MELTING EQUIPMENT & MATERIALS
Induction Furnaces . . . Firm offers a range of furnaces, including mains-frequency coreless, medium-frequency and channel-type induction. Pouring devices with induction heaters for dosed quantities of gray, malleable and nodular cast iron and copper alloys also are available. Other products include computer-aided Prodapt control systems for the safe and economic operation of coreless and channel induction furnaces. -- ABB ASEA Brown Boveri
Refractories . . . The Minro line of refractory materials has products for ladies, inductors, vertical channel induction furnaces, drum type channel furnaces and coreless induction furnaces. A variety of refractory compositions is available, including silica, alumina, magnesia, mullite, zircon, fireclay and alumina-chrome. A skilled engineering service will help analyze and solve all types of refractory problems.--Allied Mineral Products, Inc.
Molybdenum Products . . . A wide selection of moly products can help increase strength and toughness, reduce section sensitivity in cast iron, promote effective heat treatment, enhance corrosion resistance and provide high temperature strength. All molybdenum products are leached before conversion to bring residual elements to minimum levels. -- Cyprus Minerals Co
Power Supply . . . Pacer high frequency, constant current power supply transforms three phase line power up to 10 KHz into single phase power and reduces concerns about transformer tap changes, capacitor switching and precise frequency adjustments. Pacer unit requires only a D.C. voltage source, a high frequency inverter and a parallel tuned resonant load. System maintains 95% efficiency down to 25% power Pacer's built-in self-testing and diagnostics alert the operator to any equipment trouble. -- Ajax Magnethermic Corp
Heat Treating . . . Manufacturer provides a variety of equipment for aluminum heat treating, including rollerhearth, batch and car annealing furnaces, billet homogenizing equipment, forge and extrusion preheaters, aging and solution heat treating ovens, brazing and sintering units and continuous aluminum processing systems All equipment is custom tailored to meet specific process application requirements. Field engineers are available for installation and startup.--Consolidated Engineering Co
Ladle Heater . . . Heat Trak[TM] electric ladle and crucible heaters use silicon-carbide elements that can heat up to 3200F and easily achieve ladle temperatures of 2000F and higher. These fully automated heaters can be used as a sintering device for induction furnace linings, require no cooling water and are available with options for bottom or side pour and teapot ladies. Each unit is delivered complete and need only be positioned and plugged in--Electric Melting Services Co
Ferroalloy Innovation . . . Learn how one of the world's most modern plants uses innovative technologies to produce manganese, silicon and chromium specialty products in smelting furnaces, vacuum furnaces and electrolytic cells. Full-color, 20 page booklet describes the company's products, including gray cast iron inoculants, steel deoxidizers, ductile iron nodulizers, grain refiners for hypereutectic aluminum casting alloys and many others.--Elkem Metals Co
Melting Systems . . . VIP[R] Power-Trak[R] systems melt more pounds per kWh and kVA, increasing foundry profitability and productivity. System tracks the power, regardless of changing furnace conditions, maintaining full power from start to finish for fastest melting, and all without operator attention. Backup safety systems maximize uptime and minimize costly maintenance. System damage is eliminated or contained through multiple protective devices.--Inductotherm Corp
Cupola Melter . . . The Cupola 2000 is a noncoke furnace that can use natural gas, town gas or fuel oil as its energy source. It consists of a furnace shaft, hearth, recuperator, measurement and control unit and a special burner mounted on the surface of the hearth for super hearting the melt. The recuperator preheats combustion air to provide high-combustion temperature. The Cupola 2000 is particularly suited for the open melting of pig iron, cast iron, scrap and returns.--KGT Giessereitechnik GmbH
Crucibles . . . Clay graphite and silicon carbide crucibles are made in a modern facility where fully computerized formulation delivers consistent performance from every run. All sizes and shapes, including difficult to find bell and teaming crucibles, are manufactured. Technical "Hotline" is available to answer any questions about use or handling of these crucibles.--Noltina Crucible & Refractory Corp
Carbon Additive . . . Petroleum coke grade EC-101 offers typical 0.06% sulfur content and a nitrogen level of 0.025%. This grade provides a low-cost substitute for graphite in many carbon raiser applications. Sizing is 3/8 in. x 80 mesh or to custom specifications. Packaging includes #50 bags, 40 per pallet, and bulk bags. Shipment originates at production facilities in ova, OH. Other carbon and graphite raisers also are available.--Graphite Sales, Inc
High-Temperature Technology . . . Firm produces new furnaces, rebuilds existing furnaces and incorporates engineering, controls and materials considerations in turnkey solutions for the most complicated needs. Box forge, slot, car bottom, rotary hearth and pusher furnaces are available. These custom engineered furnace systems include design benefits, such as the Monster Module[TM] ceramic fiber lining for high-temperature applications.--Industrial Furnace Services, Inc
Melting & Holding Furnaces . . . Speedy-melt furnaces are manufactured in a variety of models and sizes based on the size of the crucible each will accept. They come in two basic categories: stationary units and tilting units. Featuring state-of-the-art insulation and design technology, they are designed to heat up quickly and efficiently.--McEnglevan Heat Treating & Manufacturing Co. Inc
Refractory Cements . . . Firm offers a variety of refractory cements for electric coreless furnaces. Dry vibration cements are made from graded sizes of fused spinel, fused/tabular alumina, mullite, bauxite or magnesium oxide. Ramming cements of alumina or magnesia composition provide a chemically neutral furnace lining. Castable cements for ferrous and nonferrous applications have uniform, controllable casting properties and good dimensional stability.--Norton Industrial Ceramics
Refractories . . . Patented, precast refractory ceramics replace fiberboard and castable materials for aluminum plant operations. Precision cast ceramics contain special nonwetting ingredients to prevent aluminum attck, and the nonporous surface does not absorb oil. Refractory material is floatable, so it eliminates the risk of ceramic inclusion. Smooth cast surface achieves tolerances that are impossible with machines fiberboard.--Permatech, Inc
Al Melting and Holding . . . Meet the challenge of soaring energy costs through an energy management system designed to cut electrical demand charges using new low-energy holding furnaces, high efficiency melting or holding crucible furnaces and multiple furnace fuel choices. Furnaces are offered on a turnkey basis, completely piped, wired and installed; redesign of existing furnaces, inspection and repairs also is available.--Frank W. Schaefer, Inc
Induction Melting Systems . . . Brochure depicts a variety of induction melting systems for applications ranging from ferrous to nonferrous to precious metal melting. In addition to furnaces, system design, power supplies and closed-top cooling, all manner of ancillary equipment are available to satisfy total system needs.--Pillar Industries, Inc
Dross Handling Equipment . . . AROS[R] is an aluminum dross system for melting, alloying and holding furnaces. AROS offers as 10% greater metal recovery rate than rotary drum cooler methods. Cooling of hot dross takes place in a closed, water-jacketed drum to prevent oxidation of aluminum and to protect the environment from dust, heat and odors. A compact unit that comes ready for operation, AROS requires only water and electricity hook-ups.--Seco/Warwick Corp
CLEANING & FINISHING
Centrifugal Wheel . . . The DTC centrifugal wheel blastcleaning system can be used for batch and continous cleaning operations. DTC uses an open-top drum that rotates 120 degrees around its longitudinal axis. The drum has no internal moving parts to jam or break small castings and its polygonal shape ensures gentle casting turnover. Blast wheels are located directly above the workload to focus abrasive streams on the castings.--Disamatic, Inc
Pneumatic Equipment . . . Four-page brochure contains information on pneumatic hammers, equipment, and adapters for core and ceramic shell removal applications. The literature describes various hammers, core knockout machines, optional clamping heads and accessories. Also provided are complete specifications, details and warranty information--Herschal Products Inc
Cleaning Room Report . . . A good understanding of shotblasting abrasives, their selection and use, and shotblasting equipment is essential for cost efficient cleaning operation. An article entitled "Effective Use of Shotblasting Abrasives" explains some of these elements of effective shotblasting. Other topics include shot manufacture, cleaning mechanics, abrasive failure, shot and process control and problem recognition and solving.--Ervin Industries
Automated Core Definning . . . The benefits of automated core defining and blast cleaning are illustrated in a new brochure. Major foundries and small jobbing shops alike already have experienced fewer core scrp defects and lower labor costs with this automated wheel blast process. Light fins and loose sand are removed and excess parting lines smoothed, whether the cores are of traditionally or chemically bonded sand.--Jet Wheelblast Equipment Div/B&U Corp
Salt Baths . . . After initial water or shotblasting to eliminate the bulk of the shell and core, Kastech[TM] molten salt baths can within minutes remove virtually 100% of residual ceramics and coring, burned-in core sand, free surface graphite and surface scales and oxides. Kastech processes offer highly repeatable and dependable results, operate with minimal manpower and can be designed for manual, semi-automatic or programmable operation.--Kolene Corp
COMPUTER EQUIPMENT & SERVICES
CAD/CAM . . . DUCT[R] (design using computer technology) fully defines 3-D shapes and enables designers to describe any engineering component so it can be analyzed and made precisely as desired without the need for interpretation. DUCT eliminates the need for copy milling because the finished product is machined directly without an intermediate modelmaking stage. This program generates cutter paths for both three- and five-axis NC machine tools.--Deltacam Systems, Ltd
QUALITY CONTROL, TESTING & INSPECTION EQUIPMENT
Quality Control . . . The Meehanite[R] process is a licensed technology involving a series of internal quality control procedures that are designed to keep casting defects to a minimum, regardless of what is poured--high alloy irons, ductile iron, stainless steel, aluminum, etc. The company's service engineers work with foundry personnel and foundry operations on a regular basis to ensure maximum quality and results.--Meehanite Metal Corp
Spectrometer . . . The new Foundry Spectrovac FSQ is designed for those who need a simple, rugged instrument for rapid and reliable metals analysis. This spectrometer provides a specification range check to ensure the melt is within specifications and an averageability check for analytical consistency. The FSQ's computer can be instructed to save, recall and sort data for sophisticated statistical analysis and manipulation of results.--Baird Corp
Automatic Microscope . . . Bulletin describes a highly accurate Brinell testing system. The system includes a video camera that reads Brinell indentations and automatically translates readings into Brinell hardness numbers and diameters using a microprocessor, monitor and keyboard. Fast and easy to use, it allows error-free readings even by inexperienced personnel.--King Tester Corp
Metals Analysis . . . Model 3460 Metals Analyzer is a multi-channel optical emission spectrometer for fast, accurate and economical metals analysis in foundries, forges, minimills and casting operations. The 3460 has a one meter spectrometer for optimum stability and analytical performance. A staff of highly skilled engineers and scientists is available to tailor each spectrometer to specific user needs, and to offer technical support and in-service training.--Applied Research Laboratories
Metal Analysis . . . The JY 50 E Spark SpectroAnalyzer for solid metal and analysis allows simultaneous determination of more than 40 elements in less than a minute. It uses a nitrogen purged system for analytical results of boron, carbon, phosphorus and sulfur without using mechanical vacuum pumps. Positive pressure inside the system prevents foundry air particulates from entering the spectrometer. Two independent, self-cleaning electrodes provide sample conditioning and analysis.--Instruments SA
Hardness Tester . . . The Verimatic[TM] Brinell hardness tester uses a microprocessor to eliminate operator influence. Accept/reject limits can be set and the Verimatic will display under, over or within limits. Hardness is displayed as Brinell diameter or Brinell hardness numbers. System error and system evaluation/interrogation programs are standard microprocessor features.--K.J. Law Engineers, Inc
Pyrometer . . . The Porta-Probe[TM] pyrometer combines a thermocouple, a 43 in. lance and a highly sensitive digital thermometer into a portable, hand-held unit. It measures temperatures from--328F to 2498F with an accuracy of [+ or -]0.10% to the nearest degree. The Porta-Probe can operate for more than 1200 hours continuously on a single nine volt battery.--L.H. Marshall Co
Quality Control . . . A company-wide quality assurance program uses interactive statistical reporting, plant personnel training, plant performance reviews, scheduled preventive maintenance and SPC to enhance quality. Design of experiments and SPC methods employ mathematical models to identify situations that could cause out of specification products. Feedback is continuous, allowing corrective action to be taken before production.--Unimin Corp
COREMAKING EQUIPMENT & MATERIALS
Organic Binders . . . Company's line of coremaking equipment and materials is based on an organic binder that is capable of producing cores in seconds at room temperature. Cores exhibit good tensile strength, high dimensional accuracy and density, good abrasion resistance, exceptional collapsibility and low gas evolution and have been used successfully to cast gray and ductile iron, aluminum, magnesium, brass and steel.--Ashland Chemical Co
Automatic Coremaking . . . The Fastcore[TM] line of vertically parted tooling core machines features quick-change tooling and high productivity. Four sizes are available, with sand magazine volumes from 59-264 lb. The fully automated system is ideal for production of small, medium and large cores in fast cycle times. It also is available as a hot process machine for hotbox or shell processes or as a cold process machine for coldbox processes.--George Fischer Foundry Systems, Inc
Core Room Equipment . . . Flexiblomatic core machines for cold-and hotbox processes feature positive clamping, automatic cycling and automatic core pick-off units. Low pressure blowheads and quick change tooling are available as retrofits to existing equipment or as original equipment on new machines. Flexiblo[R] Core Blowers employ the latest in low cost resin technology to produce ready-to-use nobake cores in extremely short cycles.--Beardsley & Piper
Automated Production . . . The Linear Series of automated core machines for horizontally parted tooling uses state-of-the-art technology and accommodates both cold and hot processes. Linear motion of the sand magazine head and gassing head allows faster cycles and greater tooling adaptability and requires less maintenance. These machines can make cores up to 50 lb. Optional, high capacity magazines are available for cores up to 75 lb.--Redford-Carver Foundry Products
SAND PREPARATION/RECLAMATION EQUIPMENT & MATERIALS
Dust Collectors . . . A complete line of shaker and pulse-type fabric dust collectors, cartridge dust collectors and flue gas coolers (heat exchangers) is available. The dust collectors' modular construction offers flexibility in sizing for optimum installation. Flue gas coolers lower gas volume and horsepower requirements, thus reducing required baghouse size and eliminating the need for high-temperature filter bags.--GMD Engineered Systems, Inc
Enginerring Service . . . provides custom sand, mold and casting handling systems to meet the needs of each customer. Whether updating existing systems or building new ones, this service strives to reduce labor requirements, improve casting quality for lower scrap and return rates, increase productivity and enhance profitability. Field engineers install new equipment, help train operating personnel and provide scheduled follow-up calls.--Summit Foundry Systems, Inc
Sand Conditioning . . . Carrier sand conditioner performs five sand conditioning processes on one vibrating fluidized bed conveyor. This system mixes infeed shakeout sand for homogeneous inlet conditions, cools hot shakeout sand, dries sand using evaporative cooling, screens off core butts and foreign materials and foreign materials and breaks lumps of friable green sand. This unit comes with an exhaust distribution dome and a vibrating insulated hood.
Rotary Drum . . . Customers worldwide are reporting cost savings with the Rotary Media Drum. Other advantages include reduced shotblast cycle times, ease of sand handling, faster production, and reduction of noise, heat and dust. In addition, the drum's design versatility provides for easy installation.
Molding/Core Systems . . . Firm specializes in the design and manufacture of foundry machines for chemically bonded sand core and mold production. Continuous and delta-mixers and mixer ancillaries are available, along with sand reclamation systems and co-remaking equipment. Plant project services include economic evaluations, feasibility studies, project engineering, installation and commissioning.
Vibrating Drum . . . A highly versatile machine combines the advantages of two-mass, sub-resonant, natural frequency vibratory design with drum-type material motion. An infinitely variable stroke provides material motion ranging from very rapid to extremely gentle action needed for handling fragile products. Because the drum is nonrotating, installation is simplified and feed and discharge interfaces are easier to design and operate.
Reclaimer System . . . The new World-Class Sand Reclaimer uses an indirect fired, inclined rotary retort type furnace with temperature ranges of 400-1600F, controllable within 2% of full scale. Innovative features include a calciner that acts as its own afterburner and a screw inlet feeder that provides constant waste sand input. This reclaimer is sized to fit the needs of bath large and small foundries.
Pump Calibration . . . A unique alternative to the bucket and scale system for calibrating resin and catalyst pumps on continuous mixers has been developed. The Flo-Calibrater is like a laboratory burette, except that it is larger and is fitted with a special three-way valve at the bottom. Once it is permanently plumbed into a resin system, calibration of resin pumps becomes a simple operation with no mess, no waste resins and virtually no production loss.
Compactibility Control . . . Controller System continuously measures the compactibility of sand being mixed, thus allowing moisture level changes before the sand leaves the mixer. If entering sand is exceptionally dry, a photocell energizes solenoid water valves and introduces the needed water. The percentage of compactionis measured by the change in angle of an arm holding the compaction wheel. A second, separate water control system compensates for sand temperature.
Sand Reclaimer . . . The ThermoScrubber [TM] sand reclaimer processes clay- and resin-bonded sands from mold and core operations for reuse in the coreroom or molding line. The reclaimer uses fluid beds that feed continuously by gravity transfer. Ten sizes are available with capacities ranging from 500 lb/hr to 15 tph.
Sand Control . . . Firm offers a line of green sand monitoring equipment such as compactibility testers and moisture control instruments. This equipment requires no operator, has computer accuracy, speed and reliability, and automatically conducts moisture and compactibility tests. Other equipment also is available, including green sand coolers and reconditioners, nonferrous metal separators, mixers and ditribution controls.
Sand Temperature Controls . . . A line of sand heater and cooler units operates on the fluidized bed principle, which provides a controlled homogeneous sand flow and enables the units to function as horizontal conveyors as they heat and cool the sand. Heat transfer is achieved by circulating hot or cold water through coils submerged in the bed of fluidized sand. The water source operates at a constant temperature.
Foundry Sand . . . High-purity, white silica sand in 17 standard grades is supplied from one of the nation's most complete sand production facilities. All grades are available in bulk or bagged, palletized and plastic shrink-wrapped for load integrity and protection. Technical services, testing and special grades also are available.
Lump Reduction . . . Primary Lump reducers are especially designed for foundries seeking primary reduction of small or large, hot or cold, chemically bonded sand lumps. These limps (up to 36 in.) are quickly reduced to readily reclaimable sand. Breakdown is done by simple vibratory action with a throughput up to 20 tons/hr. Primary Lump Reducers with sawtooth bars have such features as vibration isolation, variable stroke, deep holding box and quick-change bearing assemblies.
Vibratory Equipment . . . A high-frequency sand screen removes backing sand from shell molds. Low amplitude, high-frequency vibration minimizes casting damage while efficiently screening loose sand. This product combines the proven principles of natural frequency vibration with rugged, conservatively engineered design to ensure reliability and efficiency. Various conveyor systems are available for sand and castings transport.
Binder Processes . . . The speed and economics offered by the _SO.sub.2] and FRC coldbox binder processes provide an edge over older, traditional core- and moldmaking systems. Superior results with these processes, however, depend on effective and efficient tooling design. This company offers such guidance, along with the experience and know-how for transition to these processes.
MOLDING/CASTING EQUIPMENT & MATERIALS
Metal Filters . . . AmPorOx molten metal filters are a refractory, open cell, porous ceramic material specifically designed to filter out metallic and nonmetalic impurities from molten metal streams. The filters are resistant to thermal shock, use no chemical binders and have proved effective at pouring temperatures exceeding 2800F. Benefits include improved casting quality, machinability and mechanical properties, and reduced scrap and salvage operations.
Molding Machines . . . A new high-performance aluminum permanent mold machine has casting yields up to 120 per hour. This machine is a basic bench-type that is hydraulically operated and centrally lubricated. Both electrical and hydraulic connections are designed for quick, easy hookup, thus helping save time and eliminate installation errors. Major assemblies are modular and can be changed for quick, easy maintenance.
Flasks . . . The Pop-Off [R] line of flasks requires no hammering for removal from the mold. A simple turn of side levers allows the flask to be easily removed. This feature makes Pop-Off flasks especially suitable for synthetic sand mixtures, where hard ramming is necessary. Serrations on the inside sufface eliminate the need for sand strips and provide mold venting. These flasks are available in light and medium weight, and heavy and extra heavy duty varieties.
Venting . . . Manufacturer offers line of mold vents that includes deep slot, action, double action and punching vents. Laser vents have a perforated steel plate shaped to form a flat dome, which is locked into place with an inner sleeve, thus forming a sleeve within a sleeve. High strength construction provides deformation resistance and long life. Vent area of punching vents is approximately 50% greater than that of typical screen vents.
Refractory Products . . . FasShell [TM] coated refractory products by investment casting ceramic shell enable casters to reduce shell production time, hell scrap and rework.
Automated Molding . . . The new C-Series Automated Matchplate Molding machines have 30%-40% higher productivity than previous models. Return on investment has been achieved within one year. This equipment features positive mold alignment, airless parting spray of patterns and a rigid, long wearing squeeze station. The C-Series' unique fillerator-vibrate-squeeze action produces high quality, uniformly dense molds. Personnel training and field service are available.
Automated Foundry Systems . . . This company offers all types of foundry automation systems, each of which is custom designed to suit every situation. systems are available for mold and sand handling, cooling and reclamation. All are operated by individually designed control canels. Also available are operated by individually designed control panels. Also available are pre-engineered, off-the-shelf products such as rotary screens, aerators, belt conveyors and bucket elevators.
Foam Casting . . . The Protofoam casting system has been developed for prototype production of evaporative pattern castings. Protofoam features full size production-type flasks, an adjustable rain sand fill system and a programmable controlled fill/compaction cycle. Data developed with this unit can apply directly to a full production system. Mounted on a heavy structural base, Protofoam equipment includes stairs, platforms and handrails.
MATERIALS HANDLING EQUIPMENT & SUPPLIES
Automatic Lubricating . . . systems and lubricants are now available that will extend the life of such foundry equipment as conveyors, roller chains, slide, guides and mold car systems. The electronically controlled systems consistently dispense thin-film/dry-film Molydisulfide lubricant from a central reservoir to the points of wear.
Materials Transport . . . Brochure describes materials handling products available for the foundry industry, including wheelbarrows; concrete, brick'n block and industrial carts, slag buggies and core trucks. Many sizes and styles of wheelbarrows are available, each built to meet demanding standards and offering ease of operation, high load capacity and long in-service life.
Horizontal Conveyors . . . Slipstick [sup. TM] conveyors use differential friction to horizontally transport material. This causes material to alternately slip and stick in the conveyor pan. Damage to fragile or friable items is eliminated and noise is reduced because there is none of the bouncing or vertical impact of items in transport common to other vibrating conveyors. Travel rates are up to 40 feet per minute. Options include variable speed and reversible stroke.
Foundry Handling Systems . . . This company's capabilities in engineering and installing foundry material handling systems are outlined in a new ten-page, color brochure. Subsystems include sand handling, mold handling, coremaking, melting, pouring, cooling, shakeout, cleaning and auxiliary systems, and controls. Lost foam, green sand, nobake and investment casting systems are illustrated.
ENGINEERING & CONSULTING PROFESSIONAL SERVICES
Furnace Repair . . . Specializing in vacuum induction furnace needs, this firm has experienced personnel to repair OEM coreless induction melting coils. Rebuilding, recovery and replacement of all major OEM water-cooled induction power cables are available. When breakdowns occur, staff provides quick on-site consultation and individualized solutions for quick turnaround time and customized repair.
Ceramics Engineering . . . Company is dedicated to providing engineered ceramic to providing aid in the solution of industrial problems. Products are often combined in engineered systems that this company's personnel can assemble and install in customer plants. A brochure describes equipment for use in steel ladles, electric arc and induction furnaces, cupolas and tundishes.
Environmental Services . . . The Lester B. Knight Lab was built by the metalcasting industry to specialize in the unique problems encountered with foundry industrial hygiene and the analysis of solid waste and water samples collected in foundries. Routine analysis for quartz, cristobalite, heavy metals and organics. In-plant sample testing also available.
Engineering Services . . . AFS staff is available in all fields of foundry practice as a source of help and information. Technical assistance is available in the technologies of Iron, Aluminum, Copper-Base, Steel, Sand, Core/Mold Binders, Investment Casting, Engineering, Plaster Mold, Foundry Analysis, Foundry Tooling and Environmental Concerns.
Computer Programs . . . Eleven technical applications programs for the foundry industry are offered, including: Weight Calculations; Weight/Order; Iron, Steel and Nonferrous Gating; Least Cost Charge; Cupola Operation Evaluation; Riser; Riser Sizer; SQCpack [TM]; and AFSolid. All programs are designed to run on IBM PC and PS/ 2, or close compatibles. Digitizers also available.
Research & Testing Facilities . . . Foundries and foundry suppliers without the support of an inhouse research facility can now conduct their own tests or research projects at the Cast Metals Institute labs. Capabilities include Melting; Investment Casting; Nondestructive Testing; Mechanical Testing; Sand, Mold and Core Processes; and Metallography.
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|Title Annotation:||Metalcasters' Buyers' Guide: 1990|
|Article Type:||buyers guide|
|Date:||Nov 1, 1989|
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