Printer Friendly

Principals' Leadership Styles and Teachers' Job Satisfaction: A Correlation Study at Secondary Level.

Byline: Abid Hussain Ch, Saghir Ahmad, Misbah Malik and Ayesha Batool

Abstract

The core purpose of the research was to explore the relationship between leadership styles of the principals' and teachers' job satisfaction. A sample of two hundred teachers (100 male and 100 female) was selected randomly from Public Secondary Schools of Lahore. A Questionnaire was developed to collect the data from the research respondents. The questionnaire was consisted of three sections. The first part of the questionnaire was consisted of demographic variables. The second part was related to the ten statements of principals' leadership styles (Autocratic and Democratic) and last part contained the fifteen statements regarding the job satisfaction of teachers. The researchers visited the secondary schools and took permission from principals for data collection from teachers. Mean, SD, Pearson product moment for correlation and independent sample t-test were applied to analyze the data.

The major findings of the study indicated that mostly principals decide the operational objectives and standards of the school by themselves. It is also revealed from the study that most of principals use democratic leadership style because they take suggestions from teachers, cooperate and support with them in any matter. Findings of the study also proved that there is a significant relationship between democratic leadership style and job satisfaction of teachers. The school principals should enhance the participation of faculty in decision making.

Keywords: Leadership styles, job satisfaction, principal, teacher

Introduction

In an educational organization, principal plays a vital role. The principal is responsible for all affairs of the school. The person who makes decisions about the school is known as principal. The leader of an educational institution is principal. The principals are always responsible for the management and other activities of school. Principal is directly responsible to direct the teachers toward the goal of an organization. His attitude with teachers creates a positive relationship with each other. The positive environment creates when principal will use the suitable leaderships' styles for the staff (Mehrotra, 2005). According to Simmonds (1994) the principals' leadership style identified the standard of education in the school. So the leadership in the educational organization is the basic phenomenon. The teacher and principal are the basic aspects of quality for the effective education.

Leadership is a process of influencing others. Leader communicates a vision that turns self-interest into commitment to a job. Leadership leads group of people and provides them the clear ideas and objectives to achieving the organizational goals. Effective leaders inspire and influence others through on their self-confidence and motivation. Leadership is a responsibility to lead the personal morals as well as lead to the society. It provides the awareness to community. If we look at the leadership literature, we will come to know that effective leadership is the main factor in achieving school improvement. The quality of teaching impresses the student. It influences on the students motivation and achievement. Leadership provides the vision, direction and support for change. There is the strong relationship between leadership, change and school performance, teachers' performance.

Leadership refers as a capability to solve the thing with support and collaboration of people in the any organization (Adesina, 2011).

The intention of educational management is to empower an association or a foundation to do its tasks with most extreme effectiveness. It likewise empowers the learners to get the correct training and from the quality educators at a cost which ought to be inside the methods for state, and which will empower the students to benefit from their learning. The essential thing is that to unite learners and instructors under such environment which will effectively endorse the education system (Sultan and Bashir, 2005).

The meaning of leadership is to guide the members toward the purpose. In the educational setting, the principal leads to all staff. Leadership is the abilities to get individuals do work without the utilization of any power. It is a procedure to rouse others to work fanatically so as to accomplish goals. The drive actuates a man to get the coveted objectives. It is a combination of three relative variables i.e. the individual, the circumstance, and the assignment. It might be a shared responsibility towards accomplishment of targets keeping in see the substance, and personnel, material and time assets. Though, the nature of job which the faculty embraces likewise decides the sort of leadership for giving a line of activity to the common persons concerned (Newstrom, 2007).

A manager is a man who is in charge of running an establishment or association. The director may have the characteristics of basic leadership, critical thinking, strife determination, and participation for group working for the accomplishment of set objectives of the organization with the collaboration of his/her group. The leadership styles are the features of behavior which is used to impress and encourage to people towards the vision (Pervaiz, 2010). Clark (2000) suggested that leadership style is the pattern through the leader guides and encourages to members of the organization to accomplish the goals.

Managerial style is the whole of the considerable number of qualities, behavioral propensities, and attributes of a man in a managerial position. An essential element of leadership style is the degree to which he/she will assign obligation and energize contribution from his/her group. Hence the different leaders use different leadership style. There are two primary leadership styles: Autocratic leadership and Democratic leadership style.

Autocratic Leadership Style

The autocratic leader has centralized power and he takes decisions himself. The leader takes full responsibility as well as authority. The autocratic leadership also refers to authoritarian style. The autocratic leader do not clear contact with members. He does distributes duties and he does not involve the group members I the decision making process (Hoy and Miskel, 1992; Oliyan, 1997; Smylie and jack, 1990). The autocratic leader does not like the distributed work. He does not forward his duties but work in collaborative form. He acts like one man power. He just gives the order. He does not cooperative form of leadership (Gupta, 1987).

Democratic Leadership Style

In 1980s to 1990s, the whole world democratic movement had been promoted. The work of democratic movement was to promote human rights, liberty and freedom in countries (Minier, 2001). Most of countries were against of dictatorship and one man power. The most people of countries have wanted to establish democracy in governments and organizations. The capabilities of citizens have been the essential element in establishing the democratic system (Fox and Brown, 2001). Gastil (1994) defines that "The absence of a clear definition have also contribute to the decreased amount of research on democratic leadership" (p: 956). He also defined the characteristics of democratic leadership styles that it is the system to delegate the duties among colleagues, empower to the workers for make decisions itself.

The basic elements that require for teachers job satisfaction are very necessary for successful educational system (Perie and Baker, 1997). The essential element for job satisfaction for teacher is the leadership of a principal. The teacher plays a role in reshaping the economic structure so the state is responsible to encourage the teacher toward the profession with maximum incentives. Many researches have explored that the constructive outcome on the learning of the learners with educators commitment under the great principal (Bolam, McMahon, Pocklington, and Weindling, 1993; Silins and Murray-Harrey, 1999).

The principals' leadership style is the attitude of principal to lead his colleagues. It influences on the working conditions of the school. Teachers' job satisfaction is described like, the behavior of teachers towards his/her job. It is also the assessment of qualities of the job itself. In school, principal is a basic source to provide the expertise and information to teachers. Principal is a visionary leader who pays beneficing time with staff and students. It is not easy for educators to take after an imperious administration style of principal. The research is gainful in fitting the styles of headship as indicated by existing circumstance and help principal relationship under particular styles. It was important to determined how leadership styles related to job satisfaction of teachers and in particular, how autocratic and democratic leadership styles related to job satisfaction.

Principal has a real authority in the school. The principal's leadership style effects on the environment of school and students achievement. The principal is the collaborative people who keep maintain the staff, students and other people in the organization. He has a responsibility to identify the objectives and aims as well as structure in the group. The basic work of principal is to develop the supportive environment for the staff members then they will able to accomplish their goals and objectives (Ibukun, 1997).

In the past, the idea of leadership was based on "great person". The basic concept of theory of leadership is that the leader has good characteristics which are different from other peoples. In the 1990s, the idea of leadership was described in the form of characteristics which identified to the leader from other people. In previous years, there was the concept of trait theory. The trait theory was focus on perception that formally people are born with the special qualities. The meaning of leadership is to guides the members toward the purpose. In the educational setting, the principal leads to all staff. The leadership styles are the features of behavior which is used to impress and encourage to people towards the vision. Clark (2000) suggested that leadership style is the pattern through the leader guides and encourages to members of the organization to accomplish the goals. Hence the different leaders use different leadership style.

Ukeje (1999) said that leadership styles mean the inspiring the people to work effectively for accomplish the organizational goals. A leader cannot work alone; he inspires the people, leads and encourages to the people toward the accomplishment of the objectives of an organization. The pattern that leader use for direct the organization is known as his/her leadership style. Through leadership styles leader guides to others. Some leaders take interest in his/her work. Some leaders work through delegate the responsibilities to subordinates.

Chandan (1987) described about leadership style that it is the element of leader's personality. Through this people follow him. According to Okumble (1998) that leadership style is the specific attitude of leader to encourage his/her followers for accomplishes the goals of an organization. Clark (2000) gave the answer of the question that what are the types of leadership in educational field? He gave that answer in these words that there are three basic types of leadership styles. These are: participative leadership style, authoritarian leadership style and delegate leadership style. If principal will use the authoritarian leadership then he will set all operational objectives and standards of the school by himself for the teachers. If principal will use participative leadership, he/she does the making any decision.

If principal will use delegate leadership then he/she will delegate the responsibilities to different teachers. After describing these all types, Clark said that a good leader works with all these leadership types.

The behavior of the person toward his job is known as job satisfaction. In 1935, the different researches have conducted on this topic. According to Hawthorne and Harwood's research, they have identified the situation of the job and the climate which directly focus on jobs performance. Job satisfaction is the good mental condition that creates when employee will see all his/her requirement to be fulfilled. It is the person's mental reaction toward the job. Job satisfaction is as a result of consequences of the individual's experience on the job in relation of his own values. Henderson and Henderson (1996) conducted a survey in public school teachers. He found that 44 % teachers are not satisfied with their profession. According to 2004 report of national centre for Educational Statistics 7.4 % teachers were not satisfied and want to leave this profession (Latham and Vogt, 2007).

According to Simmonds (1994) found in Jamiaca that there were positive and effective relationship between behavior of principal and teachers' performance. Machr and Braskasmp (1986) suggested that principal can manage the school environment. Principal behaviors effect on the behaviors of teachers (Holdford, 2003).

Objectives of the Study

The study was conducted to achieve the following objectives:

1. Identify the autocratic and democratic leadership styles of principals.

2. Identify the level of job satisfaction of teachers.

3. Explore which leadership style can be more effective for job satisfaction of teachers

4. Examine the relationship of principals' leadership styles with teacher job satisfaction at secondary level.

5. Explore the difference between variables regarding the demographic variables like gender and qualification of the respondents.

Research Methodology

This study was quantitative in nature. It was a correlation research and Survey method was designed to investigate the relationship of principal's leadership styles with teacher's job satisfaction. The population of the study was teachers of public secondary schools of Lahore. A sample of two hundred teachers (100 male and 100 female) was selected randomly from Public Secondary Schools of Lahore. Questionnaire was developed to collect the data from the research respondents. The questionnaire was consisted of three sections. The first part of the questionnaire was consisted of demographic variables. The second part was related to the ten statements of principals' leadership styles (Autocratic and Democratic) and last part contained the fifteen statements regarding the job satisfaction of teachers.

The researchers visited the secondary schools and took permission from principals for data collection from teachers. The questionnaire was distributed among research respondents after the consent of the principal.

Data Analysis

Data were analyzed through SPSS. The different techniques were applied to analyze the data. Descriptive statistics (Mean, Standard Deviation) and inferential (Pearson Product Moment (Correlation), independent sample t-test) statistical techniques were applied for analysis.

Table 1 Mean and Standard Deviation of Teachers' Opinion regarding Principals' Leadership Styles

Sr. Statements###M###SD

1 My principal likes to give orders only.###3.24 1.221

2 My principal makes all decisions by himself.###3.28 1.35

3 My principal has full authority.###3.87 1.058

4 My principal decides the operational objectives and standard of school. 3.92###.853

5 My principal does not provide opportunities to teachers to leads in###3.00 1.60

###some matters.

6 My principal provides freedom to teachers for work independently.###3.70 1.052

7 My principal listen the issues of teachers with care.###3.84 1.154

8 My principal takes opinions from teachers and follows them.###3.73 1.060

9 My principal accepts the suggestions of teachers.###3.70###.935

10 My principal is very cooperative and supportive.###3.92 1.125

The above table shows that all respondents were agree on the statements and having highest M=3.92 that principal is very cooperative and supportive, and decides the operational objectives and standard of school. The subjects agreed about these statements like principal has full authority, principal decides the operational objectives and standard of school, principal provides freedom to teachers for work independently, principal listen the issues of teachers with care and principal is very cooperative and supportive. And three statements like principal likes to give orders only, principal makes all decisions by himself and principal does not provide opportunities to teachers to leads in some matters showing neutral opinions on scale. It is concluded that teachers are involved in leadership and participate in different activities in school. The teachers also agreed about the principal democratic leadership style.

Table 2 Mean and Standard Deviation of Teachers' Opinions regarding Job Satisfaction.

Sr. Statements (Job Satisfaction of Teachers)###M###SD

1 Teaching is a respectable job.###4.40###.97

2 I remain absent from the school.###2.14###1.20

3 School management demands more work.###3.68###1.06

4 I am Satisfied to become a teacher.###4.07###.995

5 I am satisfied with the behavior of principal.###3.78###1.09

6 I suggest other people to join teaching profession.###3.91###1.06

7 My job is enjoyable.###3.81###1.03

8 My teaching job enables me to provide satisfactory standard of living###3.63###1.11

###for my family.

9 Incentives and rewards are not given to teachers by the school.###3.36###1.13

10 I believe that my principal is a good leader.###3.85###1.07

11 Even after many years of my service I have not being promoted.###3.44###1.14

12 I am satisfied wit1h the benefits of this profession.###3.62###1.03

13 I feel appreciation by the school.###3.64###.96

14 I feel I am an important part of the school.###3.87###.95

15 Teachers feel free to meet the principal about their problems and group###3.83###1.18

###welfare.

Table 2 shows that all respondents were agree about statements and highest M = 4.40 that teaching is a respectable job. The teachers also agreed that school management demands more work, and they were satisfy with the behavior of principal. And other statements 1, 9, and 11 as neutral point on scale except statement no 2 which is M=2.14 disagree point on scale. The SD ranges from .95 to 1.20. It is concluded that mostly teachers were satisfy with leadership style of their heads and job in school. They are satisfy with their job at schools.

Table 3 Comparison of Leadership Styles of Male and Female (Gender Wise)

Variable###Gender###N###M###SD###t-value###df###Sig.

Leadership styles###Male###75###36.88###5.683###1.583###198###.115

###Female###125###35.78###4.073

The independent sample t-test was conducted to compare the scores of males and females. There was no significant difference in scores of males (M=36.88, SD=5.683) and females (M=125, SD=35.78; t (198) = 1.583, sig = .115). The magnitude of the difference in the means was very small. It is concluded that male and female teachers had same opinions related leadership styles of their heads and there was no difference among them regarding gender.

Table 4 Comparison of Teachers' Job Satisfaction Gender Wise

Variable###Gender###N###M###SD###t-value###df###Sig.

Job satisfaction###Male###75###54.81###9.379###-223###198###.816

###Female###125###55.11###8.408

The independent sample t-test was conducted to compare the score for males and females. There was no significant difference in scores for males (M=54.81, SD=54.81) and females (M=125, SD=8.408; t (198) = -223, sig =.816). It is concluded that male and female teachers both had same job satisfaction level and there was no difference in their opinions regarding job satisfaction.

Table 5 Comparison of Teachers' Job Satisfaction Regarding Qualification of Teachers

###Qualification###N###M###SD###t-value###df###Sig.

###Graduates###28###1.61###.497###-209###198###.834

###Masters###172###1.63###.485

Table above shows difference in job satisfaction of teachers regarding their qualification. It is found that 28 respondents were graduates and 172 respondents were hold master degree. There was no significant difference in scores of graduates (M=1.61, SD=.497) and masters (M=1.63, SD=.485; t (198) = -209, sig =.834). It is concluded that was no difference in job satisfaction level of teachers on the behalf of their qualification.

Table 6 Correlation between Principals Democratic Leadership Style and Job Satisfaction of Teachers

###Democratic

###Job Satisfaction

###Leadership

Democratic###Pearson Correlation###1###.695**

Leadership Style###Sig. (2-tailed)###.000

###N###200###200

Table above depicts that there was significant strong r =.695 positive relationships exist between principals' democratic leadership style and job satisfaction of teachers at secondary level. The results suggest that if principals do practice democratic leadership style in school then the job satisfaction of teachers increase also. So it is cleared that democratic leadership style is most effective because it has strong and positive relationship with job satisfaction of teachers.

Table 7 Correlations between Principals Autocratic Leadership Style and Job Satisfaction of Teachers

###Autocratic Leadership###Job Satisfaction

Autocratic###Pearson Correlation###1###-.077

Leadership style###Sig. (2-tailed)###.277

###N###200###200

Table above depicts that there was weak r = -.077 negative relationship between principals autocratic leadership style and job satisfaction of teachers at secondary level. The results show that if principals do practice autocratic leadership style in school then the job satisfaction of teachers decrease. So it is cleared that autocratic leadership style is not effective in working environment of educational institutions because this style showed negative relationship with job satisfaction of teachers. The research indicates that the principals who adopt autocratic leadership style, their teachers are not satisfied with the job.

Conclusion

Leadership is a process that influences others. Leader communicates a vision with staff that build their self-interest into job commitment. The leader leads group of people and provide them the clear ideas and objectives to achieving the organizational goals. Effective leaders inspire and influence to others through motivation. Principal used two basic leadership styles. These are autocratic leadership style and democratic leadership style. Basically principal is a leader of teachers and his major task is to lead them. Principal and teachers are two most important elements in educational system.

The analysis and interpretation of data has proved that there is the positive and significant relationship between democratic leadership style and job satisfaction of teachers. The findings of study show that those teachers are more satisfied with the principals' democratic leadership style. A principal who leads with democratic leadership style, he/she provides freedom to teachers for work independently. Democratic principal always listen the opinions of the teacher and follow them. Democratic leadership style of principal always solves the issues of teachers carefully. He/she creates such environment in which all teachers feel to free for expressing their problems and give their suggestions.

The analysis has proved that there is negative relationship of principals' autocratic leadership style with job satisfaction of teachers at secondary level. It is proved that the teachers are unhappy with principals' autocratic leadership style. Because autocratic principal does not provide opportunities to teachers for work freely but the democratic principal shares the new ideas with his staff and faculty members and gives them freedom to some extent. The head of the educational institutions should compulsory the involvement of the teachers in the decision making and other activities for the betterment of the institutions because this thing enhances the job satisfaction of teachers.

Recommendations

There are some recommendations on the behalf of findings of the study:

1. Principal should adopt democratic leadership style because this leadership has positive relationship with job satisfaction of teachers.

2. Principal should avoid from autocratic leadership style because this style has negative effect on teachers' job satisfaction.

3. Principals may also provide opportunities to teachers for involving them in school decision making.

4. Principals should share the objectives of school to teachers and take opinions in different matters of the educational institutions.

5. Principals should be cooperative because cooperation is the main factor of job satisfaction of teachers.

6. Principal should provide rewards to his teachers for their best performance.

7. Principal should build strong relationship and trust on teachers.

8. Principal should treat equally to all teachers that they feel free to meet him and discuss their problems without any fear.

9. Principal should create such environment in which the teachers feel free to participation for express their opinions about school improvement.

10. Principal should encourage and appreciate teachers for attend meeting that enhance job satisfaction.

References

Adesina, S. (1990). What is educational management? Enugu, Nigeria: Fourth Dimension.

Adesina, S. (2011). What is educational management? Enugu, Nigeria: Fourth Dimension.

Bolam, R., McMahon, A., Pocklington, K., and Weinding, D. (1993). Effective management in schools. A report for the department for education via the school management task force professional working party. London: HMSO.

Chandan, J. S. (1987). Management theory and practice. New York: Vikas Publishing House.

Clark, R. (1998). Schools choice and administration: Will principals become marketers? Clearing House, 71(2), 95-98.

Clark, R. (2000). Schools choice and administration: Will principals become marketers? Clearing House, 71(2), 95-98.

Fox, J. A., and Brown, L. D. (2001). The struggle for accountability: The World Bank, NGOs, and grassroots movement. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Gastil, J. (1994). A meta-analytic review of the productivity and satisfaction of democratic and autocratic leadership. Small Group Research, 25, 384-410.

Gupta, A.C. (1987). An investigation into administration effectiveness of principals of Delhi Secondary School, Unpublished PhD dissertation, University of Delhi, New Delhi.

Holdford, D. A. (2003). Leadership theories and their lessons for pharmacists. Journal American Society of Health Systems, 25(3), 1780-6.

Hoy, N. K., and Miskel, G. G. (1992). Educational administration theory, research and practice. (2nded.). Randam House, New York, 22-24.

Ibukun, W. O. (1997). Educational management, theory and practice. Greenland Publishers, Lagos, 42-57.

Latham, N., and Vogt, W. (2007). Do professional development schools reduce teacher attrition? Journal of Teacher Education, 58(2), 153-167.

Mehrotra, A. (2005). Leadership styles of principals. India: Mittal Publications. Minier, J. A. (2001). Is democracy a normal good? Evidence from democratic movements. Southern Economic Journal, 67(4), 996-1008.

Newstrom, W. (2007). Organizational behavior. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Oliyan, D. A. (1997). Employees' job performance as affected by demographic variables in Nigerian educational system in African kraft books Ltd., Ibadan, Journal of Education Maage, 5(1-2), 38-47.

Perie, M., and Baker, D. (1997). Job satisfaction among America's teachers: Effects of workplace conditions, background characteristics, and teacher compensation. National Centre for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education. Office of Research and Improvement, NCES-xxx.

Pervaiz, I. (2010). Improving secondary school curriculum in Pakistan: A teachers' vision. Faculty of Education. Jamshoro: University of Sindh. Retrieved from www.shrdc.org/userfiles/image/pdf/sihrd.

Silins, H. C., and Murray-Harrey, R. (1999). What makes a good Senior Secondary School? Journal of educational Administration, 37, 329-344.

Simmonds, A. (1994). Teachers' perceived leadership behaviour of principals 'and teachers' performance in a sample of all age schools in rural and urban Jamaica. Unpublished thesis. University of the West Indies

Smylie, M. A., and Jack, W. D. (1990). Teachers' leadership tension and ambiguities in organizational perspective. Educational Administration, 26-59.

Sultana, N., and Bashir, M. (2005). Educational management and supervision (4th ed.). Islamabad: Allama Iqbal Open University.
COPYRIGHT 2017 Asianet-Pakistan
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2017 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Ch, Abid Hussain; Ahmad, Saghir; Malik, Misbah; Batool, Ayesha
Publication:Bulletin of Education and Research
Article Type:Report
Date:Dec 31, 2017
Words:4714
Previous Article:Interests and Recruitment in Science: Factors Influencing Recruitment and Retention in STEM Education at University Level in Pakistan.
Next Article:Role of Pakistan Studies in Promoting Political Awareness at Secondary Level in Pakistan.
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2019 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters