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Professional certifications and occupational licenses: evidence from the Current Population Survey.

This article uses data from the Current Population Survey to analyze the role of professional certifications and occupational licenses in the U.S. labor market. It discusses the prevalence of these credentials among the employed by age, gender, race, ethnicity, educational attainment, and occupation. This analysis also explores the relationships between certifications, licenses, and earnings. Finally, the article presents new data on certification and licensing by detailed occupation and whether the credential is required for one's job.

In 2018, more than 43 million people in the United States held a professional certification or license. The prevalence of occupational licenses, common in fields such as healthcare, law, and education, has risen substantially over the past 50 years. [1] Professional certifications, while less common than licenses, can signal proficiency in fast-changing fields like project management, software development, and financial analysis. Both of these time-limited credentials can serve as alternative forms of educational attainment, demonstrating a level of skill or knowledge needed to perform a specific type of job. As a result, researchers and others have developed an interest in using government surveys to measure the prevalence of certifications and licenses and tying these credentials to labor market outcomes and earnings. To meet this need, in January 2015, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), working with the federal Interagency Working Group on Expanded Measures of Enrollment and Attainment (GEMEnA), added questions on certifications and licenses to the Current Population Survey (CPS). This article provides an in-depth analysis of CPS data on professional certifications and licenses for 2018.

Professional certifications and licenses: what they are

As mentioned previously, in the CPS, certifications and licenses are credentials that demonstrate a level of skill or knowledge needed to perform a specific type of job. Both terms refer to time-limited credentials that need to be renewed periodically. The fundamental difference between the two is the issuer of the credential: certifications are issued by nongovernmental certification bodies, whereas licenses are awarded by a federal, state, or local government agency. Thus, licenses convey a legal authority to work in an occupation, while a certification on its own does not. [2]

How certifications and licenses are measured in the Current Population Survey

In January 2015, the following three questions on certifications and licenses were added to the CPS, based on the work of GEMEnA:[3]

1. Do you have a currently active professional certification or a state or industry license? Do not include business licenses, such as a liquor license or a vending license.

This question is used to identify people with a certification or license. People may have more than one of these credentials.

2. Were any of your certifications or licenses issued by the federal, state, or local government?

This second question is asked of people who answered "yes" to the first question. People who answer "yes" are classified as having a license. People with a license may also have a certification. [4]

3. Earlier you told me you had a currently active professional certification or license. Was your certification or license required for your job?

This third question is asked later in the interview of employed people who answered "yes" to the first question. In this question, "required" can mean either legally required (a license to be a practicing doctor, for example) or required by an employer (such as a computer maintenance certification). [5]

In 2018, 43.7 million people in the United States held a currently active certification or license--16.9 percent of the civilian noninstitutional population. Among the employed, 24.1 percent held one of these credentials, compared with 12.1 percent of the unemployed and 5.6 percent of those not in the labor force. Licenses were the more common credential--21.8 percent of employed people held a license, while only 2.3 percent held a certification but no license. [6] Of the 37.6 million employed people with a certification or license, 32.5 million--or 87 percent--usually worked full time (35 or more hours per week). (See table 1.) Finally, 84.4 percent of employed people with a certification or license responded that their credential was required for their job. Among those with a license, 87.0 percent said their credential was required, compared with 60.0 percent for those with a certification, but no license. [7]

Certifications, licenses, and employment status

In 2018, people with a currently active certification or license participated in the labor force at a higher rate and had a lower unemployment rate than people without one of these credentials. The labor force participation rate--the proportion of the civilian noninstitutional population working or looking for work--for those with a certification or license was 87.7 percent in 2018, compared with 57.8 percent for those with no certification or license. The unemployment rate--the number of people actively looking and available for work as a percentage of the labor force--for people with one of these credentials, at 2.0 percent, was less than half the rate for people with no certification or license (4.5 percent). These results generally held for people in all age, sex, race, ethnicity, and educational attainment groups. (See table 2.)

Labor force participation rates typically vary by demographic characteristics such as age, sex, race, ethnicity, and educational attainment. However, the size of these participation rate gaps depends on certification and licensing status. Among those with a certification or license, differences in labor force participation between demographic groups tended to be smaller compared with those without one of these credentials. For example, among those with a certification or license in 2018, the participation rate for people ages 25 to 54 (often referred to as the prime working age), at 94.0 percent, was about 19 percentage points higher than the rate for people age 55 and over (74.6 percent). Among those without a certification or license, the prime-working-age participation rate, at 78.6 percent, was about 44 percentage points higher than the participation rate for those 55 and over (34.3 percent). The labor force participation rate gap between men and women was also smaller among those with one of these credentials. Among those with a certification or license, the participation rate for men (90.1 percent) was only about 4 percentage points higher than the rate for women (85.7 percent), compared with a difference of about 14 percentage points among those with no certification or license (65.0 percent for men and 50.9 percent for women).

This pattern was perhaps most striking for educational attainment. For those with no certification or license, labor force participation increased steadily with educational attainment, ranging from 44.4 percent among people age 25 and over with less than a high school diploma, to 68.8 percent for people in the same age group with a bachelor's degree. For those with a credential, however, labor force participation was above 80 percent for every education level. In fact, the participation rate for people with a certification or license and at least a high school diploma, regardless of how much additional education they attained, was 87.9 percent. The participation rate for those with a certification or license but less than a high school diploma was only slightly lower, at 84.8 percent. An important caveat, however, is that people with less than a high school diploma represent a very small share of those with a professional certification or license. Higher levels of educational attainment are often required for obtaining a license, so people with a certification or license tend to have higher levels of educational attainment than those without such credentials. (See figure 1.)

Prevalence of certifications and licenses among the employed

Since labor force participation rates are generally higher and unemployment rates lower for people with a professional certification or license, the remainder of this article focuses on the employed. This section discusses trends in the prevalence of certifications and licenses by demographic factors including age, sex, race, and ethnicity.

Employed people with a certification or license were disproportionately of prime working age (25 to 54) or older (55 and over). In 2018, 26.0 percent of workers ages 25 to 54 and 26.6 percent of workers age 55 and over held a certification or license. Younger workers (ages 16 to 24) were considerably less likely to hold one of these credentials, with just 9.7 percent doing so in 2018. Among employed people in their prime working age, those ages 25 to 34 were somewhat less likely to hold one of these credentials (23.2 percent) than those ages 35 to 44 (27.7 percent) or ages 45 to 54 (27.3 percent). The prevalence of certification and licensing did not vary substantially for workers age 35 and over. These patterns held for those with a certification but no license, as well as for those with a license. (See table 3.)

The low prevalence of certifications and licenses among younger workers is most likely related to the nature of these credentials. Many licenses require certain levels of educational attainment or supervised work experience that are difficult to attain before reaching the age of 25. For example, all states require physicians and surgeons to be licensed, which involves graduating from an accredited medical school and completing residency training in an area of specialty, which typically takes from 7 to 11 years. [8] In addition, obtaining a license often involves high upfront financial costs, which can be more difficult for younger workers to afford. [9]

Employed women were more likely to hold a certification or license than employed men. In 2018, 27.1 percent of employed women held a certification or license, compared with 21.4 percent of employed men. Nearly all of the difference was due to the gender gap in the prevalence of licenses, rather than certifications. Employed women (25.2 percent) were 6 percentage points more likely to hold a license than employed men (18.9 percent). This may reflect, in part, differences in the occupational distribution of employment between women and men. For example, women are more likely to be employed as teachers or nurses, occupations that generally require a license. In 2018, employed men were slightly more likely to hold a certification, at 2.5 percent, than employed women (2.0 percent). Not including those ages 16 to 24, the gap between women and men in the prevalence of these credentials declined with age. Women ages 25 to 34 were about 10 percentage points more likely to hold a certification or license than men ages 25 to 34, while women age 55 and over were only about 2 percentage points more likely to hold one of these credentials.

A look at the major race and ethnicity groups reveals that employed Whites had the highest prevalence of certification and licensing, at 24.9 percent in 2018, followed by employed Blacks or African Americans (21.8 percent) and Asians (20.9 percent). Employed people of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, at 14.9 percent, were the least likely to hold one of these credentials. These patterns generally held for both those with a certification but no license and those with a license. As with age, employed women were more likely than their male counterparts to hold a certification or license within each major race and ethnicity group. Of all these groups, White women, at 27.9 percent, were the most likely to hold one of these credentials in 2018, while Hispanic men were the least likely (13.2 percent). This may also reflect differences in age, educational attainment, and occupation among employed people in the major race and ethnicity groups. (See table 4.)

Educational attainment

Reaching a specified level of educational attainment is often a requirement for obtaining a professional certification or license. CPS data show that, in 2018, employed people age 25 and over with higher levels of educational attainment were more likely to hold a certification or license. Just under half (48.9 percent) of workers with an advanced degree held a certification or license, compared with only 8.1 percent of those with less than a high school diploma. Workers with an associate's degree (33.4 percent) or a bachelor's degree only (28.5 percent) were more likely to hold one of these credentials than those with some college but no degree (21.1 percent) or those with only a high school diploma (14.9 percent). This pattern was mostly driven by differences in the prevalence of licenses, rather than certifications, between education levels. However, workers with at least some college experience were more likely to have a certification but no license than those with only a high school diploma or less education. (See figure 2.)

The prevalence of certification and licensing varied among the three advanced degree categories. Workers with a professional degree (78.6 percent) were much more likely to hold a certification or license than those with a master's (42.9 percent) or doctoral (54.6 percent) degree, probably because many workers with a professional degree are employed in legal occupations or in healthcare occupations, where obtaining a license is common. [10] Workers with a master's degree were the most likely (3.7 percent) to hold a professional certification but no license.

Occupation

Among the employed, the prevalence of certifications and licenses varied widely by occupation. In 2018, the share of workers with a currently active certification or license was highest among healthcare practitioners and technical occupations (75.7 percent) and legal occupations (65.9 percent). In addition, about half of workers in education, training, and library occupations (52.7 percent) and in healthcare support occupations (49.0 percent) held one of these credentials. By contrast, there were four occupational groups in which less than 1 in 10 workers held a certification or license: food preparation and serving related occupations (7.4 percent); building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations (7.9 percent); office and administrative support occupations (9.1 percent); and farming, fishing, and forestry occupations (8.6 percent). (See figure 3.)

In nearly all occupational groups, licenses appear to be the dominant credential. In the groups in which these credentials were most prevalent, more than 90 percent of credentialed workers held a license. In every occupational group, more workers held a license than a certification. The only exception was computer and mathematical occupations, in which 6.6 percent of workers held a certification but no license, and 6.9 percent held a license. The share of workers with a certification but no license reached 4 percent in only two other occupational groups--installation, maintenance, and repair occupations (4.1 percent) and community and social service occupations (4.6 percent). However, it is important to note that the occupational groups displayed in figure 3 are broad. Some jobs within an occupational group may have a high prevalence of certification and licensing, while others in the same group may not.

In 2018, a large majority of jobs with the highest share of licensed workers were in healthcare. However, when occupations were ranked according to the number of licensed workers, a wide variety of sectors were represented. In 2018, there were 2.6 million registered nurses with a license (81 percent of all employed registered nurses), 2.5 million licensed elementary and middle school teachers (72 percent) and 1.0 million licensed lawyers (84 percent). The level of licensed physicians and surgeons (926,000) did not quite reach one million, but the share with a license was about 85 percent. Although licenses were less prevalent among nursing, psychiatric, and home health aides (48 percent) and driver/sales workers and truck drivers (26.7 percent), these occupations accounted for just under 1 million licensed workers. Other detailed occupations with a high number of licensed workers include secondary school teachers (811,000; 76 percent); real estate brokers and sales agents (738,000; 69 percent); and hairdressers, hairstylists, and cosmetologists (566,000, 68 percent). These results show that occupational licenses are prevalent in a diverse range of detailed occupations that are spread across different industry sectors. (See table 5; also, data for all detailed occupations is available in an unpublished table upon request. Please email cpsinfo@bls.gov)

In 2018, professional certifications were less prevalent than occupational licenses, and they were most common among workers in computer and mathematical occupations. Examples of occupations with a high prevalence of certifications include computer network architects (24 percent), information security analysts (18 percent), and network and computer systems administrators (15 percent). In 2018, the share of workers with a certification but no license did not exceed 25 percent in any detailed occupation with employment of more than 50,000. Among workers in management occupations, 580,000 held a professional certification in 2018. Other occupations with the largest number of certified workers include software developers, members of the clergy, registered nurses, automotive service technicians and mechanics, and financial managers.

As mentioned previously, there is often substantial variation in the prevalence of these credentials within occupational groups. Consider legal occupations, for example, which include lawyers, judicial law clerks; judges, magistrates and other judicial workers; paralegals and legal assistants;[11] and miscellaneous legal support workers. In 2018, 84 percent of lawyers held a license, compared with only 21 percent of paralegals and legal assistants. This difference underscores the limitations of using intermediate occupation groups, which include many different kinds of specific occupations, to analyze the role of certifications and licenses in the labor market.

After seeing these data, readers may be curious as to why detailed occupations that are "universally licensed" in theory do not have licensing rates of 100 percent. Beyond the caveat that measures of the prevalence of certification and licensing from the CPS are self- or proxy-reported (See endnote 2.), the exact reasons often depend on the job in question and the relevant state and local licensing laws. (See "Occupational licensing regulation in the United States.")

Occupational licensing regulation in the United States

In the United States, occupational licensing laws are generally enacted by state governments and executed by licensing boards, often composed of professionals from within the occupation. These laws can be quite complex. The two main forms of licensing are "title" and "practice" acts.

A "title" act (also called "right to title") is when a government requires that prospective workers meet certain criteria in order to advertise themselves as a member of an occupation. Interior designers in Georgia are regulated this way. To be called a "registered interior designer," one must meet education and work experience requirements and pass an examination. Those who are not officially registered may still provide many of the same services, but using the title of "interior designer" is a misdemeanor.(*) It is important to note that although the Georgia law provides for the granting of interior designer "certificates," this credential would be considered a license in the Current Population Survey since it is awarded by a governmental licensing agency.

A "practice" act, or "right to practice" regulation, is a stricter form of licensing. Such laws make it illegal for anyone to perform the services associated with an occupation without a license. Many of the most well-known examples are among healthcare practitioners, such as physicians and surgeons, nurses and nurse practitioners, and physical and occupational therapists. Lawyers also typically cannot provide legal services or represent clients in a court of law without being licensed, which involves obtaining a law degree (Juris Doctor or J.D.), passing the bar examination, and having their "character and fitness" confirmed by their state's board of examiners.([dagger]) However, over the past several decades, some states have expanded "right to practice" licensing laws to cover a wide variety of occupations, including cosmetologists, barbers, funeral directors, florists, tour guides, locksmiths, and professional wrestlers.([double dagger]) States may also enact legislation that requires workers to be licensed in order to legally perform specific tasks, while allowing unlicensed workers to perform the remaining work. For example, in different states, there are different limits on the scope of tasks that nurse practitioners are allowed to perform. In Illinois, nurse practitioners are allowed to prescribe medication, while in Missouri, only physicians can do so.([section]) Anyone can call themselves an accountant, but only a licensed certified public accountant (CPA) can perform a mandatory audit for a publically traded company(**) Another variation is when laws require unlicensed workers to be supervised by a licensed worker when performing specific tasks. For example, in most states, licensed dental hygienists are required to perform their work, which could include teeth cleaning, fluoride treatment, or initial screenings, under the supervision of a licensed dentist. However, in some states, licensed dental hygienists are permitted to perform some of these tasks without a dentist present, and in a few states, they are allowed to own their own dental hygiene practices.([dagger][dagger])

(*) See Morris M. Kleiner, Guild-ridden labor markets: the curious case of occupational licensing (Kalamazoo: Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 2015), pp. 20-22, http://www.upjohn.org/publications/upjohn-institute-press/guild-ridden-labor-markets-curious-case-occupational-licensing, and Georgia Law Title 43, Ch. 4, Article 2, http://sos.ga.gov/plb/acrobat/Laws/23_Architects_And_Interior_Designers_43-4.pdf.

([dagger]) See "Bar admissions basic overview," American Bar Association, https://www.americanbar.org/groups/legal_education/resources/bar_admissions/basic_overviewhtml.

([double dagger]) See Kleiner, Guild-ridden labor markets, pp. 1-3.

([section]) Ibid., pp. 47-50.

(**) See "Become a CPA-FAQs," Association of International Certified Public Accountants (AICPA), http://www.aicpa.org/becomeacpa/faqs.html.

Also see "All about auditors: what investors need to know, https://www.sec.gov/reportspubs/investor-publications/investorpubsaboutauditorshtm.html.

([dagger][dagger]) See Morris M. Kleiner and Kyoung Won Park, "Battles among licensed occupations: analyzing government regulations on labor market outcomes for dentists and hygienists," NBER Working Paper No. 16560 (Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, November 2010), http://www.nber.org/papers/w16560.pdf.

As an example, consider the case of physicians and surgeons. After 4 years of medical school, (unlicensed) medical school graduates typically begin their residencies. Medical residents work for pay under the supervision of a licensed physician or surgeon in their chosen specialty for at least 3 years. After the completion of their residency, these physicians and surgeons can then apply for a license, which gives them legal permission to practice medicine independently in their jurisdiction. [12] Although the CPS questionnaire does not address this issue specifically, the vast majority of the 146,000 unlicensed physicians and surgeons in 2018 were almost certainly medical residents.

Educational attainment within occupations

Within occupational groups, the prevalence of professional certifications and licenses varies substantially by educational attainment. Overall, these results are analogous to those discussed previously in the "Education" and "Occupation" sections of this article. The prevalence of certification and licensing increased with educational attainment and varied widely between the intermediate occupation groups. Workers with a professional degree and those employed in legal occupations; healthcare practitioner and technical occupations; or education, training, and library occupations held certifications and licenses at the highest rate. This is to be expected, because lawyers, physicians, surgeons, nurses, and teachers fall into these groups. Workers with the lowest rates had a high school diploma or less or were employed in sales and office occupations; natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations; production occupations; and many service occupations. (See table 6.)

While the prevalence of certifications and licenses in service occupations, at 24.6 percent in 2018, was about in line with the share of all workers who held one of these credentials, there was much variation within this occupational group. Certifications and licenses were most prevalent in healthcare support occupations, in protective service occupations, and in personal care and service occupations. Within these occupations, workers with an associate's degree were most likely to hold one of these credentials. In healthcare support occupations, these workers were mostly nursing, psychiatric, and home health aides and medical assistants. Within protective service occupations, they tended to be employed as police officers, security guards, or firefighters. Personal care and service occupations include hairdressers, hairstylists and cosmetologists, as well as barbers. Professional certifications and licenses were relatively uncommon in food preparation and serving related occupations and in building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations.

Finally, within professional and related occupations, those employed in computer and mathematical occupations and in arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations held certifications and licenses at a lower rate, regardless of their level of educational attainment. In 2018, only 13.9 percent of those with a master's degree who were employed in arts occupations held a certification or license; among those with a bachelor's degree, 10.2 percent held one of these credentials. Among all workers in professional and related occupations, 54.4 percent of those with a master's degree and 41.8 percent of those with bachelor's degree held a certification or license in 2018. Despite being relatively more likely to hold a certification than college graduates in other professional and related occupations, less than 15 percent of workers in computer and mathematical occupations with a bachelor's degree or higher held a certification or license.

Requirement for job

In 2018, 84.4 percent of employed people with a certification or license said the credential was required for their job. [13] (See table 7.) Among those with a credential, the percentages of workers with a required certification or license were at least 50 percent for all intermediate occupation groups. However, there was substantial variation across the groups. Generally, credentialed workers in occupational groups with the highest prevalence of certification and licensing were more likely to say their credential was required. For example, among workers with a certification or license, 98.1 percent of those employed in healthcare practitioners and technical occupations, 94.8 percent in legal occupations, and 94.8 percent in education, training, and library occupations said their credential was required. However, among credentialed workers in arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations, as well as in office and administrative support occupations, less than 60 percent said their certification or license was required for their job. [14] These results show that for workers in highly credentialed occupations, a certification or license tended to be a necessary qualification for employment.

The share of workers who held a required credential also varied by detailed occupation. In general, virtually all workers in occupations with the highest prevalence of licensing said the credential was required for their job. For example, among lawyers; physicians and surgeons; and elementary, middle and secondary school teachers, at least 97 percent of credentialed workers said their license was required for their job in 2018. However, among credentialed workers in occupations in which certifications and licenses were less prevalent, a majority still needed the credential. For example, among paralegals and legal assistants (24 percent of whom held a certification or license in 2018), about 69 percent of those with a certification or license said the credential was required for their job. Of the 47 percent of police and sheriff's patrol officers who held a certification or license, the credential was a requirement about 96 percent of the time. Thus, even in occupations in which certifications and licenses were not as prevalent, these credentials were often a necessary condition for employment. The results may have been driven, in part, by differences in occupational licensing regulation by state.

Within detailed occupations in which the shares of people holding a certification (but no license) were the highest, the credential was less likely to be a requirement. Among computer network architects, information security analysts, computer and information systems managers, and software developers, the share of workers with a certification or license who said their credential was required for their job was closer to 50 percent than 100 percent. For workers in these occupations, the credential may have served primarily as a resume boost. However, among other occupations with a relatively high prevalence of certifications, this was not the case. In 2018, about 84 percent of the clergy and 86 percent of automotive service technicians and mechanics with a certification or license said the credential was required for their job.

Earnings

In 2018, median weekly earnings for full-time wage and salary workers with a currently active professional certification or license were 35 percent higher than earnings for those without one of these credentials. However, the relationship between earnings and certification and licensing status was more complex than this 35-percent difference might suggest. As discussed in previous sections, older and more highly educated workers were more likely to hold a certification or license. In addition, the percent difference in earnings between those with and without a certification or license increased with age and decreased with educational attainment. Both the incidence of certification and licensing and the percent difference in earnings varied substantially across occupations. Finally, workers with a certification or license who said their credential was required for their job received higher earnings, on average, than those with a credential that was not required. The following sections discuss how earnings and certification and licensing status interact with age, sex, race, ethnicity, educational attainment, occupation, and requirement for job. It is important to note that these comparisons of earnings by certification and licensing status and demographic characteristics are on a broad level and do not control for these factors simultaneously. [15]

Earnings by certification and licensing status and demographic characteristics

In 2018, weekly earnings for full-time wage and salary workers with a certification or license, at $1,106, were 35 percent higher than earnings for those without a certification or license ($818). [16] (See table 8.) Earnings for workers with a certification but no license, at $1,196, were slightly higher than earnings for those with a license ($1,093). This difference was likely driven, in part, by the concentration of professional certifications in computer and mathematical occupations, in which workers tend to have relatively high earnings. [17]

In 2018, weekly earnings for those with a certification or license were substantially higher than earnings for those without one of these credentials for all major age groups. However, the percent difference in earnings between those with and without a credential increased with age. Weekly earnings for credentialed full-time wage and salary workers age 55 years and over, at $1,205, were 32 percent higher than earnings for those without a credential ($916). Earnings for credentialed workers ages 25 to 54, at $1,110, were 29 percent higher than those of their noncredentialed counterparts ($858), while workers ages 16 to 24 with a certification or license, at $634, had 19 percent higher earnings than workers in the same age group with no certification or license ($532).

In 2018, for every age group, earnings for men were higher than earnings for women, independent of certification or licensing status. Both male and female full-time wage and salary workers ages 16 to 24 with a certification or license had about 20 percent higher earnings than those without a credential. Among the employed ages 25 to 54, both men and women had about one-third higher earnings than their counterparts without a certification or license. However, earnings for women workers age 55 and over with a certification or license were 45 percent higher than earnings for those without one of these credentials. For men age 55 and over, earnings for credentialed workers were 29 percent higher than earnings for those without a certification or license.

The difference in earnings between those with and without a certification or license also varied by race and ethnicity. The largest percent difference in earnings was among Hispanic full-time wage and salary workers. Earnings for Hispanic workers with a certification or license, at $899 in 2018, were 39 percent higher than the earnings for those without one of these credentials ($648). Among Whites (34 percent), Blacks (28 percent), and Asians (31 percent), the percent differences in earnings were similar. [18]

Earnings by certification and licensing status and educational attainment

In 2018, percent differences in earnings between those 25 years and over with and without a certification or license generally declined with educational attainment. For all workers with less than a bachelor's degree, the median earnings for those with a certification or license were considerably higher than the median earnings for those without one of these credentials. Workers with less than a high school diploma who had a certification or license, at $636, had 16 percent higher earnings than similarly educated workers without such credentials ($546). Those with a high school diploma but no college had 17 percent higher earnings when they had a certification or license ($837 compared with $715). Credentialed workers with some college or an associate's degree ($902) had 12 percent higher earnings than their counterparts without a certification or license ($803). (See figure 4.)

For workers with a bachelor's degree or higher, the percent difference in earnings between those with and without a certification or license varied substantially, especially between the three advanced-degree categories. The percent difference in earnings was highest among workers with a professional degree. In 2018, median weekly earnings for those with a professional degree and a certification or license, at $1,919, were 27 percent higher than for similarly educated workers without one of these credentials ($1,515). Earnings for workers with a master's degree and a certification or license ($1,376) were 8 percent lower than for workers with a master's degree but no additional credential ($1,492). In part, this was because credentialed workers with a master's degree were concentrated in education, training, and library occupations (such as teachers), whereas similarly educated workers without a certification or license were more likely to work in higher paying management occupations. Among workers with a doctoral degree, those with a certification or license ($1,840) received 3-percent higher earnings than those without one of these credentials ($1,790). Finally, for workers with a bachelor's degree, the difference in earnings was only 2 percent ($1,212 compared with $1,190). [19]

However, these results are subject to at least two important caveats. First, while the percent difference in earnings between those with and without a certification or license was highest for lower levels of educational attainment, very few workers with less formal education actually held one of these credentials. In 2018, of the 35.7 million employed people age 25 and over who held a certification or license, only 790,000 (about 2 percent) had less than a high school diploma. (Workers with less than a high school diploma make up about 7 percent of total employment.) By comparison, 57 percent of employed people with a certification or license had a bachelor's degree or higher, compared with 41 percent of all employed people.

Second, because of the strong correlation between educational attainment and certification and licensing status, it is difficult to conclusively determine whether differences in earnings are driven by the traditional (education) or alternative (certification or license) form of credential. A further confounding factor, as mentioned previously, is that certain levels of educational attainment are often criteria for obtaining a certification or license. For example, in most states, an aspiring lawyer cannot become a licensed attorney without completing law school. As a result, it is difficult to determine how much of the difference in earnings between a licensed attorney and a paralegal or legal assistant can be attributed to the license.

Earnings by certification and licensing status and occupation

Differences in earnings between those with and without a certification or license varied substantially by occupation in 2018. Table 9 presents median weekly earnings by certification and licensing status and occupational group, as well as the percent difference in earnings between credentialed and noncredentialed workers. Legal occupations were a clear outlier: those with a certification or license ($1,876) had 68-percent higher earnings than those without a credential ($1,115). On the other end of the distribution, for workers in computer and mathematical occupations and in arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations, the differences in earnings were not statistically significant. Among other occupation groups with a high prevalence of certification and licensing, workers with a credential in healthcare practitioners and technical occupations ($1,218) had 39-percent higher earnings than those with no certification or license ($876). The percent difference in earnings between those with and without a credential was 17 percent in education, training, and library occupations ($1,054 compared with $902), and 5 percent for healthcare support occupations ($573 compared with $548).

However, as mentioned previously in the "Occupation" section, each intermediate occupation group includes a variety of specific jobs, with varying responsibilities and requirements for certification and licensing. Differences in earnings between those with and without a certification or license at the intermediate occupational level may be the result of these differences in job roles and responsibilities, instead of the credential. Looking at differences in earnings at the detailed occupational level partially addresses this shortcoming.

The difference in earnings for those with and without a certification or license varied substantially within occupational groups. Table 10 presents earnings data for those with and without one of these credentials for select detailed occupations. Not all occupations are presented, because many smaller occupations did not have a sufficient number of observations for reliable earnings estimates to be calculated.

Within legal occupations in 2018, weekly earnings for lawyers with a certification or license, at $2,083, were 38 percent higher than earnings for lawyers without a credential ($1,510). On the other hand, paralegals with a credential had median weekly earnings of $878, which is not statistically different from the earnings of their counterparts without a certification or license ($965). These percent differences in earnings for individual jobs were much smaller than the percent difference in earnings for legal occupations in the aggregate. Thus, the overall difference in earnings for legal occupations was partially driven by occupational and educational differences. Within legal occupations, more than 8 in 10 workers with a certification or license were lawyers--who tend to be more highly paid--while about half of noncredentialed workers were paralegals and legal assistants. In addition, 87 percent of credentialed workers in legal occupations held an advanced degree, compared with 31 percent of noncredentialed workers.

Within education, training, and library occupations, the percent difference in earnings between those with and without a certification or license was 41 percent for preschool and kindergarten teachers and 10 percent for elementary and middle school teachers. Earnings differences were modestly positive for secondary school teachers (11 percent), special education teachers (18 percent), and other teachers and instructors (16 percent), which includes substitutes. Among postsecondary teachers and teacher assistants, by contrast, differences in median earnings for those with and without one of these credentials were not statistically significant.

However, it is important to note that among teachers, the difference in earnings may partly reflect whether the teacher is employed in a public or private school and whether the teacher is a member of a union or covered by a union contract. Research by Allegretto and Tojerow (2014) found that, when controlling for educational attainment and demographics, public school teachers were paid about 16 to 19 percent more, on average, than private school teachers during the period from 1996 to 2012. [20] They also found that unionized teachers were paid about 5 to 8 percent more, on average, than nonunion teachers, regardless of whether they were employed in a public or private school. Because public school teachers are more likely to hold a certification or license than private school teachers, it is hard to determine to what degree each of these factors is influencing the difference in earnings between teachers with and without one of these credentials. [21]

Among healthcare practitioners and technical occupations, some detailed occupations showed a substantial difference in earnings between full-time wage and salary workers with and without a credential. Physicians and surgeons with a certification or license had median weekly earnings of $2,261, which is 59 percent higher than the median for those without one of these credentials ($1,419). [22] Pharmacists and nurse practitioners, virtually all of whom held a certification or license, had median earnings of $2,071 and $1,894, respectively. The median weekly earnings for licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses who held a currently active certification or license, at $804, were 27 percent higher than the median for those without one of these credentials, at $635. Registered nurses with a certification or license ($1,186) only received 14-percent higher earnings than their counterparts without a certification or license ($1,041). [23] Nurses without a credential were likely younger and held interim or limited permits that allowed them to work under supervision while waiting for the results of their licensing test. [24] Among diagnostic-related technologists and technicians, workers with a certification or license did not have statistically higher median earnings than those without a credential.

Earnings by occupation and requirement for job

The difference in earnings between those with and without a certification or license also depended on whether a person's credential was required for their job. In 2018, median weekly earnings for workers with a required credential, at $1,123, were 37 percent higher than they were for those without a certification or license ($818). However, median earnings for those who held a certification or license but said the credential was not required for their job, at $1,006, were only 23 percent higher. (See table 11.)

In general, the gap in earnings between workers with a required credential and a nonrequired credential was largest in occupations with a high prevalence of certification and licensing. For example, in legal occupations, workers with a required certification or license--overwhelmingly lawyers--had median earnings of $1,899 in 2018. Workers in legal occupations with a credential that was not required, however, had median earnings of $1,063, little different from the median for those without any credential ($1,115). Workers without a required certification or license were disproportionately paralegals and legal assistants.

A similar pattern was present among healthcare practitioners and technical occupations. Workers with a required certification or license had median earnings of $1,224 in 2018, significantly higher than the median for those who held a credential that was not required ($929). Earnings for the latter group were not statistically different from earnings for workers employed in healthcare practitioners and technical occupations without a certification or license ($876). Very few workers in this occupational group held a credential that was not required, but those who did were typically technicians or technologists. On the other hand, practitioners, such as physicians, surgeons, dentists, and nurses, held credentials that were required for their job. These occupations have very different roles and responsibilities, which may be a factor in the earnings differences.

In many occupations, holding an optional certification or license was not associated with a boost in earnings. However, in computer and mathematical occupations--an occupational group with a lower prevalence of certification and licensing--median weekly earnings for workers with an optional credential ($1,637) were actually slightly higher than those for workers with a required one ($1,524).

Conclusion

This analysis of CPS data provides insight into the effect that professional certifications and licenses have in the U.S. labor market. Over 43 million people, or 16.9 percent of the population, held one of these credentials in 2018. People with a certification or license had lower unemployment rates and higher labor force participation rates. Among the employed, the prevalence of these credentials increased with age and educational attainment. Employed women were more likely to hold a certification or license than employed men. Among the race and ethnicity groups, Whites held these credentials at the highest rate and Hispanics held them at the lowest rate.

Licenses were the more common credential, held by 21.8 percent of the employed. Licensed workers were most frequently employed in legal occupations, or in jobs related to healthcare or education. Professional certifications, by contrast, were held by only 2.3 percent of workers, most of whom were employed in computer and mathematical occupations and in management occupations. In addition, a large majority of workers with a certification or license said the credential was required for their job.

Overall, earnings for workers with a credential were about one-third higher than earnings for those without one of these credentials. This percent difference in earnings increased with age, but decreased with educational attainment. In addition, workers who said their credential was required for their job had significantly higher earnings than those with an optional credential. These differences in earnings also varied widely by occupation, highlighting how the role of these credentials was often linked to a workers' specific job, as one might expect.

Although these new data from the CPS provide a useful snapshot of the prevalence of certification and licensing among U.S. workers, they are fundamentally limited in certain ways. Since the CPS is a household survey, it may not be able to accurately capture the nuances of occupational licensing regulation, such as whether a worker is covered by a "right to title" or "right to practice" law. Perhaps most importantly, because of the relatively small sample size in most states, the data are only available at the national level. Since many occupational licensing laws are passed at the state level, the applicability of CPS data to certain research questions about licensing may be limited. Still, as a tool to study changes in occupational licensing and professional certification over time and at various stages of the business cycle, these new data from the CPS should prove useful to researchers and other data users.

SUGGESTED CITATION

Evan Cunningham, "Professional certifications and occupational licenses: evidence from the Current Population Survey," Monthly Labor Review, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, June 2019, https://doi.org/10.21916/mlr.2019.15.

NOTES

[1] See "Occupational licensing: a framework for policymakers," U.S. Department of Treasury Office of Economic Policy, Council of Economic Advisors (CEA), and U.S. Department of Labor, July 2015, https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/sites/default/files/docs/licensing report final nonembargo.pdf.

[2] As defined by GEMEnA, a certification or license must be for engaging in professional, as opposed to personal, activities. For this reason, a commercial driver's license (CDL) would count as a license, but a regular driver's license would not. A license or certification must also be issued to a person--licenses issued to businesses, such as liquor or vending licenses, are excluded. Educational certificates awarded by an educational institution, such as a college or university, are also excluded. These credentials are not time limited, and while such training may help in the performance of a specific job, it is not necessarily required or considered proof of qualification. Finally, certificates of attendance at short-term training are not counted.

[3] For a detailed discussion of the development of CPS questions on certification and licensing, see Mary Dorinda Allard, "Adding questions on certification and licensing to the Current Population Survey," Monthly Labor Review, November 2016, https://doi.org/10.21916/mlr.2016.52.

[4] BLS was unable to add questions to determine whether persons with a license also held a certification, or the number of credentials a person held. This was because adding questions to the monthly CPS is costly, and BLS did not have funding to increase the length of the survey permanently. For each question added about certifications and licenses, another question had to be removed. See Allard, "Adding questions on certification and licensing."

[5] For multiple jobholders, the question refers to the respondent's main job. This question is also asked of the unemployed and refers to the job at which they last worked. An important caveat to this third question is that it does not exhaustively measure the relevance of a credential to a particular job. While the question can provide information on whether a certification or license is required for a particular job, it cannot determine when a credential is not required but still helpful. Another important caveat is that the measure of the prevalence of certification and licensing is self- or proxy-reported in the CPS. People identified as holding a currently active certification or license and working in a specific occupation may not necessarily work in a state where a license is required to work in that occupation. Thus, certification and licensing data from the CPS should not be construed as complete measures of the extent of occupational licensing regulation in the United States. Even with the incorporation of results from the third question, readers should exercise caution when drawing conclusions. Respondents may not interpret "required for your job" as "legally required" or may not have sufficient knowledge of relevant licensing laws in their state.

[6] The CPS does not determine whether a person with a license has a certification, or the number of credentials of each type they hold. However, the Adult Training and Education Survey, conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics, found that a large majority of licensed workers--about 86 percent in 2016--did not hold a professional certification. See Stephanie Cronen, Megan McQuiggan, and Sarah Grady, "Adult training and education: results from the National Household Education Surveys Program of 2016: first look," National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education, February 2018, https://nces.ed.gov/pubs2017/2017103rev.pdf.

[7] While estimates from the CPS are not directly comparable to those from other sources for a variety of reasons, including the mode of survey collection, context, questions used, and the population of interest, the results were generally in line with previous studies. Conducting a national labor force survey in the summer of 2008, Morris Kleiner and Alan Krueger found that 28 percent of the labor force 18 years and over were licensed by the federal, state, or local government. In addition, data from the U.S. Census Bureau's Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) showed that in 2012, 28 percent of employed persons 18 years and over held a professional certification or license. Estimates of certification and licensing status by sex, age, race, ethnicity, educational attainment, and occupation, as well as earnings differences, were also generally consistent between the data sources. However, an important shortcoming to the new data is that because of sample size concerns, BLS does not have plans to publish CPS data on certifications and licenses at the state level. This may make analyzing the data more challenging, as many occupational licensing regulations are enacted at the state level. See Morris M. Kleiner and Alan B. Krueger, "Analyzing the extent and influence of occupational licensing on the labor market," Journal of Labor Economics, Vol. 31, No. 2, The Princeton Data Improvement Initiative (Part 2, April 2013), pp. S173-S202, http://archive.hhh.umn.edu/people/mkleiner/pdf/Final.occ.licensing.JOLE.pdf; and Stephanie Ewert and Robert Kominski, "Measuring alternative education credentials: 2012," Household Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau, January 2014, https://www.census.gov/prod/2014pubs/p70-138.pdf. For an analysis of certification and licensing at the state level, see Morris M. Kleiner and Evgeny Vorotnikov, "Analyzing occupational licensing among the States," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Vol. 52, 2017, pp. 132-158, https://www.hhh.umn.edu/sites/hhh.umn.edu/files/analyzing_occupational_licensing_among_the_states.pdf.

[8] See BLS Occupational Outlook Handbook, "How to become a physician or surgeon," 2015, https://www.bls.gov/ooh/healthcare/physicians-and-surgeons.htm.

[9] See Ryan Nunn, "How occupational licensing matters for wages and careers," The Hamilton Project, 2018, The Brookings Institution, https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/es_3152018_how_occupational_licensing_matters_for_wages_and_careers.pdf.

[10] Included in master's degrees are M.A., M.S., M.Eng., M.Ed., M.S.W., and M.B.A. degrees. Included in professional school degrees are M.D., D.D.S., D.V.M., L.L.B., and J.D. degrees. Included in doctoral degrees are Ph.D. and Ed.D. degrees.

[11] The BLS Occupational Outlook Handbook (2015) describes paralegals and legal assistants as individuals who perform, "a variety of tasks to support lawyers, including maintaining and organizing files, conducting legal research, and drafting documents." See https://www.bls.gov/ooh/legal/paralegals-and-legal-assistants.htm.

[12] While exact license requirements vary by state, some examples are New York (http://www.op.nysed.gov/prof/med/medlic.htm) and California (http://www.mbc.ca.gov/Applicants/Physicians_and_Surgeons/).

[13] When analyzing the "requirement for job" data from the CPS, users should remember that it is the respondent who determines whether their credential is required. A "Yes" response could indicate that a certification or license is either required by law to work in specific occupations or that an employer requires it. In fact, a "Yes" response could reflect nothing more than a perception on the part of the respondent that a credential is required, even if it has no basis in reality. As a result, answers to the "requirement for job" question cannot distinguish whether a worker is covered under a "right to title" or "right to practice" regulation. (See box, "Occupational licensing regulation in the United States.") Additionally, respondents may have incomplete knowledge of the relevant credentialing laws in their state. Thus, CPS data on certifications and licenses, including the "requirement for job" question, should not be used as a comprehensive measure of occupational licensing regulations in the United States.

[14] In 2018, 75 percent of credentialed workers in farming, fishing, and forestry occupations said their certification or license was required for their job. However, because the cell sizes were smaller for this occupation group, the difference between farming, fishing, and forestry occupations and the occupation groups listed above was not statistically significant.

[15] "Earnings" refers to median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers. The CPS data represent earnings before taxes and other deductions, and include any overtime pay, commissions, or tips typically received. In the case of multiple jobholders, only earnings received at their main job are included. Earnings reported on a basis other than weekly are converted to a weekly equivalent. The term "usual" is defined by the respondent, but if asked, interviewers are instructed to define the term as more than half the weeks worked during the past 4 or 5 months. Wage and salary workers are defined as those who receive wages, salaries, commissions, tips, payment in kind, or piece rates. This excludes all self-employed persons, regardless of whether their business is incorporated or unincorporated. Full-time workers are those who usually work 35 hours or more per week at their main job. BLS computes medians by ranking each reported or calculated weekly earnings value and placing them into a $50-wide interval or bin. Each of these bins is centered on a multiple of $50 ($25 or less, $25.01 to $75, $75.01 to $125, etc.). The procedure determines the bin in which the median falls and calculates the median through a linear interpolation. For more information, see the technical note in the news release, Usual Weekly Earnings of Wage and Salary Workers, at https://www.bls.gov/news.release/pdf/wkyeng.pdf.

[16] While no formal regression analysis is presented in this article, Kleiner and Kruger and Gittleman, Klee, and Kleiner, using other data sources, find a licensing wage premium even when they control for age, sex, race and ethnicity, educational attainment, and occupation. See Kleiner and Kruger, "Analyzing the extent and influence of occupational licensing on the labor market"; and Maury Gittleman, Mark A. Klee, and Morris M. Kleiner, "Analyzing the labor market outcomes of occupational licensing," Industrial Relations, Vol. 57, No. 1, 2018, pp. 57-100.

[17] In 2018, the median earnings for full-time wage and salary workers employed in computer and mathematical occupations was $1,539, compared with $886 for all full-time wage and salary workers.

[18] In a 2017 working paper, Peter Q. Blair and Bobby W. Chung, using data from the 2008 panel of the SIPP, found that occupational licensing reduces the racial wage gap between White and Black men and the gender wage gap between women and White men. Replicating their results using CPS data, however, is beyond the scope of this article. See Peter Q. Blair and Bobby W. Chung, "Occupational licensing reduces racial and gender wage gaps: evidence from the survey of income and program participation," Human capital and economic opportunity global working group, working paper series, Working paper No. 2017-050 (University of Chicago, June 2017), http://humcap.uchicago.edu/RePEc/hka/wpaper/Blair_Chung_2017_licensing_gender_racial_wage_gaps.pdf. Also see, Nunn, "How occupational licensing matters for wages and careers."

[19] These patterns were also present in 2012 data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation. See, "The relationship between education and work credentials," Data Point (Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics June 2015), https://nces.ed.gov/pubs2015/2015556.pdf.

[20] Sylia A. Allegretto and Ilan Tojerow, "Teacher staffing and pay differences: public and private schools," Monthly Labor Review, September 2014, pp. 12 and 15, https://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2014/article/teacher-staffing-and-pay-differences.htm. See table 2, "Regression-adjusted relative wages, public and private school teachers, 1996-2012."

[21] In the United States, public preschools, elementary schools, middle schools, and high schools almost always require teachers to have a government-issued license in order to teach. While the exact licensing criteria and process are determined at the state level, common requirements include having at least a bachelor's degree, completing a state-approved teacher preparation program (TPP), and passing a basic skills test. TPPs are typically either components of a bachelor's or master's degree in education or take the form of residency programs that combine professional development and supervised teaching experience in the classroom. Some states also issue preliminary credentials to entry-level teachers, who must then gain classroom experience and participate in formal mentorship programs in order to upgrade their license. After the upgrade, licenses are renewed automatically, as long as the teacher completes a required amount of professional development. Those who wish to teach in high school typically must pass a test in their desired subject (mathematics, science, history, etc.), and aspiring special education teachers must undergo additional training. Private school teachers and substitutes are generally not subject to these employment restrictions. For examples, see documentation on how to obtain a teaching license in California (https://www.ctc.ca.gov/credentials/teach) and New York (http://www.highered.nysed.gov/tcert/certificate/certprocess.html#one).

[22] As discussed in the "Occupation" section, physicians and surgeons who did not have a certification or license were likely completing their residencies. These unlicensed physicians and surgeons would be younger, on average, than their licensed colleagues, which could partly explain the large difference in earnings.

[23] Registered nurses (R.N.s) and licensed practical nurses (L.P.N.s) and licensed vocational nurses L.V.N.s usually perform similar duties. However, entry-level R.N.s typically need an associate's degree in nursing (A.D.N.) or a Bachelor of Science degree in nursing (B.S.N.), while entry-level L.P.N.s and L.V.N.s only need to complete a 1-year state-approved educational program. R.N.s often supervise L.P.N.s and L.V.N.s, and receive higher pay on average. See BLS Occupational Outlook Handbook, "Registered nurses," 2017, https://www.bls.gov/ooh/healthcare/registered-nurses.htm, and "Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses," 2017, https://www.bls.gov/ooh/healthcare/licensed-practical-and-licensed-vocational-nurses.htm.

[24] In order to obtain a license, aspiring registered nurses (R.N.s) must complete and pass the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN) and licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses (L.P.N.s and L.V.N.s) must complete and pass the NCLEX-RN or the NCLEX-PN, respectively. Testing is overseen by the National Council of State Boards of Nursing. For examples of states that allow interim or limited nursing permits, see New York (http://www.op.nysed.gov/prof/nurse/nursing.htm) and California (https://www.rn.ca.gov/careers/steps.shtml).

Evan Cunningham

cpsinfo@bls.gov

Evan Cunningham was formerly an economist in the Office of Employment and Unemployment Statistics, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Table 1. Certification and licensing status of the civilian
noninstitutional population 16 years and over by employment status,
2018 annual averages

                               Number of people (thousands)
                               With a certification or
                               license(1)
Employment status                      With a
                      Total            certification,
                                Total  but no          With a
                                       license         license(2)

Civilian              257,791  43,691  4,197           39,495
noninstitutional
population
 Civilian labor       162,075  38,321  3,658           34,664
 force
  Employed            155,761  37,556  3,546           34,010
   Usually work       128,572  32,533  3,152           29,381
   full time
   Usually work        27,189   5,024    394            4,630
   part time
  Unemployed            6,314     765    112              654
 Not in the labor      95,716   5,370    539            4,831
 force

                                          Percent distribution
                                          With a certification or
                                          license(1)
Employment status  Without a                     With a
                   certification  Total          certification,
                   or license             Total  but no
                                                 license

Civilian            214,099        100.0%  16.9%  1.6%
noninstitutional
population
 Civilian labor     123,753        100.0   23.6   2.3
 force
  Employed          118,205        100.0   24.1   2.3
   Usually work      96,040        100.0   25.3   2.5
   full time
   Usually work      22,165        100.0   18.5   1.4
   part time
  Unemployed          5,549        100.0   12.1   1.8
 Not in the labor    90,346        100.0    5.6   0.6
 force

                   Percent distribution
                   With a certification or
                   license(1)
Employment status              Without a
                               certification
                   With a      or license
                   license(2)

Civilian            15.3%       83.1%
noninstitutional
population
 Civilian labor     21.4        76.4
 force
  Employed          21.8        75.9
   Usually work     22.9        74.7
   full time
   Usually work     17.0        81.5
   part time
  Unemployed        10.4        87.9
 Not in the labor    5.0        94.4
 force

Notes:
(1) A person may have more than one certification or license.
(2) People with a license may also have a certification.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 2. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population
by certification and licensing status and selected characteristics,
2018 annual averages

                              Labor force participation rate

Characteristic                                      Without a
                              With a certification  certification
                              or license(1)         or license

Total, 16 years and over       87.7%                 57.8%
 16 to 24 years                86.1                  53.3
 25 to 54 years                94.0                  78.6
 55 years and over             74.6                  34.3
 Men                           90.1                  65.0
 Women                         85.7                  50.9
 White                         87.6                  57.6
 Black or African American     87.4                  57.9
 Asian                         89.5                  59.1
 Hispanic or Latino            89.0                  63.5
 ethnicity(2)
Total, 25 years and over       87.8                  58.7
 Less than a high school       84.8                  44.4
 diploma
 High school graduates, no     88.4                  54.3
 college(3)
 Some college or associate     87.5                  60.2
 degree
  Some college, no degree      86.7                  58.7
  Associate degree             88.3                  62.8
 Bachelor's degree or higher   87.9                  67.7
  Bachelor's degree only       88.5                  68.8
  Advanced degree(4)           87.3                  65.3

                              Employment-population
                              ratio
Characteristic                With a         Without a
                              certification  certification
                              or license(1)  or license

Total, 16 years and over       86.0%          55.2%
 16 to 24 years                82.3           48.5
 25 to 54 years                92.3           75.7
 55 years and over             73.1           33.2
 Men                           88.3           62.1
 Women                         84.0           48.6
 White                         86.0           55.3
 Black or African American     84.5           53.6
 Asian                         88.2           57.0
 Hispanic or Latino            86.8           60.3
 ethnicity(2)
Total, 25 years and over       86.2           56.6
 Less than a high school       81.9           41.9
 diploma
 High school graduates, no     85.9           51.9
 college(3)
 Some college or associate     85.6           57.9
 degree
  Some college, no degree      84.5           56.3
  Associate degree             86.5           60.8
 Bachelor's degree or higher   86.7           66.0
  Bachelor's degree only       87.2           67.0
  Advanced degree(4)           86.1           63.6

                              Unemployment rate
Characteristic                With a         Without a
                              certification  certification
                              or license(1)  or license

Total, 16 years and over       2.0%           4.5%
 16 to 24 years                4.4            9.0
 25 to 54 years                1.8            3.8
 55 years and over             2.0            3.3
 Men                           2.0            4.5
 Women                         2.0            4.5
 White                         1.8            4.0
 Black or African American     3.3            7.3
 Asian                         1.5            3.4
 Hispanic or Latino            2.5            5.0
 ethnicity(2)
Total, 25 years and over       1.9            3.7
 Less than a high school       3.4            5.8
 diploma
 High school graduates, no     2.8            4.3
 college(3)
 Some college or associate     2.2            3.7
 degree
  Some college, no degree      2.5            4.0
  Associate degree             2.0            3.2
 Bachelor's degree or higher   1.4            2.5
  Bachelor's degree only       1.5            2.5
  Advanced degree(4)           1.3            2.6

Notes:
(1) A person may have more than one certification or license.
(2) People of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity can be of any race.
(3) Includes people with a high school diploma or equivalent.
(4) Includes people with a master's, professional, or doctoral degree.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 3. Certification and licensing status of employed people 16
years and over by age and sex, percent distribution, 2018 annual
averages

Characteristic             Total     With a certification or license(1)
                           employed          With a certification,
                                     Total   but no license

Total, 16 years and over    100.0%    24.1%  2.3%
 16 to 24 years             100.0      9.7   1.0
 25 to 54 years             100.0     26.0   2.5
  25 to 34 years            100.0     23.2   2.3
  35 to 44 years            100.0     27.7   2.8
  45 to 54 years            100.0     27.3   2.5
 55 years and over          100.0     26.6   2.3
  55 to 64 years            100.0     26.3   2.4
  65 years and over         100.0     27.5   2.0
Men, 16 years and over      100.0     21.4   2.5
 16 to 24 years             100.0      7.7   1.0
 25 to 54 years             100.0     22.4   2.9
  25 to 34 years            100.0     18.7   2.7
  35 to 44 years            100.0     23.9   3.1
  45 to 54 years            100.0     25.0   2.8
 55 years and over          100.0     25.7   2.4
  55 to 64 years            100.0     25.0   2.6
  65 years and over         100.0     27.7   2.0
Women, 16 years and over    100.0     27.1   2.0
 16 to 24 years             100.0     11.7   0.9
 25 to 54 years             100.0     30.1   2.1
  25 to 34 years            100.0     28.5   1.9
  35 to 44 years            100.0     32.0   2.3
  45 to 54 years            100.0     30.0   2.2
 55 years and over          100.0     27.6   2.1
  55 to 64 years            100.0     27.7   2.2
  65 years and over         100.0     27.2   2.0

Characteristic            With a certification or
                          license(1)               Without a
                          With a                   certification or
                          license(2)               license

Total, 16 years and over  21.8%                    75.9%
 16 to 24 years            8.7                     90.3
 25 to 54 years           23.5                     74.0
  25 to 34 years          20.9                     76.8
  35 to 44 years          24.9                     72.3
  45 to 54 years          24.8                     72.7
 55 years and over        24.3                     73.4
  55 to 64 years          23.8                     73.7
  65 years and over       25.5                     72.5
Men, 16 years and over    18.9                     78.6
 16 to 24 years            6.7                     92.3
 25 to 54 years           19.5                     77.6
  25 to 34 years          16.0                     81.3
  35 to 44 years          20.8                     76.1
  45 to 54 years          22.2                     75.0
 55 years and over        23.3                     74.3
  55 to 64 years          22.4                     75.0
  65 years and over       25.7                     72.3
Women, 16 years and over  25.2                     72.9
 16 to 24 years           10.8                     88.3
 25 to 54 years           28.0                     69.9
  25 to 34 years          26.6                     71.5
  35 to 44 years          29.7                     68.0
  45 to 54 years          27.8                     70.0
 55 years and over        25.4                     72.4
  55 to 64 years          25.5                     72.3
  65 years and over       25.2                     72.8

Notes:
(1) A person may have more than one certification or license.
(2) People with a license may also have a certification.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 4. Certification and licensing status of employed people 16 years
and over, by sex, race and ethnicity, percent distribution, 2018
annual averages


Characteristic                              With a certification or
                                            license(1)
                                  Total            With a
                                  employed  Total  certification,
                                                   but no license

White                             100.0%    24.9%  2.3%
 Men                              100.0     22.4   2.6
 Women                            100.0     27.9   2.0
Black or African American         100.0     21.8   2.1
 Men                              100.0     18.1   2.4
 Women                            100.0     25.0   1.9
Asian                             100.0     20.9   2.4
 Men                              100.0     17.6   2.8
 Women                            100.0     24.7   2.0
Hispanic or Latino ethnicity (3)  100.0     14.9   1.6
 Men                              100.0     13.2   1.7
 Women                            100.0     17.1   1.4

Characteristic                    With a certification
                                  or license(1)
                                                         Without a
                                  With a                 certification
                                  license                or license

White                             22.6%                  75.1%
 Men                              19.8                   77.6
 Women                            26.0                   72.1
Black or African American         19.6                   78.2
 Men                              15.8                   81.9
 Women                            23.1                   75.0
Asian                             18.5                   79.1
 Men                              14.8                   82.4
 Women                            22.7                   75.3
Hispanic or Latino ethnicity (3)  13.3                   85.1
 Men                              11.5                   86.8
 Women                            15.7                   82.9

Notes:
(1) People may have more than one certification or license.
(2) People with a license may also have a certification.
(3) People of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 5. Employment in selected detailed occupations, by licensing
status, 2018 annual averages

Employment                                         Total employment
                                                   (thousands)

Registered nurses                                  3,213
Elementary and middle school teachers              3,421
Lawyers                                            1,199
Nursing, psychiatric, and home health aides        2,035
Drivers/sales workers and truck drivers            3,549
Physicians and surgeons                            1,094
Managers, all other                                4,827
Secondary school teachers                          1,062
Real estate brokers and sales agents               1,072
Hairdressers, hairstylists, and cosmetologists       834
Accountants and auditors                           1,929
Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses    658
Counselors                                           895
Education administrators                             955
Insurance sales agents                               619
Postsecondary teachers                             1,417
Electricians                                         887
Police and sheriff's patrol officers                 728
Health practitioner support technologists
and technicians                                      694
Chief executives                                   1,573

Employment                                        With a license
                                                  (thousands)

Registered nurses                                    2,610
Elementary and middle school teachers                2,454
Lawyers                                              1,003
Nursing, psychiatric, and home health aides            975
Drivers/sales workers and truck drivers                947
Physicians and surgeons                                926
Managers, all other                                    845
Secondary school teachers                              811
Real estate brokers and sales agents                   738
Hairdressers, hairstylists, and cosmetologists         566
Accountants and auditors                               513
Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses      417
Counselors                                             384
Education administrators                               384
Insurance sales agents                                 378
Postsecondary teachers                                 378
Electricians                                           364
Police and sheriff's patrol officers                   333
Health practitioner support technologists
and technicians                                        328
Chief executives                                       327

Employment                                                 Percent with
                                                           a license

Registered nurses                                          81.2%
Elementary and middle school teachers                      71.7
Lawyers                                                    83.7
Nursing, psychiatric, and home health aides                47.9
Drivers/sales workers and truck drivers                    26.7
Physicians and surgeons                                    84.6
Managers, all other                                        17.5
Secondary school teachers                                  76.4
Real estate brokers and sales agents                       68.8
Hairdressers, hairstylists, and cosmetologists             67.9
Accountants and auditors                                   26.6
Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses          63.4
Counselors                                                 42.9
Education administrators                                   40.2
Insurance sales agents                                     61.1
Postsecondary teachers                                     26.7
Electricians                                               41.0
Police and sheriff's patrol officers                       45.8
Health practitioner support technologists and technicians  47.2
Chief executives                                           20.8

Note: People with a license may also have a certification. Not all
detailed occupations are shown.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 6. Percentage of employed people 25 years and over with a
certification or license by occupation and educational attainment,
2018 annual averages

                                  Less     High school  Some
                                  than a   graduates,   college,
Intermediate occupation    Total  high     no           no
                                  school   college(1)   degree
                                  diploma

Total, 25 years and over    26.1%  8.1%     14.9%        21.1%
 Management,
 professional, and          36.9   12.9      17.6         23.7
 related occupations
  Management,
  business, and             22.9   10.7      15.8         19.9
  financial operations
  occupations
   Management               22.3   10.8      16.4         19.6
   occupations
   Business and financial   24.3     --      13.1         20.9
   operations
   occupations
  Professional and          47.1   18.7      20.6         28.2
  related occupations
   Computer and             14.1     --      11.4         14.0
   mathematical
   occupations
   Architecture and
   engineering              25.1     --      14.4         18.9
   occupations
   Life, physical and       29.4     --        --         18.6
   social science
   occupations
   Community and socia      38.8             20.4         20.4
   services occupations              --
   Legal occupations        67.2     --      20.0         25.2
   Education, training,
   and library              55.5     --      20.3         26.6
   occupations
   Arts, design,
   entertainment, sports,   11.1     --       8.3          8.4
   and media
   occupations
   Healthcare
   practitioners and        77.2     --      38.7         57.0
   technical occupations
  Service occupations       24.6    8.6      18.7         29.1
   Healthcare support       51.3   35.0      44.0         51.6
   occupations
   Protective service       39.0   19.7      30.0         38.9
   occupations
   Food preparation and
   serving related           9.3    4.5       7.6         10.3
   occupations
   Building and grounds
   cleaning and              8.3    3.2       6.9         13.3
   maintenance
   occupations
   Personal care and        33.3   22.2      30.0         34.0
   service occupations
  Sales and office          13.6    4.5       8.2         13.0
  occupations
   Sales and related        18.1    4.9      11.8         17.6
   occupations
   Office and
   administrative support   9.8     4.1       5.5          9.8
   occupations
  Natural resources,
  construction, and         19.9    6.4      17.9         25.3
  maintenance
  occupations
   Farming, fishing, and    10.2    2.9      11.6         17.8
   forestry occupations
   Construction and         19.2    6.0      17.8         26.4
   extraction occupations
   Installation,            22.9   11.5      19.2         24.7
   maintenance and
   repair occupations
  Production,
  transportation, and       15.8    9.7      14.1         18.7
  material moving
  occupations
   Production               10.4    3.9       8.3         13.8
   occupations
   Transportation and
   material moving          20.5   15.7      19.2         22.8
   occupations

                            Associate's  Bachelor's  Master's
Intermediate occupation     degree       degree      degree

Total, 25 years and over     33.4%        28.5%       42.9%
 Management,
 professional, and           40.7         32.7        45.9
 related occupations
  Management,
  business, and              23.9         21.5        30.3
  financial operations
  occupations
   Management                25.5         19.7        30.6
   occupations
   Business and financial    19.7         24.8        29.6
   operations
   occupations
  Professional and           50.8         41.8        54.4
  related occupations
   Computer and              19.3         13.0        14.5
   mathematical
   occupations
   Architecture and
   engineering               18.9         26.6        30.8
   occupations
   Life, physical and        26.9         23.3        34.5
   social science
   occupations
   Community and socia       26.8         27.8        55.3
   services occupations
   Legal occupations         30.0         32.2        64.2
   Education, training,
   and library               30.2         60.6        70.4
   occupations
   Arts, design,
   entertainment, sports,    14.3         10.2        13.9
   and media
   occupations
   Healthcare
   practitioners and         78.4         77.9        81.0
   technical occupations
  Service occupations        44.3         31.0        33.0
   Healthcare support        64.4         54.1        56.4
   occupations
   Protective service        50.5         41.5        38.7
   occupations
   Food preparation and
   serving related           19.2         11.8        14.9
   occupations
   Building and grounds
   cleaning and              18.4         18.0        13.3
   maintenance
   occupations
   Personal care and         51.7         29.0        33.7
   service occupations
  Sales and office           16.8         16.8        25.4
  occupations
   Sales and related         21.3         21.8        29.7
   occupations
   Office and
   administrative support    13.9         11.3        20.4
   occupations
  Natural resources,
  construction, and          37.4         23.9        29.3
  maintenance
  occupations
   Farming, fishing, and     19.3         21.4        --
   forestry occupations
   Construction and          40.1         25.8        32.9
   extraction occupations
   Installation,             36.2         22.2        24.6
   maintenance and
   repair occupations
  Production,
  transportation, and        21.4         19.6        24.9
  material moving
  occupations
   Production                18.9         13.7        16.8
   occupations
   Transportation and
   material moving           24.3         24.2        30.6
   occupations

                            Professional  Doctoral
Intermediate occupation     degree        degree

Total, 25 years and over     78.6%         54.6%
 Management,
 professional, and           81.7          55.8
 related occupations
  Management,
  business, and              55.2          42.5
  financial operations
  occupations
   Management                57.4          42.0
   occupations
   Business and financial    51.0          43.8
   operations
   occupations
  Professional and           85.6          58.0
  related occupations
   Computer and              --            13.3
   mathematical
   occupations
   Architecture and
   engineering               --            18.0
   occupations
   Life, physical and        45.1          32.4
   social science
   occupations
   Community and socia                     56.2
   services occupations      --
   Legal occupations         89.2          83.5
   Education, training,
   and library               62.9          32.8
   occupations
   Arts, design,
   entertainment, sports,    --            --
   and media
   occupations
   Healthcare
   practitioners and         93.2          88.5
   technical occupations
  Service occupations        48.4          36.4
   Healthcare support        --            --
   occupations
   Protective service        --            --
   occupations

   Food preparation and
   serving related           --            --
   occupations
   Building and grounds
   cleaning and              --            --
   maintenance
   occupations
   Personal care and         --            --
   service occupations
  Sales and office           49.4          43.8
  occupations
   Sales and related         53.8          46.0
   occupations
   Office and
   administrative support    --            --
   occupations
  Natural resources,
  construction, and
  maintenance                --            --
  occupations
   Farming, fishing, and     --            --
   forestry occupations
   Construction and          --            --
   extraction occupations
   Installation,             --            --
   maintenance and
   repair occupations
  Production,
  transportation, and        --            --
  material moving
  occupations
   Production                --            --
   occupations
   Transportation and
   material moving           --            --
   occupations

Notes:
(1) Includes people with a high school diploma or equivalent.
Note: Dashes indicate no data available or data do not meet publication
standards. Percentages are not presented when base is less than 50,000.
People may have more than one certification or license.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 7. Employed people with a certification or license, by occupation
and requirement for job, 2018 annual averages

                                        Number of people (thousands)
Occupation                              Total, with a     Required
                                        certification or  for job
                                        license

Total, 16 years and over                 37,556            31,709
 Management, professional, and           22,290            19,558
 related occupations
  Management, business, and               5,767             4,273
  financial operations occupations
   Management occupations                 3,991             2,921
   Business and financial operations      1,776             1,352
   occupations
  Professional and related               16,522            15,284
  occupations
   Computer and mathematical                690               413
   occupations
   Architecture and engineering             780               615
   occupations
   Life, physical, and social science       415               350
   occupations
   Community and social services            995               872
   occupations
   Legal occupations                      1,247             1,182
   Education, training, and library       4,910             4,656
   occupations
   Arts, design, entertainment, sports,     351               199
   and media occupations
   Healthcare practitioners and           7,135             6,998
   technical occupations
 Service occupations                      5,791             5,001
  Healthcare support occupations          1,780             1,671
  Protective service occupations          1,170             1,081
  Food preparation and serving              607               376
  related occupations
  Building and grounds cleaning and         462               288
  maintenance occupations
  Personal care and service               1,772             1,585
  occupations
 Sales and office occupations             4,035             2,677
  Sales and related occupations           2,430             1,866
  Office and administrative support       1,605               810
  occupations
 Natural resources, construction, and     2,723             2,276
 maintenance occupations
  Farming, fishing, and forestry             97                73
  occupations
  Construction and extraction             1,510             1,285
  occupations
  Installation, maintenance, and repair   1,117               918
  occupations
 Production, transportation, and          2,717             2,198
 material moving occupations
  Production occupations                    859               587
  Transportation and material moving      1,857             1,610
  occupations

                                         Number of people (thousands)
Occupation                               Not
                                         required
                                         for job

Total, 16 years and over                   5,847
 Management, professional, and             2,732
 related occupations
  Management, business, and                1,494
  financial operations occupations
   Management occupations                  1,070
   Business and financial operations         424
   occupations
  Professional and related                 1,238
  occupations
   Computer and mathematical                 277
   occupations
   Architecture and engineering              165
   occupations
   Life, physical, and social science         65
   occupations
   Community and social services             123
   occupations
   Legal occupations                          65
   Education, training, and library          254
   occupations
   Arts, design, entertainment, sports,      152
   and media occupations
   Healthcare practitioners and              137
   technical occupations
 Service occupations                         790
  Healthcare support occupations             109
  Protective service occupations              89
  Food preparation and serving               231
  related occupations
  Building and grounds cleaning and          175
  maintenance occupations
  Personal care and service                  187
  occupations
 Sales and office occupations              1,358
  Sales and related occupations              564
  Office and administrative support          795
  occupations
 Natural resources, construction, and        447
 maintenance occupations
  Farming, fishing, and forestry              24
  occupations
  Construction and extraction                224
  occupations
  Installation, maintenance, and repair      199
  occupations
 Production, transportation, and             519
 material moving occupations
  Production occupations                     272
  Transportation and material moving         247
  occupations

                                         Percent distribution
Occupation                               Total, with a     Required
                                         certification or  for job
                                         license

Total, 16 years and over                  100.0%            84.4%
 Management, professional, and            100.0             87.7
 related occupations
  Management, business, and               100.0             74.1
  financial operations occupations
   Management occupations                 100.0             73.2
   Business and financial operations      100.0             76.1
   occupations
  Professional and related                100.0             92.5
  occupations
   Computer and mathematical              100.0             59.9
   occupations
   Architecture and engineering           100.0             78.8
   occupations
   Life, physical, and social science     100.0             84.4
   occupations
   Community and social services          100.0             87.6
   occupations
   Legal occupations                      100.0             94.8
   Education, training, and library       100.0             94.8
   occupations
   Arts, design, entertainment, sports,   100.0             56.7
   and media occupations
   Healthcare practitioners and           100.0             98.1
   technical occupations
 Service occupations                      100.0             86.4
  Healthcare support occupations          100.0             93.9
  Protective service occupations          100.0             92.4
  Food preparation and serving            100.0             62.0
  related occupations
  Building and grounds cleaning and       100.0             62.2
  maintenance occupations
  Personal care and service               100.0             89.5
  occupations
 Sales and office occupations             100.0             66.3
  Sales and related occupations           100.0             76.8
  Office and administrative support       100.0             50.5
  occupations
 Natural resources, construction, and     100.0             83.6
 maintenance occupations
  Farming, fishing, and forestry          100.0             75.4
  occupations
  Construction and extraction             100.0             85.1
  occupations
  Installation, maintenance, and repair   100.0             82.2
  occupations
 Production, transportation, and          100.0             80.9
 material moving occupations
  Production occupations                  100.0             68.3
  Transportation and material moving      100.0             86.7
  occupations

                                          Percent distribution
Occupation                                Not
                                          required
                                          for job

Total, 16 years and over                    15.6%
 Management, professional, and              12.3
 related occupations
  Management, business, and                 25.9
  financial operations occupations
   Management occupations                   26.8
   Business and financial operations        23.9
   occupations
  Professional and related                   7.5
  occupations
   Computer and mathematical                40.1
   occupations
   Architecture and engineering             21.2
   occupations
   Life, physical, and social science       15.6
   occupations
   Community and social services            12.4
   occupations
   Legal occupations                         5.2
   Education, training, and library          5.2
   occupations
   Arts, design, entertainment, sports,     43.3
   and media occupations
   Healthcare practitioners and              1.9
   technical occupations
 Service occupations                        13.6
  Healthcare support occupations             6.1
  Protective service occupations             7.6
  Food preparation and serving              38.0
  related occupations
  Building and grounds cleaning and         37.8
  maintenance occupations
  Personal care and service                 10.5
  occupations
 Sales and office occupations               33.7
  Sales and related occupations             23.2
  Office and administrative support         49.5
  occupations
 Natural resources, construction, and       16.4
 maintenance occupations
  Farming, fishing, and forestry            24.6
  occupations
  Construction and extraction               14.9
  occupations
  Installation, maintenance, and repair     17.8
  occupations
 Production, transportation, and            19.1
 material moving occupations
  Production occupations                    31.7
  Transportation and material moving        13.3
  occupations

Note: People may have more than one certification or license.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 8. Median weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers,
by certification and licensing status, age, sex, race, and ethnicity,
2018 annual averages

                                               Median weekly earnings
                               Full-time wage  With a
Characteristic                 and salary      certification or
                               workers         license(1)
                               (thousands)

Total, 16 years and over       115,567          $1,106
 16 to 24 years                 10,428             634
 25 to 54 years                 80,891           1,110
 55 years and over              24,247           1,205
Men, 16 years and over          64,142           1,231
 16 to 24 years                  5,818             687
 25 to 54 years                 45,061           1,236
 55 years and over              13,263           1,347
Women, 16 years and over        51,425             990
 16 to 24 years                  4,611             607
 25 to 54 years                 35,830             996
 55 years and over              10,984           1,118
White, 16 years and over        88,953           1,133
 Men                            50,570           1,252
 Women                          38,384           1,017
Black or African American,
16 years and over               15,041             838
 Men                             7,282             950
 Women                           7,760             780
Asian, 16 years and over         7,643           1,342
 Men                             4,169           1,545
 Women                           3,474           1,152
Hispanic or Latino ethnicity,
16 years and over(2)            20,297             899
 Men                            12,226             990
 Women                           8,071             808


                               With no
Characteristic                 certification or   Percent
                               license            difference


Total, 16 years and over        $818               35.2%
 16 to 24 years                  532               19.2
 25 to 54 years                  858               29.4
 55 years and over               916               31.6
Men, 16 years and over           907               35.7
 16 to 24 years                  560               22.7
 25 to 54 years                  943               31.1
 55 years and over             1,048               28.5
Women, 16 years and over         726               36.4
 16 to 24 years                  512               18.6
 25 to 54 years                  754               32.1
 55 years and over               770               45.2
White, 16 years and over         847               33.8
 Men                             935               33.9
 Women                           743               36.9
Black or African American,
16 years and over                657               27.5
 Men                             699               35.9
 Women                           619               26.0
Asian, 16 years and over       1,021               31.4
 Men                           1,169               32.2
 Women                           875               31.7
Hispanic or Latino ethnicity,
16 years and over(2)             648               38.7
 Men                             691               43.3
 Women                           592               36.5

Notes:
(1) People may have more than one certification or license.
(2) People of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity may be of any race.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 9. Median weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers,
by certification and licensing status, 2018 annual averages

                                                         Median weekly
                                     Full-time wage and  earnings
Occupation                           salary workers      With a
                                     (thousands)         certification
                                                         or license

Total, 16 years and over               115,567            $1,106
 Management, professional, and          48,808            1,268
 related occupations
  Management, business, and             19,863            1,541
  financial operations occupations
   Management occupations               13,477            1,576
   Business and financial                6,385            1,445
   operations occupations
 Professional and related               28,945            1,204
 occupations
   Computer and mathematical             4,755            1,592
   occupations
   Architecture and engineering          2,994            1,648
   occupations
   Life, physical, and social            1,308            1,443
   science occupations
   Community and social services         2,223            1,015
   occupations
   Legal occupations                     1,466            1,876
   Education, training, and library      7,166            1,054
   occupations
   Arts, design, entertainment,          1,880            1,182
   sports, and media occupations
   Healthcare practitioners and          7,154            1,218
   technical occupations
 Service occupations                    16,288              645
  Healthcare support occupations         2,595              573
  Protective service occupations         2,836              997
  Food preparation and serving           4,394              561
  related occupations
  Building and grounds cleaning          3,695              701
  and maintenance occupations
  Personal care and service              2,768              586
  occupations
 Sales and office occupations           23,714              889
  Sales and related occupations         10,077            1,027
  Office and administrative support     13,637              798
  occupations
  Natural resources, construction,      11,546            1,039
  and maintenance occupations
  Farming, fishing, and forestry           850              726
  occupations
  Construction and extraction            6,414            1,084
  occupations
  Installation, maintenance, and         4,282            1,028
  repair occupations
 Production, transportation, and        15,210              898
 material moving occupations
  Production occupations                 7,668              898
  Transportation and material            7,542              897
  moving occupations


Occupation                              Without a         Percent
                                        certification or  difference
                                        license

Total, 16 years and over                 $8,18              35.2%
 Management, professional, and            1,232              2.9
 related occupations
  Management, business, and               1,305             18.1
  financial operations occupations
   Management occupations                 1,382             14.0
   Business and financial                 1,159             24.7
   operations occupations
 Professional and related                 1,158              4.0
 occupations
   Computer and mathematical              1,531              4.0
   occupations
   Architecture and engineering           1,445             14.0
   occupations
   Life, physical, and social             1,195             20.8
   science occupations
   Community and social services            849             19.6
   occupations
   Legal occupations                      1,115             68.3
   Education, training, and library         902             16.9
   occupations
   Arts, design, entertainment,           1,073             10.2
   sports, and media occupations
   Healthcare practitioners and             876             39.0
   technical occupations
 Service occupations                        543             18.8
  Healthcare support occupations            548              4.6
  Protective service occupations            773             29.0
  Food preparation and serving              497             12.9
  related occupations
  Building and grounds cleaning             540             29.8
  and maintenance occupations
  Personal care and service                 530             10.6
  occupations
 Sales and office occupations               727             22.3
  Sales and related occupations             765             34.2
  Office and administrative support         710             12.4
  occupations
  Natural resources, construction,          788             31.9
  and maintenance occupations
  Farming, fishing, and forestry            573             26.7
  occupations
  Construction and extraction               772             40.4
  occupations
  Installation, maintenance, and            902             14.0
  repair occupations
 Production, transportation, and            682             31.7
 material moving occupations
  Production occupations                    707             27.0
  Transportation and material               649             38.2
  moving occupations

                                           Is the difference
Occupation                                 statistically
                                           significant?

Total, 16 years and over                        Yes
 Management, professional, and                  Yes
 related occupations
  Management, business, and                     Yes
  financial operations occupations
   Management occupations                       Yes
   Business and financial                       Yes
   operations occupations
 Professional and related                       Yes
 occupations
   Computer and mathematical                    No
   occupations
   Architecture and engineering                 Yes
   occupations
   Life, physical, and social                   Yes
   science occupations
   Community and social services                Yes
   occupations
   Legal occupations                            Yes
   Education, training, and library             Yes
   occupations
   Arts, design, entertainment,                 No
   sports, and media occupations
   Healthcare practitioners and                 Yes
   technical occupations
 Service occupations                            Yes
  Healthcare support occupations                Yes
  Protective service occupations                Yes
  Food preparation and serving                  Yes
  related occupations
  Building and grounds cleaning                 Yes
  and maintenance occupations
  Personal care and service                     Yes
  occupations
 Sales and office occupations                   Yes
  Sales and related occupations                 Yes
  Office and administrative support             Yes
  occupations
  Natural resources, construction,              Yes
  and maintenance occupations
  Farming, fishing, and forestry                Yes
  occupations
  Construction and extraction                   Yes
  occupations
  Installation, maintenance, and                Yes
  repair occupations
 Production, transportation, and                Yes
 material moving occupations
  Production occupations                        Yes
  Transportation and material                   Yes
  moving occupations

Note: A person may have more than one certification or license.
Statistical significance is at the 90-percent confidence level.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.
However, as mentioned previously in the "Occupation" section, each
intermediate occupation group includes a

Table 10. Certification and licensing status of employed people, by
selected detailed occupation, 2018 annual averages

                                          Full-time wage and salary
                                          workers (thousands)
Occupation                                With a         Without a
                                          certification  certification
                                          or license     or license

Total, 16 years and over                   28,384         87,183
 Management, professional                  17,400         31,408
 and related occupations
  Management, business, and                 4,242         15,620
  financial operations
  occupations
   Management occupations                   2,842         10,635
    Chief executives                          237            861
    General and operations                    140            799
    managers
    Marketing and sales                        91            873
    managers
    Computer and information                  105            497
    systems managers
    Financial managers                        259            899
    Human resources managers                   64            230
    Construction managers                     136            488
    Education administrators                  367            490
    Food service managers                     111            716
    Medical and health services               291            277
    managers
    Property, real estate, and                104            285
    community association
    managers
    Social and community service               84            279
    managers
    Managers, all other                       635          2,650
   Business and financial                   1,400          4,985
   operations occupations
    Claims adjusters, appraisers,             115            219
    examiners, and investigators
    Compliance officers                        92            186
    Human resources workers                    79            541
    Management analysts                       109            526
    Accountants and auditors                  435          1,180
    Personal financial advisors               189            226
    Credit counselors and loan                108            225
    officers
 Professional and related                  13,158         15,788
 occupations
   Computer and mathematical                  656          4,099
   occupations
    Computer systems analysts                  71            509
    Software developers,                      167          1,444
    applications and systems
    software
    Computer support specialist:               68            449
    Computer occupations, all                  99            579
    other
   Architecture and engineering               684          2,309
   occupations
    Architects, except naval                   81             89
    Civil engineers                           168            242
    Mechanical engineers                       52            261
    Engineers, all other                      117            411
    Engineering technicians,
    except drafters                            70            328
   Life, physical, and social                 312            996
   science occupations
   Community and social service               803          1,420
   occupations
    Counselors                                313            392
    Social workers                            280            473
    Clergy                                    112            225
   Legal occupations                          896            570
    Lawyers                                   718            135
    Paralegals and legal                      101            311
    assistants
   Education, training, and                 4,278          2,888
   library occupations
    Postsecondary teachers                    315            679
    Preschool and kindergarten                273            296
    teachers
    Elementary and middle                   2,289            741
    school teachers
    Secondary school teachers                 759            189
    Special education teachers                265             58
    Other teachers and                        122            265
    instructors
    Teacher assistants                        163            452
   Arts, design, entertainment,
   sports, and media                          196          1,684
   occupations
    Designers                                  74            609
   Healthcare practitioners and             5,332          1,821
   technical occupations
    Physicians and surgeons                   701            126
    Therapists, all other                     102             53
    Registered nurses                       2,147            438
    Clinical laboratory                       143            147
    technologists and technician
    Diagnostic related                      186 s             83
    technologists and technician
    Health practitioner support               265            277
    technologists and technician
    Licensed practical and                    322            169
    licensed vocational nurses
    Medical records and health                 50             90
    information technicians
    Miscellaneous health                     55 s             63
    technologists and technicians
 Service occupations                        3,833         12,456
  Healthcare support                        1,264          1,332
  occupations
   Nursing, psychiatric, and                  728            692
   home health aides
   Dental assistants                           97             99
   Medical assistants                         237            262
  Protective service                        1,102          1,734
  occupations
   Firefighters                               192            102
   Bailiffs, correctional officers,            96            297
   and jailers
   Detectives and criminal                     61             96
   investigators
   Police and sheriffs patrol                 348            380
   officers
   Security guards and gaming                 237            544
   surveillance officers
  Food preparation and serving                365          4,029
  related occupations
   Chefs and head cooks                        59            307
   First-line supervisors of food              51            346
   preparation and serving
   workers
   Cooks                                       89          1,236
   Waiters and waitresses                      72            860
  Building and grounds
  cleaning and maintenance                    333          3,362
  occupations
   Janitors and building cleaners             125          1,547
   Grounds maintenance                         82            753
   workers
  Personal care and service                   770          1,998
  occupations
   Hairdressers, hairstylists, and            202            107
   cosmetologists
   Miscellaneous personal                     124            134
   appearance workers
   Childcare workers                           66            372
   Personal care aides                        150            636
   Recreation and fitness                      51            157
   workers
 Sales and office occupations               2,750         20,964
  Sales and related                         1,461          8,615
  occupations
   First-line supervisors of retail           194          2,226
   sales workers
   First-line supervisors of non-             143            750
   retail sales workers
   Cashiers                                    62          1,328
   Retail salespersons                        163          1,697
   Insurance sales agents                     290            176
   Securities, commodities, and
   financial services sales                    51            146
   agents
   Sales representatives,                      95          1,017
   wholesale and manufacturing
   Real estate brokers and sales              348            180
   agents
  Office and administrative                 1,288         12,349
  support occupations
   First-line supervisors of office
   and administrative support                 192          1,087
   workers
   Billing and posting clerks                  57            360
   Bookkeeping, accounting,                    58            621
   and auditing clerks
   Customer service                           131          1,773
   representatives
   Receptionists and information               91            844
   clerks
   Dispatchers                                 53            217
   Secretaries and                            170          1,807
   administrative assistants
   Office clerks, general                      77            849
   Office and administrative                   60            396
   support workers, all other
 Natural resources,                         2,171          9,375
 construction, and
 maintenance occupations
   Farming, fishing, and forestry              73            777
   occupations
   Construction and extraction              1,147          5,267
   occupations
    First-line supervisors of
    construction trades and                   106            435
    extraction workers
    Carpenters                                 79            894
    Construction laborers                     120          1,350
    Operating engineers and                    79            248
    other construction equipment
    operators
    Electricians                              330            451
    Pipelayers, plumbers,                     190            341
    pipefitters, and steamfitters
  Installation, maintenance, and              951          3,331
  repair occupations
    First-line supervisors of                  52            219
    mechanics, installers, and
    repairers
    Aircraft mechanics and                     61             94
    service technicians
    Automotive service                        183            526
    technicians and mechanics
    Bus and truck mechanics and                90            268
    diesel engine specialists
    Heating, air conditioning, and            146            238
    refrigeration mechanics and
    installers
    Industrial and refractory                  69            355
    machinery mechanics
    Maintenance and repair                     77            379
    workers, general
  Production, transportation,
  and material moving                       2,230         12,980
  occupations
   Production occupations                     764          6,904
    First-line supervisors of
    production and operating                   82            711
    workers
    Welding, soldering, and                   143            419
    brazing workers
    Inspectors, testers, sorters,              93            663
    samplers, and weighers
    Production workers, all other              66            926
  Transportation and material               1,467          6,076
  moving occupations
    Bus drivers                               114            247
    Driver/sales workers and                  829          1,963
    truck drivers
    Taxi drivers and chauffeurs                54            346
    Industrial truck and tractor               70            527
    operators
    Laborers and freight, stock,               90          1,505
    and material movers, hand

                                          Median weekly earnings
Occupation                                With a         Without a
                                          certification  certification
                                          or license     or license

Total, 16 years and over                   $1,106          $818
 Management, professional                   1,268         1,232
 and related occupations
  Management, business, and                 1,541         1,305
  financial operations
  occupations
   Management occupations                   1,576         1,382
    Chief executives                        2,316         2,285
    General and operations                  1,474         1,321
    managers
    Marketing and sales                     1,574         1,565
    managers
    Computer and information                1,986         1,855
    systems managers
    Financial managers                      1,720         1,381
    Human resources managers                1,414         1,374
    Construction managers                   1,543         1,392
    Education administrators                1,577         1,156
    Food service managers                     886           794
    Medical and health services             1,631         1,222
    managers
    Property, real estate, and              1,115           980
    community association
    managers
    Social and community service            1,335         1,084
    managers
    Managers, all other                     1,616         1,477
   Business and financial                   1,445         1,159
   operations occupations
    Claims adjusters, appraisers,           1,187           944
    examiners, and investigators
    Compliance officers                     1,402         1,250
    Human resources workers                 1,383         1,139
    Management analysts                     1,553         1,530
    Accountants and auditors                1,565         1,114
    Personal financial advisors             1,733         1,340
    Credit counselors and loan              1,430         1,078
    officers
 Professional and related                   1,204         1,158
 occupations
   Computer and mathematical                1,592         1,531
   occupations
    Computer systems analysts               1,849         1,468
    Software developers,                    1,897         1,853
    applications and systems
    software
    Computer support specialist:            1,158         1,059
    Computer occupations, all               1,295         1,209
    other
   Architecture and engineering             1,648         1,445
   occupations
    Architects, except naval                1,673         1,285
    Civil engineers                         1,767         1,332
    Mechanical engineers                    1,762         1,517
    Engineers, all other                    1,623         1,569
    Engineering technicians,
    except drafters                         1,175         1,116
   Life, physical, and social               1,443         1,195
   science occupations
   Community and social service             1,015           849
   occupations
    Counselors                              1,096           831
    Social workers                          1,016           835
    Clergy                                  1,017           966
   Legal occupations                        1,876         1,115
    Lawyers                                 2,083         1,510
    Paralegals and legal                      878           965
    assistants
   Education, training, and                 1,054           902
   library occupations
    Postsecondary teachers                  1,443         1,438
    Preschool and kindergarten                785           556
    teachers
    Elementary and middle                   1,031           940
    school teachers
    Secondary school teachers               1,153         1,035
    Special education teachers              1,058           894
    Other teachers and                      1,068           920
    instructors
    Teacher assistants                        557           555
   Arts, design, entertainment,
   sports, and media                        1,182         1,073
   occupations
    Designers                               1,271         1,045
   Healthcare practitioners and             1,218           876
   technical occupations
    Physicians and surgeons                 2,261         1,419
    Therapists, all other                   1,114           930
    Registered nurses                       1,186         1,041
    Clinical laboratory                     1,043           760
    technologists and technician
    Diagnostic related                      1,181           924
    technologists and technician
    Health practitioner support               733           637
    technologists and technician
    Licensed practical and                    804           635
    licensed vocational nurses
    Medical records and health                832           721
    information technicians
    Miscellaneous health                      818           910
    technologists and technicians
 Service occupations                          645           543
  Healthcare support                          573           548
  occupations
   Nursing, psychiatric, and                  519           512
   home health aides
   Dental assistants                          609           602
   Medical assistants                         640           591
  Protective service                          997           773
  occupations
   Firefighters                             1,145         1,024
   Bailiffs, correctional officers,           738           743
   and jailers
   Detectives and criminal                  1,286         1,431
   investigators
   Police and sheriffs patrol               1,140         1,012
   officers
   Security guards and gaming                 634           582
   surveillance officers
  Food preparation and serving                561           497
  related occupations
   Chefs and head cooks                       617           614
   First-line supervisors of food             684           576
   preparation and serving
   workers
   Cooks                                      511           485
   Waiters and waitresses                     561           491
  Building and grounds
  cleaning and maintenance                    701           540
  occupations
   Janitors and building cleaners             674           564
   Grounds maintenance                        691           557
   workers
  Personal care and service                   586           530
  occupations
   Hairdressers, hairstylists, and            549           539
   cosmetologists
   Miscellaneous personal                     518           532
   appearance workers
   Childcare workers                          584           488
   Personal care aides                        509           497
   Recreation and fitness                     699           585
   workers
 Sales and office occupations                 889           727
  Sales and related                         1,027           765
  occupations
   First-line supervisors of retail         1,003           779
   sales workers
   First-line supervisors of non-           1,244         1,137
   retail sales workers
   Cashiers                                   450           465
   Retail salespersons                        881           646
   Insurance sales agents                     869           849
   Securities, commodities, and
   financial services sales                 1,895         1,170
   agents
   Sales representatives,                   1,319         1,152
   wholesale and manufacturing
   Real estate brokers and sales            1,137           834
   agents
  Office and administrative                   798           710
  support occupations
   First-line supervisors of office
   and administrative support               1,034           874
   workers
   Billing and posting clerks                 774           702
   Bookkeeping, accounting,                   820           738
   and auditing clerks
   Customer service                           855           676
   representatives
   Receptionists and information              595           606
   clerks
   Dispatchers                                852           759
   Secretaries and                            764           759
   administrative assistants
   Office clerks, general                     715           694
   Office and administrative                1,021           771
   support workers, all other
 Natural resources,                         1,039           788
 construction, and
 maintenance occupations
   Farming, fishing, and forestry             726           573
   occupations
   Construction and extraction              1,084           772
   occupations
    First-line supervisors of
    construction trades and                 1,289         1,010
    extraction workers
    Carpenters                                887           745
    Construction laborers                     932           705
    Operating engineers and                 1,106           886
    other construction equipment
    operators
    Electricians                            1,136           841
    Pipelayers, plumbers,                   1,181           791
    pipefitters, and steamfitters
  Installation, maintenance, and            1,028           902
  repair occupations
    First-line supervisors of               1,380         1,048
    mechanics, installers, and
    repairers
    Aircraft mechanics and                  1,211         1,082
    service technicians
    Automotive service                        912           776
    technicians and mechanics
    Bus and truck mechanics and             1,012           906
    diesel engine specialists
    Heating, air conditioning, and            964           846
    refrigeration mechanics and
    installers
    Industrial and refractory               1,127           949
    machinery mechanics
    Maintenance and repair                    938           839
    workers, general
  Production, transportation,
  and material moving                         898           682
  occupations
   Production occupations                     898           707
    First-line supervisors of
    production and operating                1,123           963
    workers
    Welding, soldering, and                   897           823
    brazing workers
    Inspectors, testers, sorters,           1,009           752
    samplers, and weighers
    Production workers, all other             732           676
  Transportation and material                 897           649
  moving occupations
    Bus drivers                               619           683
    Driver/sales workers and                  953           769
    truck drivers
    Taxi drivers and chauffeurs               636           607
    Industrial truck and tractor              736           633
    operators
    Laborers and freight, stock,              706           599
    and material movers, hand

                                          Percent
                                          difference in  Is difference
Occupation                                earnings       statistically
                                          levels         significant?

Total, 16 years and over                   35.2%        Yes
 Management, professional                   2.9         Yes
 and related occupations
  Management, business, and                18.1         Yes
  financial operations
  occupations
   Management occupations                  14.0         Yes
    Chief executives                        1.4         No
    General and operations                 11.6         No
    managers
    Marketing and sales                     0.6         No
    managers
    Computer and information                7.1         No
    systems managers
    Financial managers                     24.5         Yes
    Human resources managers                2.9         No
    Construction managers                  10.8         Yes
    Education administrators               36.4         Yes
    Food service managers                  11.6         No
    Medical and health services            33.5         Yes
    managers
    Property, real estate, and             13.8         Yes
    community association
    managers
    Social and community service           23.2         Yes
    managers
    Managers, all other                     9.4         Yes
   Business and financial                  24.7         Yes
   operations occupations
    Claims adjusters, appraisers,          25.7         Yes
    examiners, and investigators
    Compliance officers                    12.2         No
    Human resources workers                21.4         No
    Management analysts                     1.5         No
    Accountants and auditors               40.5         Yes
    Personal financial advisors            29.3         Yes
    Credit counselors and loan             32.7         Yes
    officers
 Professional and related                   4.0         Yes
 occupations
   Computer and mathematical                4.0         No
   occupations
    Computer systems analysts              26.0         Yes
    Software developers,                    2.4         No
    applications and systems
    software
    Computer support specialist:            9.3         No
    Computer occupations, all               7.1         No
    other
   Architecture and engineering            14.0         Yes
   occupations
    Architects, except naval               30.2         No
    Civil engineers                        32.7         Yes
    Mechanical engineers                   16.2         Yes
    Engineers, all other                    3.4         No
    Engineering technicians,
    except drafters                         5.3         No
   Life, physical, and social              20.8         Yes
   science occupations
   Community and social service            19.6         Yes
   occupations
    Counselors                             31.9         Yes
    Social workers                         21.7         Yes
    Clergy                                  5.3         No
   Legal occupations                       68.3         Yes
    Lawyers                                37.9         Yes
    Paralegals and legal                   -9.0         No
    assistants
   Education, training, and                16.9         Yes
   library occupations
    Postsecondary teachers                  0.3         No
    Preschool and kindergarten             41.2         Yes
    teachers
    Elementary and middle                   9.7         Yes
    school teachers
    Secondary school teachers              11.4         No
    Special education teachers             18.3         No
    Other teachers and                     16.1         No
    instructors
    Teacher assistants                      0.4         No
   Arts, design, entertainment,
   sports, and media                       10.2         No
   occupations
    Designers                              21.6         Yes
   Healthcare practitioners and            39.0         Yes
   technical occupations
    Physicians and surgeons                59.3         Yes
    Therapists, all other                  19.8         Yes
    Registered nurses                      13.9         Yes
    Clinical laboratory                    37.2         Yes
    technologists and technician
    Diagnostic related                     27.8         No
    technologists and technician
    Health practitioner support            15.1         Yes
    technologists and technician
    Licensed practical and                 26.6         Yes
    licensed vocational nurses
    Medical records and health             15.4         No
    information technicians
    Miscellaneous health                  -10.1         No
    technologists and technicians
 Service occupations                       18.8         Yes
  Healthcare support                        4.6         Yes
  occupations
   Nursing, psychiatric, and                1.4         No
   home health aides
   Dental assistants                        1.2         No
   Medical assistants                       8.3         Yes
  Protective service                       29.0         Yes
  occupations
   Firefighters                            11.8         No
   Bailiffs, correctional officers,        -0.7         No
   and jailers
   Detectives and criminal                -10.1         No
   investigators
   Police and sheriffs patrol              12.6         Yes
   officers
   Security guards and gaming               8.9         No
   surveillance officers
  Food preparation and serving             12.9         Yes
  related occupations
   Chefs and head cooks                     0.5         No
   First-line supervisors of food          18.8         Yes
   preparation and serving
   workers
   Cooks                                    5.4         No
   Waiters and waitresses                  14.3         Yes
  Building and grounds
  cleaning and maintenance                 29.8         Yes
  occupations
   Janitors and building cleaners          19.5         Yes
   Grounds maintenance                     24.1         Yes
   workers
  Personal care and service                10.6         Yes
  occupations
   Hairdressers, hairstylists, and          1.9         No
   cosmetologists
   Miscellaneous personal                  -2.6         No
   appearance workers
   Childcare workers                       19.7         Yes
   Personal care aides                      2.4         No
   Recreation and fitness                  19.5         Yes
   workers
 Sales and office occupations              22.3         Yes
  Sales and related                        34.2         Yes
  occupations
   First-line supervisors of retail        28.8         Yes
   sales workers
   First-line supervisors of non-           9.4         No
   retail sales workers
   Cashiers                                -3.2         No
   Retail salespersons                     36.4         Yes
   Insurance sales agents                   2.4         No
   Securities, commodities, and
   financial services sales                62.0         Yes
   agents
   Sales representatives,                  14.5         No
   wholesale and manufacturing
   Real estate brokers and sales           36.3         Yes
   agents
  Office and administrative                12.4         Yes
  support occupations
   First-line supervisors of office
   and administrative support              18.3         Yes
   workers
   Billing and posting clerks              10.3         No
   Bookkeeping, accounting,                11.1         No
   and auditing clerks
   Customer service                        26.5         Yes
   representatives
   Receptionists and information           -1.8         No
   clerks
   Dispatchers                             12.3         Yes
   Secretaries and                          0.7         No
   administrative assistants
   Office clerks, general                   3.0         No
   Office and administrative               32.4         Yes
   support workers, all other
 Natural resources,                        31.9         Yes
 construction, and
 maintenance occupations
   Farming, fishing, and forestry          26.7         Yes
   occupations
   Construction and extraction             40.4         Yes
   occupations
    First-line supervisors of
    construction trades and                27.6         Yes
    extraction workers
    Carpenters                             19.1         Yes
    Construction laborers                  32.2         Yes
    Operating engineers and                24.8         Yes
    other construction equipment
    operators
    Electricians                           35.1         Yes
    Pipelayers, plumbers,                  49.3         Yes
    pipefitters, and steamfitters
  Installation, maintenance, and           14.0         Yes
  repair occupations
    First-line supervisors of              31.7         Yes
    mechanics, installers, and
    repairers
    Aircraft mechanics and                 11.9         No
    service technicians
    Automotive service                     17.5         Yes
    technicians and mechanics
    Bus and truck mechanics and            11.7         Yes
    diesel engine specialists
    Heating, air conditioning, and         13.9         Yes
    refrigeration mechanics and
    installers
    Industrial and refractory              18.8         No
    machinery mechanics
    Maintenance and repair                 11.8         Yes
    workers, general
  Production, transportation,
  and material moving                      31.7         Yes
  occupations
   Production occupations                  27.0         Yes
    First-line supervisors of
    production and operating               16.6         No
    workers
    Welding, soldering, and                 9.0         Yes
    brazing workers
    Inspectors, testers, sorters,          34.2         Yes
    samplers, and weighers
    Production workers, all other           8.3         No
  Transportation and material              38.2         Yes
  moving occupations
    Bus drivers                            -9.4         No
    Driver/sales workers and               23.9         Yes
    truck drivers
    Taxi drivers and chauffeurs             4.8         No
    Industrial truck and tractor           16.3         Yes
    operators
    Laborers and freight, stock,           17.9         Yes
    and material movers, hand

Note: A person may have more than one certification or license.
Estimates of full-time wage and salary workers for detailed occupations
may not sum to totals because data are not presented for all
occupations. Data are not presented for occupations for which the base
is less than 50,000. Statistical significance is at the 90-percent
confidence level.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Table 11. Median weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers,
by occupation and requirement for job, 2018 annual averages

                                            Full-time wage and
Occupation                                  salary workers
                                            (thousands)

Total, 16 years and over                           115,567
 Management, professional, and related              48,808
 occupations
  Management, business, and financial               19,863
  operations occupations
   Management occupations                           13,477
   Business and financial operations                 6,385
   occupations
  Professional and related occupations              28,945
   Computer and mathematical occupations             4,755
   Architecture and engineering occupations          2,994
   Life, physical, and social science                1,308
   occupations
   Community and social services                     2,223
   occupations
   Legal occupations                                 1,466
   Education, training, and library                  7,166
   occupations
   Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and          1,880
   media occupations
   Healthcare practitioners and technical            7,154
   occupations
  Service occupations                               16,288
   Healthcare support occupations                    2,595
   Protective service occupations                    2,836
   Food preparation and serving related              4,394
   occupations
   Building and grounds cleaning and                 3,695
   maintenance occupations
   Personal care and service occupations             2,768
  Sales and office occupations                      23,714
   Sales and related occupations                    10,077
   Office and administrative support                13,637
   occupations
  Natural resources, construction, and              11,546
  maintenance occupations
   Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations          850
   Construction and extraction occupations           6,414
   Installation, maintenance, and repair             4,282
   occupations
  Production, transportation, and material          15,210
  moving occupations
   Production occupations                            7,668
   Transportation and material moving                7,542
   occupations

                                            Median weekly earnings
                                            With a certification or
                                                    license
Occupation                                          Required  Not
                                            Total   for job   required
                                                              for job

Total, 16 years and over                       $1,106  $1,123     $1,006
 Management, professional, and related          1,268   1,257      1,390
 occupations
  Management, business, and financial           1,541   1,550      1,515
  operations occupations
   Management occupations                       1,576   1,595      1,540
   Business and financial operations            1,445   1,445      1,445
   occupations
  Professional and related occupations          1,204   1,203      1,228
   Computer and mathematical occupations        1,592   1,524      1,637
   Architecture and engineering occupations     1,648   1,666      1,579
   Life, physical, and social science           1,443   1,465      1,344
   occupations
   Community and social services                1,015   1,056        883
   occupations
   Legal occupations                            1,876   1,899      1,063
   Education, training, and library             1,054   1,059        963
   occupations
   Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and     1,182   1,202      1,156
   media occupations
   Healthcare practitioners and technical       1,218   1,224        929
   occupations
  Service occupations                             645     654        600
   Healthcare support occupations                 573     571        601
   Protective service occupations                 997     999        863
   Food preparation and serving related           561     580        530
   occupations
   Building and grounds cleaning and              701     794        551
   maintenance occupations
   Personal care and service occupations          586     586        583
  Sales and office occupations                    889     967        784
   Sales and related occupations                1,027   1,070        923
   Office and administrative support              798     852        728
   occupations
  Natural resources, construction, and          1,039   1,061        955
  maintenance occupations
   Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations     726     743         --
   Construction and extraction occupations      1,084   1,114        932
   Installation, maintenance, and repair        1,028   1,033      1,017
   occupations
  Production, transportation, and material        898     936        705
  moving occupations
   Production occupations                         898     930        794
   Transportation and material moving             897     939        617
   occupations

                                            Without a
Occupation                                  certification or
                                            license

Total, 16 years and over                        $818
 Management, professional, and related         1,232
 occupations
  Management, business, and financial          1,305
  operations occupations
   Management occupations                      1,382
   Business and financial operations           1,159
   occupations
  Professional and related occupations        1,158
   Computer and mathematical occupations       1,531
   Architecture and engineering occupations    1,445
   Life, physical, and social science          1,195
   occupations
   Community and social services                 849
   occupations
   Legal occupations                           1,115
   Education, training, and library              902
   occupations
   Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and    1,073
   media occupations
   Healthcare practitioners and technical        876
   occupations
  Service occupations                            543
   Healthcare support occupations                548
   Protective service occupations                773
   Food preparation and serving related          497
   occupations
   Building and grounds cleaning and             540
   maintenance occupations
   Personal care and service occupations         530
  Sales and office occupations                   727
   Sales and related occupations                 765
   Office and administrative support             710
   occupations
  Natural resources, construction, and           788
  maintenance occupations
   Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations    573
   Construction and extraction occupations       772
   Installation, maintenance, and repair         902
   occupations
  Production, transportation, and material       682
  moving occupations
   Production occupations                        707
   Transportation and material moving            649
   occupations

Note: People may have more than one certification or license. Dash
indicates data not available or data did not meet publication standards.
Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.
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Author:Cunningham, Evan
Publication:Monthly Labor Review
Article Type:Report
Date:Jun 1, 2019
Words:18843
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