Printer Friendly

Professional Commitment of Teacher Educators: Future of Nation Builders.

Byline: Halima Shoaib and Muhammad Ibrahim Khalid

Abstract

Commitment is the main factor for effective and efficient work in any field.Teachers' professional commitment has been found to be critical to good instruction. Teachers are prepared and developed professionally in teacher training institutions.Main purpose of the study was to find out the professional commitment of teacher educators who are the master of masters (nation builders). Therefore, study was conducted on teacher educators of Govt. Colleges for Elementary Teacher (GCETs) in Punjab.320 (120 female and 200 male) teacher educators from GCETS were selected as sample from population of 540 teacher educators by using proportionate random sampling technique. For data collection Professional Commitment Questionnaire (PCQ) a five point rating scale was developed. Data was analyzed by using inferential statistics i.e. t-test and ANOVA.

Analysis of results highlighted that aged teacher educators were more committed as compared to young ones. Similarly teachers having higher academic and professional qualification were more committed as compared to less qualified teachers.

Introduction

Man is social animal. For happy and peaceful life man has to play various roles. For better existence education is a vital factor for man. Only skilled teacher can best impart education. But to perform his/her duties properly, a teacher must be updated professionally. Dedication to the profession is of utmost importance. This dedication is necessary at all levels - lower to higher. The teacher imparts education, transfer skills and better attitudes of the students. The concept of dedication and commitment is very much important as regards the case of teachers' educators. Teacher educators are the people who train the potential teachers - who teach the teachers, train the trainers.

In a way, teacher education has assumed special importance. Teachers' education is no longer a training process. It is a strategy to uplift the well-being of the teachers. Siddique (2012) pointed out that teacher education programme will lay focus on efficiency and dedication in an increased manner. Teachers prepare the future generation but if they lack commitment it is not fruitful. Pr-service teacher education is compulsory to improve the system.

Directorate of staff development (DSD) is catering invaluable services for teachers training for last 50 years. In 2006 administrative changes were evolved. Govt. Colleges for Elementary Teacher (GCETs) institutions were given under the authority of DSD, for better organization and co-ordination. The importance of pre-service and in-service training was stressed.

Our study focuses 33 Govt. Colleges for Elementary Teachers. Teachers are trained professionally in these colleges. We want to assess the commitment of teacher educators of GCETs. It is significant that if teacher educators are lacking commitment, they affect the training task of prospective teachers. For making effective and functional to teacher education, the role of teacher educators is important.

We notice that there is a lack of studies regarding professional commitment of teacher educators. Some studies were conducted at secondary schools and college levels. But no study was there on professional commitment of teacher educators who train the prospective teachers.

Literature Review

The profession of teaching carries in itself the concepts of guidance, learning and instruction. It is the sole task of a teacher to impart the essence of education to his students. A good teacher is the pillar of educational system (Hanif and Saba, 2002). The place and role of a teacher cannot be replaced. A teacher is the agent of a change (Bogler and Somech, 2004). Teaching is one of the oldest professions. But aspirant professional teachers are now decreasing with time, because the profession carries less glamour, status, financial satisfaction as compared to other professions. We know that teacher's role in socio-economic development is great. To resolve the issue we need planning in this regard. Changing times and demands have redefined the role and the nature of profession. Teaching as a pious profession cannot be done without commitment, dedication and involvement.

Professional Commitment

The term professional commitment has been defined in various ways. The psychological link between the employee and the employer is the professional commitment (Kannan and Pillai, 2008). Professional commitment is defined as "A person's belief and acceptance in the values of his or her chosen profession or line of work, and willingness to maintain membership in that profession" (Vandaberg and Scarpello, 2004, p. 536).Professional commitment has been defined as "one's attitude toward one's profession" (Blau, 2002 p.279).

Professional commitment adds flavor to teaching process. It must be a part of routine and not a burden. Effective teaching is the ability, the learning of skills, use of skills artistically and creatively. Kohli (2005) researched that teacher's educators professional commitment was a neglected area in Punjab. It was going at moderate level. According to Goyal (2012) B.Ed teacher educators was high in professional commitment with regard to gender, marital status and qualification.

Domains of Professional Commitment

According to Meyer and Allen (1997) there are three components of professional commitment. These are (i) Affective professional commitment (ii) Normative professional commitment (iii) Continuance professional commitment.

Affective Professional Commitment

For Mowday, Steers and Porter (1979) affective professional commitment is the identification, rapport, and involvement of the employee with the employer. Porter, Steers, Modway and Boulian (1974) described three components of affective professional commitment-conviction and recognition of organization's objectives-willingness to target the goals and willingness to maintain membership of the organization.

Normative Professional Commitment

It is the responsibility sense towards the organization. It is the ethical base of individual regarding good or bad of the organization. People with the highnormative professional commitment continue working with the same organization.

Continuance Professional Commitment

It is sort of bond between the employee and the organization. It is based on an exchange on formal contract. It is a type of investment of the employee with organization (Ibrahim and Iqbal, 2015). It is the employee's need resulting out of financial perks, lack of options, seniority status and retirement benefits. It checks the employee to transfer his/her expertise to other organizations (Van, Van and Ollie,2005).

There are other domains that are relevant as well to the professional commitment of teachers. Firstly, there is the mastery over the subject. This mastery, efficiency comes and remains with lesson planning and refresher courses. He/she must keep himself/herself abreast to the modern inflow of knowledge in the subject. Secondly, group involvement and peer sharing is also a factor in professional commitment. The relationship with colleagues is good for institutional goals. Work group enhances the prestige of the teachers and the institution as well. It is the spirit of interaction. Thirdly environment of workplace also affects the commitment of the worker. Working environment comprises administration, motivation, salaries. If one is not satisfied, one may quit the job. According to Huang (2011) professional commitment is proportional to organizational environment. Fourthly the role of leadership is of utmost significance. Leadership increases professionalism (Mohammadtaheri, 2011).

A vibrant principal is always in touch with his/her subordinates. They keep an open eye for what is happening around them. Good principals know the input and output (Glanz, 2006). A good leader is always task oriented. The good and efficient leaders make efforts to guide, instruct, test and inspire the teachers (Taylor and John, 2002).

Researches Related to Professional Commitment and Demographic Variables:

There are countless researches about variables regarding professional commitment. For example, age is a denominator in professional commitment. Commitment increases with age. It is the age that brings expertise (Salami, 2008). Experts like Beri and Beri (2016) show a strong link between age and professional commitment. Affective commitment comes with age and teaching experience (Ibrahim and Iqbal, 2015). There is a strong association between age and professional commitment (Anwer, Tahir and Batool, 2012).

Qualification is also linked with professional commitment (Kannan and Pillai,2008). But researchers like Day and Gu (2009) oppose this argument. But Solangi, Qaisrani and Mughal (2015) found the link between higher perks resulting out of higher qualification. Higher financial rewards and seniority are indicators of professionalism (Shukla, 2009). According to Goswamiand Choudhury (2016), salaries are a sort of reward for the teachers. The higher the salaries, the higher are the input of teachers. The result of the current study Irshad and Naz (2011) revealed that attractive pay packages are a type of lure for the hard working professional teachers. Marriage is also factor encountered in professional commitment. Married people become more patient, balanced and job oriented. They discard the idea of changing profession and making new adventures in their careers (Aziz, 2010). But Sood and Anand (2010) counter this point. They view that unmarried are more committed.

Objective of the Study

Main objective of the study was to identify the difference in the professional commitment of teacher educators with respect to demographic variables.

Hypotheses of the Study

Ho1: There is no significant difference of professional commitment of teacher educators having different age level in Govt. Colleges for Elementary Teacher of Punjab.

Ho2: There is no significant difference of professional commitment of teacher educators having different academic qualification in Govt. Colleges for Elementary Teacher of Punjab.

Ho3: There is no significant difference of professional commitment of teacher educatorshaving different professional qualification in Govt. Colleges for Elementary Teacher of Punjab.

Ho4: There is no significant difference of professional commitment of teacher educators having different monthly income in Govt. Colleges for Elementary Teacher of Punjab.

Ho5: There is no significant difference of professional commitment of married and unmarried teacher educators working in Govt. Colleges for Elementary Teacher of Punjab.

Methodology of the study

This study was descriptive in nature and survey type research. It is considered as most appropriate research type to measure the perception of respondents.

Population and Sample

There 33 Govt. Colleges for Elementary Teachers are presently working in Punjab province.Similarlythe population of this study was 540(340 males and 200 females) teacher educators that were employed in GCETs of Punjab. From this population, a proportionate sample of 320 (200 males and 120 females) teacher educators were selected. It was 60% of population.

Instrumentation

Data was collected by using a Professional Commitment Questionnaire (PCQ) which was comprised of two parts. In the first portion, demographic information i.e. age, academic qualification, professional qualification, monthly income and marital status were included. In the second part, statements on five point rating scale were added about Commitment to Teaching Profession, Affective Professional Commitment, Normative Professional Commitment, Continuity of Professional Commitment, Commitment to TeachingWork, Commitment to Work Group, Institutional Behavioral Climate for Commitment and Collegial Participative Leadership. Questionnaire was developed by the researcher herself finalized with the help of expert's opinion.

Reliability of Instrument

Pilot testing was conducted to ensure the reliability of the instrument. Instrument i.e. PCQ was pilot tested on small scale. A small sample of six male teacher-educators and five female teacher-educators were selected for pilot testing. Cronbanch's alpha reliability of questionnaire was found .92.The response rate of the questionnaire was 90% of teacher educators.

Data Analysis and Results

Appropriate test i.e. t-test and ANOVA were applied according to the nature of data and hypotheses. Detail of data analysis and results generated from analysis are given in the tables below:

Ho1: There is no significant difference of professional commitment of teacher educators having different age level in Govt. Colleges for Elementary Teacher of Punjab.

Table 1 Mean Scores of Teachers' Commitment with Different Age Group

###Teachers Age (Years)

###20-30 N=30###31-40 N=48###41-50 N=132###51-60 N=78

Domain

###SD

Commitment

###M###SD###M###M###SD###M###SD###F###p

to

Teaching###4.06###0.55###4.06###0.64###4.16###0.58###4.36###0.43###3.87###0.010

Profession

Affective###4.01###0.41###3.94###0.65###4.06###0.57###4.33###0.47###6.50###0.000

Professional

Normative###4.06###0.43###3.66###0.73###4.05###0.54###4.18###0.48###9.39###0.000

Professional

Continuous###3.01###0.63###3.14###0.69###3.28###0.79###3.57###0.72###5.71###0.001

Professional

Teaching###4.21###0.37###4.13###0.50###4.17###0.41###4.37###0.40###4.79###0.003

Work

Work###4.16###0.54###4.02###0.67###4.31###0.47###4.29###0.47###4.31###0.005

Group

Institution###4.13###0.69###3.98###0.68###4.12###0.54###4.29###0.54###2.96###0.033

Behavioral

Climate

Collegial###4.12###0.62###3.94###0.55###4.09###0.45###4.16###0.47###2.22###0.086

Participative

Leadership

Total###3.97###0.35###3.88###0.43###4.01###0.29###4.18###0.31###3.87###0.010

Above table indicates that there is significant difference (f= 3.87, p=0.010) among the different age groups on professional commitment scale as a whole. The results further clarify that there is significant difference in all the domains of professional commitment except institutional behavior climate and collegial participative leadership. The figures of above table show that normally commitment level increases with the increase of age of teachers.

Ho2:There is no significant difference of professional commitment of teacher educators having different academic qualification in Govt. Colleges for Elementary Teacher of Punjab.

Table 2 Mean Scores of Teachers' Commitment with Different Academic Qualification

###MA/M.###M. Phil, Ph.

###Sc.###D

###N=233###N=55

###Domains###M###SD###M###SD###t###P

Commitment to Teaching###-

###4.12 0.55 4.49 0.51###0.000

Profession###4.55

Affective Professional###-

###4.04 0.53 4.40 0.59###0.000

Commitment###4.43

Normative Professional###-

###3.98 0.56 4.16 0.63###0.044

Commitment###2.02

Continuous Professional###-

###3.26 0.73 3.50 0.84###0.034

Commitment###2.14

###-

Commitment to Teaching Work###4.17 0.41 4.43 0.44###0.000

###4.16

Commitment to Work Group###4.26 0.52 4.16 0.55###1.15###0.250

Institution Behavioral Climate for###-

###4.11 0.59 4.30 0.57###0.032

Commitment###2.16

###-

Collegial Participative Leadership###4.05 0.48 4.25 0.54###0.009

###2.65

###-

Total###3.99 0.32 4.22 0.38###0.000

###4.56

Table 2 shows a comparison between GCET teacher having M. A. /M. Sc. level qualification and M. Phil, Ph. D level qualification. There is significant difference between master level qualified teachers and higher level qualified teachers (t= -4.56, p=0.00) on Professional commitment scale. More qualified teachers have high level of commitment than less qualified teachers i.e. M.A./M.Sc. teachers (M= 3.99, SD= 0.32) and M.Phil/Ph.D. (M= 4.22, SD= 0.38). Results also show that there is significant difference in all the domains of professional commitment except commitment to work group (t= 1.15, p= 0.250).

Ho3: There is no significant difference of professional commitment of teacher educators having different professional qualification in Govt. Colleges for Elementary Teacher of Punjab.

Table 3 Mean Scores of Teachers' Commitment with Different Professional Qualification

###B.ED###M.ED

###N=40###N=248

Domain###M###SD###M###SD###t###p

Commitment to Teaching###3.80 0.63 4.27 0.51 -5.67###0.000

Profession

Affective Professional###3.67 0.60 4.20 0.51 -6.48###0.000

Commitment

Normative Professional###3.61 0.72 4.10 0.51 -5.80###0.000

Commitment

Continuous Professional###3.29 0.64 3.31 0.78 -0.14###0.890

Commitment

Commitment to Teaching Work###3.95 0.46 4.28 0.40 -5.10###0.000

Commitment to Work Group###3.95 0.59 4.30 0.49 -4.44###0.000

Institution Behavioral Climate for###3.79 0.74 4.22 0.53 -4.90###0.000

Commitment

Collegial Participative Leadership###3.77 0.54 4.15 0.46 -5.09###0.000

Total###3.72 0.40 4.10 0.30 -7.57###0.000

Table 3 shows a comparison between GCET teacher having B.Ed. professional qualification and M.Ed. professional qualification. There is significant difference between teachers of GCETs who were professionally qualified up to B.Ed. and M.Ed. level (t= -7.57, p=0.00) on professional commitment scale. Results also show that there is significant difference in all the domains of professional commitment except continuous professional commitment. It is also clear from above figures that commitment level of teachers increase with the increase of professional qualification i.e. B.Ed. teachers (M= 3.72, SD= 0.40) and M.Ed. teachers (M= 4.10, SD= 0.30).

Ho4: There is no significant difference of professional commitment of teacher educators having different monthly income in Govt. Colleges for Elementary Teacher of Punjab.

Table 4 Mean Scores of Teachers' Commitment with Different Monthly Incomes Groups

###Monthly Incomes of Teachers

###40,000-

###80,000

###80,000

###N=64###N=56

###N=168

Domain###M###SD###M###SD###M###SD###F###p

Commitment to###4.04 0.62 4.19 0.55 4.34 0.47 4.63###0.010

Teaching

Profession

Affective###3.94 0.57 4.08 0.56 4.39 0.47 10.88###0.000

Professional

Commitment

Normative###3.78 0.61 4.02 0.55 4.28 0.51 12.54###0.000

Professional

Commitment

Continuous###2.96 0.64 3.35 0.72 3.58 0.85 11.52###0.000

Professional

Commitment

Commitment to###4.17 0.47 4.17 0.40 4.42 0.41###7.94###0.000

Teaching Work

Commitment to###4.02 0.57 4.31 0.51 4.27 0.46###7.39###0.001

Work Group

Institution###3.99 0.74 4.12 0.53 4.40 0.51###7.95###0.000

Behavioral

Climate for

Commitment

Collegial###3.99 0.59 4.07 0.45 4.25 0.48###4.34###0.014

Participative

Leadership

Total###3.89 0.40 4.02 0.30 4.24 0.33 17.19###0.000

Table 4 show results of ANOVA among GCET teachers having different monthly income in the form of pay to know their commitment on the professional commitment scale. Teachers were divided into three categories according to their monthly income.The results in the table above indicates that there is significant difference (f=17.19, p=0.000) among the teachers having different monthly income onprofessional commitment scale.It is also observed that teachers having more monthly income were more committed as compared to the teachers having less monthly income.

Ho5: There is no significant difference of professional commitment of married and unmarried teacher educators working in Govt. Colleges for Elementary Teacher of Punjab.

Table 5 Mean Scores of Teachers' Commitment of Married Teachers and Unmarried Teachers

###Married###Unmarried

###Teachers###Teachers

###N=248###N=40

Domain###M###SD###M###SD###t###p

Commitment to Teaching Profession###4.15###0.56###4.39###0.52###2.55###0.011

Affective Professional Commitment###4.08###0.56###4.31###0.54###2.52###0.012

Normative Professional Commitment###4.00###0.59###4.11###0.53###1.18###0.240

Continuous Professional Commitment###3.35###0.69###3.03###1.02###2.56###0.011

Commitment to Teaching Work###4.19###0.42###4.37###0.47###2.48###0.014

Commitment to Work Group###4.24###0.54###4.24###0.44###0.00###0.999

Institution Behavioral Climate for

###4.11###0.59###4.33###0.59###2.27###0.024

Commitment

Collegial Participative Leadership###4.06###0.50###4.25###0.47###2.35###0.019

Total###4.01###0.34###4.16###0.39###2.57###0.011

Table 5 shows the comparison between married and un-married teachers about their commitment in different domains.The results shows that there is significant difference married and un-married teachers (t= 2.57, p=0.011) on professional commitment scale as a whole. On the other side, there is significant difference in all domains except normative professional commitment and work group commitment. The mean values show that un-married teachers were more committed to their profession. In continuous professional commitment domain married teacher (M= 3.35, SD= 0.69) were more committed as compared the un-married teachers (M= 3.03, SD= 1.02).

Discussion

Following discussion are based on the results of our study and analysis regarding factors of age, qualification, financial rewards, incentives and marital status. When the analysis was made of teachers having different age, it was found that commitment level increases with the increase of age of teacher educators in all domains of commitment except institutional behavior climate and collegial participative leadership. Commitment was found at maximum level in the teacher educators with age group (51-60 years) and minimum in the age group (31-40 years). The commitment of teachers increased with increase of age. In a study Solangi, Qaisrani and Mughal (2015) mentioned that aged teachers were more committed to their profession as compared to younger teachers. Aziz (2010) also reported that age is significantly and positively related to commitment level of teachers.

When a comparison of teacher educators having different qualifications was made, it was found that qualification affects the commitment of teacher educators positively. The results were corresponded with Beriand Beri (2016) who reported that teachers holding doctoral degree were more committed than lower degree holders (M.A, B.A, or less). The reason might be that highly qualified teachers were more aware of their work and felt more satisfied than less qualified teachers.

The main hurdle to become a teacher committed was low salary of teacher educators. In a study conducted in America it was also found that teachers who had opportunity of better salary job, they left the teaching profession (Atak and Erturgut, 2010). The main reason of teachers to leave the teaching profession was lack of salary (Barman and Bhattacharyya, 2010). While, Mohammadtaheri (2011) found that positive feedback from students may be more important to teachers than being paid more money. After all, the main motivation to enter teaching for most teachers was their desire to work with students (Goswami and Choudhury, 2016). Financial benefits are part and parcel of human life. Incentives boost up the professional commitment among teacher (Raheem, 2009).

The study revealed that un-married teacher educators were more committed to the teaching profession as compared to the married teacher educators. This means that marital status have significant affect on the professional commitment of teacher educators. These results were supported by Sood and Anand (2010) who indicated that there was positive relationship between professional commitment and unmarried teachers. This might be due to that married teachers have to support their family and hence to get salary rather than work while, unmarried teachers just do their work with full passion and develop high commitment. These results disagreed with Salami (2008) study, where he found that married teachers were more committed than unmarried teachers. He attributed their results by the reason that married teachers cannot change their profession due to their family burden and unmarried have more chances to change their professions.

Therefore, they do not show high commitment. These differences of results of same type of studies might be due to the difference in communities' norms, values, culture and personal predispositions toward the teaching profession.

Recommendations

Following recommendation were made on the basis of findings.

1. Ministry of Education should take some initiatives to encourage teacher educators for better performance by giving them financial increase in their salaries alongwith some incentives, i.e sending them to participate in international seminars and conferences.

2. Highly qualified and experienced teacher educators should be appointed in GCETs because knowledgeable and skilled teachers can teach the students effectively.

3. There should be creation of a separate cadre for teacher educators so that professional activities are increased and this will also enhanced the retention for longer time.

Notes and References

Anwer, M. , Tahir, T., and Batool , S. (2012). Professional role of teachers in governmentcolleges and higher secondary schools for F.Sc programme in Punjab: Acomparative study. Social Sciences and Humanities , 3(3), 265-274.

Atak, M., and Erturgut, R. (2010). An empirical analysis on the relation between learning organization and organizational commitment. Procedia Socail and Behavioral Sciences,2. 3472-3476.

Aziz, M. A. (2010). Effect of demographic factors and teachers competencies on the achievement of secondary school students in the Punjab. Unpublished Thesis. Allama Iqbal Open Univeristy, Islamabad.

Barman, P., and Bhattacharyya, D. (2012) Job satisfaction of para teachers in relation to their socio-economic status in the distric of burdwan. International Journal of Research in Social Sciences and Humanities, 5(1), 30-40.

Beri, N., and Beri, A. (2016). Professional commitment of teacher educators in relation towork motivation. International Journal of Research in Humanities, Arts and Literature, 4(1), 45-52.

Blau, G. J. (2002). The measurement and prediction of career commitment. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 58, 277-288.

Bogler, R., and Somech, A. (2004). Influence of teacher empowerment on teachers organizational commitment, professional commitment and organizational citizenship behavior in schools. Teaching and Teacher Education, 20, 277-289.

Day, C., and Gu, Q. (2009). Veteran teachers: Commitment, resilience and quality retention. Journal of Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 15(4), 441-457.

Glanz, J. (2006). Instructional leadership. United States of America: Corwin Press.

Goswami,D., and Choudhury, G. (2016). A study on professional commitment of teachereducators in relation to institutional climate. The International Journal of Humanities andSocial Studies, 4(5), 177-180.

Goyal, S. (2012) Professional commitment among B.Ed. teacher educators. Scholarly Research Journal for Interdisciplinary Studies.1(3), 676-681.

Hanif, A. and Saba, K. (2000). A study of effectiveness of trained and untrained teachers at elementary level. Lahore: Unpublished master thesis, University of the Punjab.

Huang, T. M. (2011). The relationship between headmasters' leadership behavior and teachers' commitment in primary schools in the district of sarikei, Sarawak. Social and Behavioral Sciences, 29, 1725-1732.

Ibrahim, M. ,and Iqbal, M. (2015). Teachers' perception of professional commitment(affective, continuance and normative commitment) to teaching profession.European Journal of Business and Management, 7(10),64-80.

Irshad, E., and Naz, S. (2011). Job satisfaction, organizational commitment and personality traits: A relationship study. Humanities and Social Sciences, 12(2), 37-60.

Kannan, R., and Pillai, P. M. S. (2008). An examination on the professional commitment of engineering college teachers.Journal of International Business Management, 2(6), 218-224.

Kohli, K (2005). Assesment of professional commitment of teacher educators. Edutracks, 5(1), 23-25.

Meyer, J. P., and Allen, N. J. (1997). Commitment in the workplace: Theory, research and application. California: Sage Publications.

Mohammadtaheri, N. (2011). The study of effective factors on the teachers' work commitment in high schools. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 29, 1524-1530.

Mowday, R. T., Steers, R. M., and Porter, L. W. (1979). The measurement of organizational commitment. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 14. 224-247.

Porter, L., Steers, R., Mowday, R., and Boulian, P. (1974). Organizational commitment, job satisfaction and turnover among psychiatric technicians. Journal of Applied Psychology, 59, 603-609.

Raheem, A. S. J. M. A. (2009). The level of commitment and its relation to students' achievement as perceived by English language teachers in public schools in Tulkarm district. Unpublished Master thesis. An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine.

Salami, S. O. (2008). Demographic and psychological factors predicting organizational commitment among industrial workers. Journal of Public Administrative Review, 10(1), 31-38.

Shukla, S. (2009). Teaching competency, Professional Commitment and job satisfaction. Retrieved from http://www.Illusion.instablogs.com

Siddique, S. (2012). Education, inequalities, and freedom: A sociopolitical critique. Pakistan: A Narratives Publication.

Solangi, M. G., Qaisrani, N., andMughal, S. (2015) . A study of factors influencing public sector secondary school teachers' job satisfaction. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences.5(5), 262-275.

Sood, V., and Anand, A. (2010). Professional commitment among B.Ed. teacher educators of Himachal Pradesh. 1-5.Retrieved from http://www.ejournal.aiaer.net/vol122110/7.pdf.

Suliman, A., and Iles, P. (2000). Is continuance commitment beneficial to organizations? Commitment-performance relationship: A new look. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 15(5), 407-42.

Taylor, J. W., and John, M. C. (2002). Leadership approach, school climate, and teachercommitment: A Philippine perspective. Christian Education Journal, 6(1), 83 110.

Van, B. G., Van, O. W., and Ollie, R. (2005). Temporary liaisons: The commitment of "temps' toward their agencies. Journal of Management Studies, 42(3), 539-566.

Vandaberg, R. J., and Scarpello, V. (2004). A longitudinal assessment of the determinant relationship between employee commitments to the occupation and the organization. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 15(6), 535-547.
COPYRIGHT 2017 Asianet-Pakistan
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2017 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Publication:Journal of Pakistan Vision
Geographic Code:9INDI
Date:Dec 31, 2017
Words:5254
Previous Article:Mediating Role of Individual's Ethical Belief in Determining the Influence of the Mobile Networks TV Advertisements on Moral Behavior of Youth in...
Next Article:The Second Millennium Development Goal in Pakistan: Targets, Results and Challenges.
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2020 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters