YH, Liang J N and Ku-Jug Y. Study on the biology and pathogenicity of Alternarioa solani on tomato. J. Jiangsu-Agric. College, 1994; 15: 29-31.

Harshraj Kanwar [1], Amit Trivedi [1], Brajnandan Singh Chandrawat [2] and Shanti Kumar Sharma [3]

[1] Department of Plant Pathology, MPUAT, Udaipur--313 001, India.

[2] Department of Nematology, MPUAT, Udaipur--313 001, India.

[3] Directorate of Research, MPUAT, Udaipur--313 001, India.

(Received: 21 February 2016; accepted: 16 April 2016)

* To whom all correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: harshrajkanwarudawat@gmail.com
Table 1. Progression of Powdery Mildew on cluster
bean in relation to weather parameters in different
dates of sowing under natural conditions during Kharif 2014

                                            Temp.
                                        ([degrees]C)

S.    Standard      Meteorological
No.    Weeks            weeks            Max     Min

1        29         16-22 July 14       31.9    24.3
2        30        23-29 July 2014      30.1    24.2
3        31       30 July-5 Aug. 14     30.3    23.7
4        32         6-12 August 14      27.8    23.9
5        33        13-19 August-14      29.6    23.5
6        34        20-26 August 14      32.9    23.4
7        35      27 August-2 Sept. 14   31.8    23.0
8        36        3-9 September 14     29.1    22.8
9        37       10-16 September 14    28.7    21.4
10       38       17-23 September 14    32.5    19.8
11       39       24-30 September 14    31.8    19.4
12       40         1-7 October 14      33.9    20.0
13       41        8-14 October 14      34.4    18.1
14       42        15-20 October 14     32.5    17.6
15       43        21-29 October 14     33.2    16.6
16       44        30-6 November 14     31.4    18.4

        Relative
      Humidity (%)

S.                    Sunshine   Rainfall
No.    Max     Min    (Hours)      (mm)

1     80.7    63.0      2.9        95.6
2     86.0    76.6      0.6        51.6
3     89.9    77.3      2.4       109.0
4     86.6    76.0      0.4        47.2
5     80.0    65.4      3.4        0.2
6     86.1    66.6      6.6        40.8
7     87.4    67.3      6.4        31.6
8     89.3    76.1      3.1       165.2
9     92.4    82.9      3.0        94.8
10    84.1    52.0      8.8        0.0
11    80.1    48.4      8.9        0.0
12    80.7    38.4      8.0        0.0
13    79.0    34.0      8.3        0.0
14    75.6    32.4      8.4        0.0
15    69.6    21.5      7.0        0.0
16    71.4    31.9      4.7        0.0

                        AUDPC *
                   Dates of sowing

S.
No.   1st July   7th July   14th July   21st July

1        0          0           0           0
2        0          0           0           0
3        0          0           0           0
4        0          0           0           0
5       5.2         0           0           0
6       7.0         0           0           0
7       1.7         0           0           0
8        0          0           0           0
9        0          0           0           0
10      88.5       37.1       25.2        14.7
11     194.2      109.9       57.0        38.1
12     225.7      172.2       95.2        52.5
13     261.8      210.0       144.5       86.4
14     293.6      242.9       184.4       131.2
15     313.2      272.6       220.8       159.6
16     333.9      287.7       240.4       191.4

* Mean of five replications.

Inoculation started 20 days after sowing of each dates.
Observation started 7 days after inoculation at weekly intervals.
Dates are 21st July, 27th July, 3rd Aug. and 10th Aug. respectively

Table 2. Progression of Alternaria blight on cluster
bean in relation to weather parameters in different
dates of sowing under epiphytotic conditions
during Kharif 2014

S.    Standard      Meteorological          Temp.
No.    Weeks            weeks           ([degrees]C)

                                         Max     Min

1        29         16-22 July 14       31.9    24.3
2        30        23-29 July 2014      30.1    24.2
3        31        30 July-5 Aug.14     30.3    23.7
4        32         6-12 August 14      27.8    23.9
5        33        13-19 August-14      29.6    23.5
6        34        20-26 August 14      32.9    23.4
7        35      27 August-2 Sept. 14   31.8    23.0
8        36        3-9 September 14     29.1    22.8
9        37       10-16 September 14    28.7    21.4
10       38       17-23 September 14    32.5    19.8
11       39       24-30 September 14    31.8    19.4
12       40         1-7 October 14      33.9    20.0
13       41        8-14 October 14      34.4    18.1
14       42        15-20 October 14     32.5    17.6
15       43        21-29 October 14     33.2    16.6
16       44        30-6 November 14     31.4    18.4

                 Relative
                Humidity (%)

S.                    Sunshine   Rainfall
No.    Max     Min    (Hours)      (mm)

1     80.7    63.0      2.9        95.6
2     86.0    76.6      0.6        51.6
3     89.9    77.3      2.4       109.0
4     86.6    76.0      0.4        47.2
5     80.0    65.4      3.4        0.2
6     86.1    66.6      6.6        40.8
7     87.4    67.3      6.4        31.6
8     89.3    76.1      3.1       165.2
9     92.4    82.9      3.0        94.8
10    84.1    52.0      8.8        0.0
11    80.1    48.4      8.9        0.0
12    80.7    38.4      8.0        0.0
13    79.0    34.0      8.3        0.0
14    75.6    32.4      8.4        0.0
15    69.6    21.5      7.0        0.0
16    71.4    31.9      4.7        0.0

                        AUDPC *

                   Dates of sowing

S.
No.   1st July   7th July   14th July   21st July

1        0          0           0           0
2       15.4        0           0           0
3       35.7       9.8          0           0
4       45.1       21.0        7.7          0
5       53.9       23.8       13.3         5.6
6       61.2       26.9       14.0        10.8
7       72.8       36.0       17.5        11.5
8       98.3       50.4       24.1        13.6
9      149.8       64.7       37.4        18.5
10     206.1       89.2       52.8        26.2
11     242.9      141.0       71.0        36.7
12     277.5      186.5       114.8       55.3
13     307.6      212.1       165.5       98.7
14     327.9      237.3       198.1       147.3
15     352.4      278.6       220.8       179.5
16     378.3      330.4       254.4       205.1

* Mean of five replications.

Inoculation started 20 days after sowing of each dates.
Observation started 7 days after inoculation at weekly intervals.
Dates are 21st July, 27th July, 3rd Aug. and 10th Aug. respectively

Table 3. Progression of Bacterial blight on cluster bean
in relation to weather parameters in different dates of
sowing under epiphytotic conditions during Kharif 2014

                                            Temp.
                                        ([degrees]C)
S.    Standard      Meteorological
No.    Weeks            weeks

                                        Max     Min

1        29         16-22 July 14       31.9    24.3
2        30        23-29 July 2014      30.1    24.2
3        31        30 July-5 Aug.14     30.3    23.7
4        32         6-12 August 14      27.8    23.9
5        33        13-19 August-14      29.6    23.5
6        34        20-26 August 14      32.9    23.4
7        35      27 August-2 Sept. 14   31.8    23.0
8        36        3-9 September 14     29.1    22.8
9        37       10-16 September 14    28.7    21.4
10       38       17-23 September 14    32.5    19.8
11       39       24-30 September 14    31.8    19.4
12       40         1-7 October 14      33.9    20.0
13       41        8-14 October 14      34.4    18.1
14       42        15-20 October 14     32.5    17.6
15       43        21-29 October 14     33.2    16.6
16       44        30-6 November 14     31.4    18.4

        Relative
      Humidity (%)

S.                    Sunshine   Rainfall
No.    Max     Min    (Hours)      (mm)

1     80.7    63.0      2.9        95.6
2     86.0    76.6      0.6        51.6
3     89.9    77.3      2.4       109.0
4     86.6    76.0      0.4        47.2
5     80.0    65.4      3.4        0.2
6     86.1    66.6      6.6        40.8
7     87.4    67.3      6.4        31.6
8     89.3    76.1      3.1       165.2
9     92.4    82.9      3.0        94.8
10    84.1    52.0      8.8        0.0
11    80.1    48.4      8.9        0.0
12    80.7    38.4      8.0        0.0
13    79.0    34.0      8.3        0.0
14    75.6    32.4      8.4        0.0
15    69.6    21.5      7.0        0.0
16    71.4    31.9      4.7        0.0

                        AUDPC *

                   Dates of sowing

S.
No.   1st July   7th July   14th July   21st July

1       42.7        0           0           0
2      113.0       57.7         0           0
3      169.4      151.5       34.3          0
4      220.1      218.4       73.5        30.4
5      259.3      278.2       109.9       66.1
6      289.8      337.0       289.4       100.4
7      310.4      381.8       444.5       234.5
8      320.6      402.1       455.3       342.6
9      309.0      384.3       437.5       320.2
10     274.7      321.6       390.6       268.4
11     236.9      260.7       340.9       224.0
12     202.3      233.8       291.2       184.1
13     167.6      193.2       242.5       149.4
14     139.9      151.9       203.3       117.6
15     120.4      137.5       173.2       96.2
16     105.3      118.3       138.9       82.6

* Mean of five replications.

Inoculation started 20 days after sowing of each dates.
Observation started 7 days after inoculation at weekly intervals.
Dates are 21st July, 27th July, 3rd Aug. and 10th Aug. respectively.
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Author:Kanwar, Harshraj; Trivedi, Amit; Chandrawat, Brajnandan Singh; Sharma, Shanti Kumar
Publication:Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology
Article Type:Report
Date:Jun 1, 2016
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