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Processed B-type natriuretic peptide is a biomarker of postinterventional restenosis in ischemic heart disease.

Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) (4) procedures are widely used today to treat coronary artery disease (1, 2). Even with use of drug-eluting stents, restenosis (as defined as renarrowing of the treated lesion at approximately 3-6 months after the procedure, which often requires another intervention procedure to treat) still remains a limitation and occurs in >10% of patients. The pathology underlying restenosis is complex, involving a multitude of processes (inflammatory response to endothelial denudation and subintimal hemorrhage triggered by angioplasty followed by vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration, extracellular matrix formation, and vascular remodeling) (3). The mechanisms of restenosis are not yet fully understood, and, therefore, targeted medical intervention and biomarkers reflective of the process have yet to be developed to improve management of the condition and risk stratification. Clinical algorithms for the identification of patients at risk for this condition have not proven reliable, making clinical assessment of the condition difficult (4-6). Owing to a compliant medical care system, patients undergoing an intervention procedure in Japan are generally given a follow-up angiogram at approximately 6 months to examine for presence of restenosis, but in most countries a follow-up angiogram is still limited to symptomatic patients. A surrogate biomarker that could help identify patients at risk for restenosis would therefore be welcome.

B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a bioactive peptide that counteracts hemodynamic stress induced by various pathologic conditions through actions such as natriuresis and vasodilation (7, 8). BNP is released into the circulation in large amounts during heart failure, allowing its measured circulating concentrations to be used in diagnosis of this condition (7-10). BNP concentrations are also moderately increased in ischemic heart disease, but their diagnostic potential in this condition is less well explored (11, 12). BNP is synthesized as a propeptide, preproBNP(1-134), that undergoes rapid removal of a 26-amino acid (26-aa) signal peptide, resulting in the formation of a 108-aa prohormone, proBNP(1-108). Subsequently, proBNP(1108) is cleaved by proteolytic enzymes furin and corin to release 2 processed peptides, the biologically inert 76-aa amino-terminal portion NT-proBNP(1-76) and the biologically active 32-aa molecule BNP(1-32) [see (13) for review]. Recently, other processed (proteolytic) forms of BNP [e.g., BNP(3-32), BNP(4-32), and BNP(5-32)] have been shown to exist in the circulation, but the clinical implications of these BNP peptides remain poorly understood (14-16).

Protein processing via proteases is central to the metabolism of many peptides. In the heart, myofilament proteins such as troponin have been shown to be processed under ischemic conditions, which may lead to myocardial contractile dysfunction through effects on calcium-dependent muscle contraction responses (17). Measurement of processed troponin peptides released into the circulation from damaged and/or necrotic cardiomyocytes has been suggested to be of potential use in risk stratification of patients with coronary syndromes (18). There are other clinical situations in which processed proteins/peptides serve as diagnostic biomarkers, such as the use of amyloid [beta] (A[beta]) peptides in Alzheimer disease. The Ap peptides generated through sequential proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein by 2 enzymes, [beta]-secretase and [gamma]-secretase, have been shown to be reflective of Alzheimer disease pathophysiology [see (19) for review], with lower concentrations of A[beta]42 (as a ratio to A[beta]40) being associated with cognitive decline (20). Protein processing is also the target of therapeutic interventions such as use of dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitors, which inhibit protease processing of glucagonlike peptide 1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide in treatment of diabetes (21-23). In the present study, we hypothesized that processing of BNP might have value as a diagnostic biomarker for ischemic heart disease and found that it is associated with restenosis.

Methods

PATIENTS AND PROTOCOLS

Between June 2007 and November 2011, we examined a total of 105 consecutive consenting patients with mildly increased BNP concentrations who underwent PCI with follow-up coronary angiography (CAG) approximately 6 months after the procedure. Patients were excluded if they had acute myocardial infarction, unstable angina pectoris, congestive heart failure, or chronic renal failure [serum creatinine >2.0 mg/dL (>176.8 [micro]mol/L)], because of confounding effects on BNP concentrations. Patients with BNP concentrations >200 pg/mL were excluded because of possible confounding heart failure and other heart disease as described. Coronary angiograms were assessed by 2 experienced angiographers who were unaware of the results of analysis of BNP forms as described herein. Significant stenosis was defined as >50% narrowing of the coronary artery as determined by quantitative coronary angiography according to American Heart Association guidelines (24).

Blood samples were obtained at time of follow-up CAG after PCI. Samples were transferred immediately into tubes containing EDTA-2Na and aprotinin (Neotube NP-EA0305, Nipro Corp.) and kept at 4 [degrees]C until plasma was separated by centrifugation within 6 h, and then stored at -80 [degrees]C until analysis. We measured plasma total BNP concentrations using a conventional enzyme immunoassay (Rapidpia, Sekisui Medical) (25).

Nonstenotic concentrations of BNP(5-32)/BNP(3-32) ratio and BNP in this study were measured using blood samples from consenting patients diagnosed to not have coronary stenosis on diagnostic CAG (n = 66).

This study was approved by the ethics committee of the Graduate School of Medicine, the University of Tokyo, and written informed consent was obtained from each patient.

DETECTION OF BNP FORMS

We developed a mass spectrometry-based immunoassay (MS-IA) procedure (as described in detail in Supplemental Text, which accompanies the online version of this article at http://www.clinchem.org/content/vol59/issue9) to measure circulating BNP peptides. Briefly, after capturing BNP peptides with an antibody raised against the ring region of BNP(1-32) (an antibody routinely used in a commercial BNP assay available from Shionogi) (26) bound to magnetic beads, captured BNP peptides were eluted and then detected by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (Axima CFR Plus and Axima Confidence, Shimadzu Corp.). Results of coronary angiograms were not made available at time of measurement. The analytical measurement range of the assay was approximately 20-3000 pg/mL. Within-run reproducibility as a measure of analytic precision showed a CV between 7.4% and 8.8% (see online Supplemental Table 1).

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

We analyzed continuous data, expressed as median with interquartile ranges, by the Wilcoxon rank-sum test to compare medians of values and discrete variables with the Fisher exact test. We used multivariate logistic regression analysis to determine variables associated with restenosis. For multivariable models, a stepwise variable selection was performed starting with all of the variables from the univariate model that had a P value of <0.2. The final model was generated with backward stepwise logistic regression (P to leave: 0.05) (note that a forward stepwise model gave the same results). The final model included only variables that had a P value of <0.05. We determined ROC curves, standard diagnostic sensitivity and specificity, likelihood ratios, and predictive value to evaluate diagnostic performance. All statistical analyses were performed with JMP version 8.0.2 (SAS Institute) and MedCalc version 12.3 (MedCalc Software). A 2-tailed P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results

MASS SPECTROMETRY IMMUNOASSAY FOR DETECTION OF CIRCULATING PROCESSED FORMS OF BNP

Because currently available conventional immunoassays cannot discriminate individual processed BNP peptides, we developed a mass spectrometry-based detection method combined with immunocapture by commercial anti-BNP antibodies to detect processed forms of BNP in the circulation, as shown in Fig. 1A. The assay consisted of 2 steps: the first involved immunocapture in which all forms of circulating BNP were captured by anti-BNP monoclonal antibody bound to magnetic beads; the second step involved analysis by mass spectrometry in which captured BNP was eluted from the magnetic beads and analyzed with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (further details on the methodology can be found in online Supplemental Text 1).

By use of this method, we detected 3 major forms of BNP: BNP(3-32), BNP(4-32), and BNP(5-32), numbered as amino acids from the amino-terminal end of the 32-amino acid BNP (Fig. 1B). Of the 3 forms, BNP(5-32) was pursued further, as initial measurements showed reduced concentrations of this peptide in patients with restenosis (Fig. 1B). An index peptide to serve as an internal control to quantify concentrations of BNP(5-32) was needed, but because the full-length peptide, BNP(1-32), was detected in only minute amounts in contrast to BNP(3-32), which was present at higher stable concentrations, an arbitrary index of the ratio of BNP(5-32) to BNP(3-32) was used for further analytical purposes.

DIAGNOSTIC IMPLICATIONS OF PROCESSED FORMS OF BNP

Of the 105 patients enrolled (Table 1 and online Supplemental Table 2), 63% were male (n = 66) and the median age was 70 years [interquartile range (IQR) 6376]. Comorbid coronary risk factors included hypertension in 90 cases (86%), diabetes mellitus in 65 cases (62%), and smoking in 71 cases (68%). Serum creatinine was 0.83 mg/dL (IQR 0.70-0.94) [73.4 [micro]mol/L (IQR 61.4-83.1)]; C-reactive protein (CRP) was 0.5 mg/L (IQR 0.3-1.2); HDL cholesterol was 53.2 mg/dL (IQR 44.5-68.6) [1.4 mmol/L (IQR 1.2-1.8)]; LDL cholesterol was 88.5 mg/dL (IQR 78.3-103.5) [2.3 mmol/L (IQR 2.0-2.7)]; and BNP was 51.9 pg/mL (IQR 37.5-83.7). 75% of patients (79 cases) were treated with drug-eluting stents, and angiographic outcome at follow-up CAG showed 22 cases of defined restenosis (21% overall, 13% for drug-eluting stents).

The BNP(5-32)/BNP(3-32) ratio was significantly lower in patients with restenosis at time of follow-up CAG (restenosis 1.19, IQR 1.11-1.34, n = 22, vs without restenosis 1.43, IQR 1.22-1.61, n = 83; P < 0.001) (Table 1 and Fig. 2A). Notably, total BNP concentrations as measured with a standard commercial immunoassay did not show association with restenosis (Table 1 and Fig. 2B). Reference median concentrations of BNP and BNP(5-32)/BNP(3-32) ratio in the present study were 57.5 pg/mL (IQR 39.5-94.2, n = 66) and 1.43 (IQR 1.28-1.72, n = 66), respectively.

ROC analysis of the diagnostic accuracy of the BNP(5-32)/BNP(3-32) ratio for those with presence of restenosis showed an area under the curve of 0.775 (95% CI 0.683-0.851), and the optimal cutoff value for discrimination of stenosis was 1.41 (sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, and negative likelihood ratio were 91%, 54%, 1.99, and 0.17, respectively) (see online Supplemental Table 3 and Supplemental Fig. 1). Sensitivity and specificity as well as negative and positive likelihood ratios in addition to positive and negative predictive values are shown in online Supplemental Table S3. Of interest, a negative likelihood ratio of <0.1 allowing for reliable rule-out (27) was attained at a ratio of 1.52, with both sensitivity and negative predictive value of 100%. Thus, measuring BNP processed forms as the BNP(5-32)/BNP(3-32) ratio had diagnostic value for ruling out restenosis.

We used univariate and multivariate analyses to examine the association of the BNP(5-32)/BNP(3-32) ratio with restenosis, taking into account the measured concentrations of other laboratory blood tests (total BNP, serum creatinine, CRP, ratio of total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL cholesterol), risk factors (age, sex, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, use of lipid-lowering agents, and antihypertensive treatment), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, lesion length, and drug-eluting stent use for PCI. The BNP(532)/BNP(3-32) ratio [odds ratio (OR) 0.63; 95% CI 0.45-0.83; P < 0.001] and failure to use a drug-eluting stent (OR 4.20; 95% CI 1.40-12.99; P = 0.011) were significantly and independently associated with restenosis (Table 2). OR analysis showed that there was a 1.59-fold reduction in likelihood for restenosis with each 0.1 U increase in the BNP(5-32)/BNP(3-32) ratio.

Discussion

Peptide processing has become increasingly recognized as important not only in metabolism of peptides but also in regulation of various pathologies, particularly since peptide processing has become the target of therapeutic intervention with pharmaceutical development of protease inhibitors in treatment of disease [e.g., DPP-IV inhibitors (22, 23)]. Recent studies have also focused on the possible exploitation of peptide processing in diagnosis of Alzheimer disease (20) and a potential role in ischemic heart disease (17, 18). In the present study, we focused on the bioactive cardiac hormone BNP, whose circulating concentrations are reflective of pathogenic activity and have been clinically used for diagnostic purposes, and showed that its processed forms are strongly associated with the condition of restenosis in ischemic heart disease. Methods to measure these peptide forms were developed using mass spectrometry-based detection combined with immunocapture, because conventional immunoassay methods are not able to discriminate the different forms. Our initial experience shows that measurement of BNP processing with this method is of potential use to diagnose restenosis.

We found that 3 major processed forms of circulating BNP--BNP(3-32), BNP(4-32), and BNP(532)--in addition to minute amounts of full-length BNP(1-32), were those primarily detected in the circulation in ischemic heart disease. Markedly lower concentrations of BNP(5-32) were seen in patients with restenosis at time of follow-up CAG. OR analysis showed that there was a 1.59-fold reduction in likelihood for presence of restenosis with each 0.1 U increase in the BNP(5-32)/BNP(3-32) ratio. Importantly, this ratio of the concentrations of processed forms of BNP was to be found useful as a new biomarker to rule out the presence of restenosis at cutoff concentrations of 1.52.

Our results suggest that processed forms of BNP, especially BNP(5-32), may reflect the pathophysiological process involved in restenosis. BNP is synthesized as preproBNP(1-134), which results in proBNP(1108) after the removal of a 26-aa signal peptide. ProBNP(1-108) is cleaved to a biologically inactive amino-terminal NT-proBNP(1-76) and active BNP(1-32) (13). A cardiac transmembrane serine protease, corin, and a ubiquitous serine protease, furin, are currently proposed as possible convertases (16, 28, 29). Recently, other processed forms of BNP, including BNP(3-32), BNP(4-32), and BNP(5-32), have been detected in plasma from heart failure patients in the presence of protease inhibitors benzamidine (as a trypsin, plasmin, thrombin inhibitor) and 4-(2-aminoethyl)benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride (as an inhibitor for serine protease such as DPP IV) to minimize the effect of protease degradation (15). Of the 3 processed forms of BNP, BNP(3-32) has been reported to be processed from BNP(1-32) by DPP-IV (14). BNP(4-32) has been reported to be processed by corin from proBNP, not from BNP(1-32) (16). Additionally, BNP(5-32) has been reported to be processed possibly from BNP(1-32) by neutral endopeptidase (30), but another study has reported that BNP(1-32) is resistant to neutral endopeptidase-mediated cleavage (14). Further, a recent study has reported that human proBNP injected into rats is processed into BNP(5-32) (31), thus indicating that BNP(5-32) maybe processed by an unknown protease in rats. Thus, the underlying pathologic mechanisms of BNP processing are thought to involve the combined actions of membrane-bound-type protease(s) such as neutral endopeptidases and dipeptidyl peptidases, but the precise underlying mechanisms of action are not understood. Pathogenic regulation of peptidase activity in disease states likely defines the proportion of BNP forms present in the circulation, and will be a topic of further investigation in the future.

Other attempts including some by our group to develop biomarkers of restenosis by use of interleukin-6 (32), oxidized LDL cholesterol markers (33), LDL cholesterol (34), HDL cholesterol (35), CRP (36-38), adiponectin (39), and their combinations have not proven clinically useful. Clinical algorithms also are not reliable (4, 5). Reduced relative concentrations of BNP(5-32), as measured with an analytical ratio of BNP(5-32)/BNP(3-32), were found to be strongly associated with presence of restenosis in our cross-sectional study. To our knowledge, diagnostic performance of the magnitude described in the present study has not been achieved by any other biomarker to date. Importantly, a rule-out biomarker has not been available for this condition to assist in risk stratification of patients.

The described biomarker might aid in identifying patients with less risk of restenosis after a PCI procedure. A tool for noninvasive identification of patients without restenosis after a PCI procedure would be helpful to reduce the burden of performing routine follow-up CAG. It would also be of merit in those settings in which follow-up CAG is not routinely done but is reserved as a tool to assist in ruling out the presence of restenosis when assessing patients with ambiguous chest pain after PCI. It is important to note that restenosis had been generally thought to be associated with relatively benign outcome, but recent evidence suggests that it is associated with myocardial damage and adverse clinical outcome (30% to 60% present with acute coronary syndrome, 5% present with ST-elevation myocardial infarction) [see (40) for review]. Therefore, given this need to identify patients at risk for restenosis, a noninvasive biomarker would be a welcome tool in management of the condition.

Longitudinal studies to determine the prognostic value of processed forms of BNP and clinical studies to address the association of these novel biomarkers with coronary events will be of further interest and are presently ongoing. The limitations of the current study include the need for further large-scale studies at multiple centers to validate the present findings. Additionally, there is need for studies that explore combined use of clinical algorithms with this and possibly other biomarkers to more accurately assess risk of restenosis. Further modification of this technology will be necessary to make this method or its derivatives more widely available for patient care.

In summary, we provide our initial experience with a newly developed method to measure processed forms of BNP as a biomarker for risk assessment in patients undergoing PCI for ruling out restenosis.

Author Contributions: All authors confirmed they have contributed to the intellectual content of this paper and have met the following 3 requirements: (a) significant contributions to the conception and design, acquisition of data, oranalysis and interpretation of data; (b) drafting or revising the article for intellectual content; and (c) final approval of the published article.

Authors' Disclosures or Potential Conflicts of Interest: Upon manuscript submission, all authors completed the author disclosure form. Disclosures and/or potential conflicts of interest:

Employment or Leadership: H. Fujimoto, Shimadzu Corporation.

Consultant or Advisory Role: None declared.

Stock Ownership: None declared.

Honoraria: None declared.

Research Funding: T. Suzuki, research grants from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan for Research on Medical Device Development and for Research on Biological Markers for New Drug Development; Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research in Priority Areas (B)(23390204) and for Translational Systems Biology and Medicine Initiative (TSBMI) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan; and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science through its Funding Program for World-Leading Innovative R&D on Science and Technology (FIRST Program); R. Nagai, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science through its Funding Program for World-Leading Innovative R&D on Science and Technology (FIRST Program).

Expert Testimony: None declared.

Patents: H. Fujimoto, WO2010/023749; T. Suzuki, WO2010/023749.

Role of Sponsor: The funding organizations played no role in the design of study, choice of enrolled patients, review and interpretation of data, or preparation or approval of manuscript.

Acknowledgments: The authors thank Shionogi & Co. (Osaka, Japan) for kindly providing monoclonal BNP antibody (KY-hBNP II).

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Hirotaka Fujimoto, [1,2], ([dagger]) Toru Suzuki, [1,3], ([dagger]) * Kenichi Aizawa, [1], ([dagger]) Daigo Sawaki, [1,3] Junichi Ishida, [1] Jiro Ando, [1] Hideo Fujita, [1] Issei Komuro, [1] and Ryozo Nagai [1]

[1] Department of Cardiovascular Medicine and [3] Department of Ubiquitous Pre ventive Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; [2] Life Science Research Center, Technology Research Laboratory, Shimadzu Corp., Kyoto, Japan.

([dagger]) H. Fujimoto, T. Suzuki, and K. Aizawa contributed equally to this work.

* Address correspondence to this author at: Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655, Japan. Fax +81-3-5800-9847; e-mail: torusuzu-tky@ umin.ac.jp.

[4] Nonstandard abbreviations: PCI, percutaneous coronary intervention; BNP, B-type natriuretic peptide; A0, amyloid 0; DPP-IV, dipeptidyl-peptidase IV; CAG, coronary angiography; MS-IA, mass spectrometry-based immunoassay; IQR, interquartile range; CRP, C-reactive protein; OR, odds ratio.

Received January 16, 2013; accepted April 22, 2013.

Previously published online at DOI: 10.1373/clinchem.2013.203406

Table 1. Patient characteristics and demographics. (a)

                             Factors associated with restenosis
                             (cross-sectional study)

                                    Total              No-stenosis

n                                    105                   83
Age, years                       70 (63-76)            71 (63-77)
Male sex                           66 (63)               55 (66)
Coexisting conditions
  Hypertension                     90 (86)               73 (88)
  Diabetes mellitus                65 (62)               52 (63)
  Smoking                          71 (68)               56 (67)
Laboratory values
  Total BNP, pg/mL            51.9 (37.5-83.7)      54.0 (37.5-90.8)
  Creatinine, mg/dL           0.83 (0.70-0.94)       0.84(0.71-0.96)
  CRP, mg/L                     0.5 (0.3-1.2)         0.5 (0.3-1.2)
  Ratio of total                3.1 (2.6-3.9)         3.1 (2.5-3.9)
cholesterol to HDL
cholesterol

  Total cholesterol, mg/dL   170.5 (152.5-190.5)   169.0 (153.9-189.3)
  HDL cholesterol, mg/dL      53.2 (44.5-68.6)      53.3 (44.5-68.9)
  Triglycerides, mg/dL       134.0 (85.5-184.8)     135.0(89.0-189.0)
  LDL cholesterol, mg/dL      88.5 (78.3-103.5)     87.0 (76.0-102.0)
  Systolic blood pressure,   128.0 (115.0-140.0)   128.0 (112.8-140.0)
mmHg

  Diastolic blood             68.0 (60.0-78.5)      68.0 (60.0-78.0)
pressure, mmHg

BNP(5-32)/BNP(3-32)           1.35 (1.19-1.55)      1.43 (1.22-1.61)
%DS by QCA (%) (c            14.43 (10.26-25.54)    12.68(9.18-17.14)
Lesion length, mm            17.20 (12.58-22.45)   17.47 (13.42-21.89)
Lipid-lowering agents              84 (77)               65 (78)
Antihypertensive treatment         93 (90)               72 (88)
Drug-eluting stent                 79 (75)               69 (83)

                             Factors associated with restenosis
                             (cross-sectional study)

                                 Restenosis        P (b)

n                                    22
Age, years                       69 (66-72)         0.41
Male sex                           11 (50)          0.21
Coexisting conditions
  Hypertension                     17(77)           0.30
  Diabetes mellitus                13(59)           0.81
  Smoking                          15(68)           1.00
Laboratory values
  Total BNP, pg/mL            48.1 (31.1-71.3)      0.29
  Creatinine, mg/dL           0.78 (0.65-0.89)      0.15
  CRP, mg/L                     0.6 (0.3-1.2)       0.50
  Ratio of total                3.1 (2.8-3.8)       0.34
cholesterol to HDL
cholesterol

  Total cholesterol, mg/dL   176.0(149.0-197.0)     0.82
  HDL cholesterol, mg/dL      50.5 (41.5-65.0)      0.63
  Triglycerides, mg/dL       117.0 (77.0-178.5)     0.39
  LDL cholesterol, mg/dL      96.0 (84.0-107.5)     0.09
  Systolic blood pressure,   128.0(116.0-142.0)     0.90
mmHg

  Diastolic blood             66.0 (58.0-80.0)      0.58
pressure, mmHg

BNP(5-32)/BNP(3-32)            1.19(1.11-1.34)     <0.001
%DS by QCA (%) (c            65.52 (59.22-70.54)   <0.001
Lesion length, mm            14.02 (11.12-24.83)    0.28
Lipid-lowering agents              19(86)           0.55
Antihypertensive treatment        21 (100)          0.21
Drug-eluting stent                 10(45)          <0.001

(a) Data are median (IQR) or n (%).

(b) P values were determined by the Fisher exact test for
discrete variables and the Wilcoxon rank-sum test for
continuous variables. c %DS, percent diameter stenosis; QCA,
quantitative coronary angiography.

Table 2. Univariate and multivariate analysis of factors
associated with restenosis.

                              Univariate analysis

                                 OR (95% CI)        P

Age                           0.99 (0.94-1.05)     0.74
Male sex                      0.51 (0.19-1.33)     0.17
Hypertension                  0.47 (0.14-1.65)     0.22
Diabetes mellitus             0.86 (0.33-2.31)     0.76
Smoking                       1.03 (0.39-2.98)     0.95
BNP                           0.99 (0.98-1.00)     0.23
Creatinine                    0.09 (0.004-1.28)    0.08
CRP                           0.99 (0.86-1.08)     0.91
Ratio of total cholesterol    1.17 (0.69-1.93)     0.55
  to HDL cholesterol
Total cholesterol             1.00 (0.98-1.01)     0.53
HDL cholesterol               0.99 (0.96-1.02)     0.70
Triglycerides                 1.00 (0.99-1.00)     0.26
LDL cholesterol               1.01 (0.99-1.03)     0.44
Systolic blood pressure       1.00 (0.97-1.03)     0.90
Diastolic blood pressure      0.99 (0.95-1.03)     0.65
BNP(5-32)/BNP(3-32)           0.60 (0.43-0.78)    <0.001
Lesion length                 0.97 (0.91-1.03)     0.39
Lipid-lowering agents         1.75 (0.52-8.05)     0.38
Antihypertensive treatment    3.21 (0.57-60.32)    0.21
Drug-eluting stent not used   5.91 (2.16-16.80)   <0.001

                              Multivariate analysis (a)

                                OR (95% CI)        P

Age
Male sex
Hypertension
Diabetes mellitus
Smoking
BNP
Creatinine
CRP
Ratio of total cholesterol
  to HDL cholesterol
Total cholesterol
HDL cholesterol
Triglycerides
LDL cholesterol
Systolic blood pressure
Diastolic blood pressure
BNP(5-32)/BNP(3-32)           0.63 (0.45-0.83)   <0.001
Lesion length
Lipid-lowering agents
Antihypertensive treatment
Drug-eluting stent not used   4.20(1.40-12.99)   0.011

(a) Only variables from the univariate analysis that had a
P value of <0.2 were retained in the multivariate model.
The final model included only variables that had
a P value of <0.05.
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Title Annotation:Proteomics and Protein Markers
Author:Fujimoto, Hirotaka; Suzuki, Toru; Aizawa, Kenichi; Sawaki, Daigo; Ishida, Junichi; Ando, Jiro; Fujit
Publication:Clinical Chemistry
Article Type:Report
Date:Sep 1, 2013
Words:5486
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