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Primer registro de Chrysoperla asoralis y C. argentina (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) en cultivos horticolas de La Plata asociado a pimiento (Capsicum annuum L.).

First record of Chrysoperla asoralis and C. argentina (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) in horticultural fields of La Plata associated with the sweet pepper (Capsicum Annuum L.)

The green lacewings, considered to be highly efficient predators, are used for the biological control of various pests, such as aphids, coccids, thrips, and lepidopteran larvae (Lingren et al., 1968; Canard et al., 1984; Greeve, 1984; Thompson, 1992; Bento et al., 1997; Urbaneja et al., 1999). In Argentina, the following four spe cies of Chrysoperla Steimann, 1964 have been recorded: C. externa (Hagen, 1861), C. asoralis (Banks, 1915), C. argentina (Gonzalez Olazo & Reguilon, 2002) and C. defreitasi (Brooks, 1994) (Montserrat & de Freitas, 2005). The first species shows a broad distribution in the Neotropical region and in Argentina it is found from the northern most provinces down to the north of Patagonia (Adams & Penny, 1987); the second is likewise present from northern Argentina, to northern Patagonia (Gonzalez Olazo & Heredia, 2007; Gonzalez etal., 2011); C. argentina, however, has thus far been found only in the provinces of Salta, Chaco, La Rioja and Tucuman (Gonzalez Olazo & Reguilon, 2002; Reguilon et al., 2006); while C. defreitasi has been recorded exclusively in the forests of the Yungas ecologic region in eastern Argentina (Gonzalez et al., 2011) and in northern Patagonia (Montserrat & de Freitas, 2005). The species most thoroughly investigated is C. externa, with ecotoxicological studies recently having been reported (Iannacone & Lamas, 2002; Silva et al., 2006; Rimoldi et al., 2008, 2012; Schneider et al., 2009; Moura et al., 2012; Haramboure et al., 2013). The massive rearing and subsequent release in the field of that species has been promoted in several countries during recent years (Vargas, 1988; Daane & yokota, 1997; Carvalho et al., 2002; Pappas et al., 2011).

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

The horticultural zone of La Plata is one of the most extensive in the Buenos Aires province, occupying 65% of the greenhouse-cultivated area of the province (Censo Hortifloricola, 2005). The sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is one of the main crops in this region, but is attacked in both the fruit and the plant proper by several pests, such as the green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Barbosa et al., 2008) and the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Genadius). Both these pests are of economic significance because of their direct effect on the plant itself through the sucking of the phloem and their secondary role as vectors of viral phytopathogens. In the horticultural agroecosystems of La Plata, the presence of C. externa has been detected in both organic and conventional fields, and in association with these two pests (Schneider, unpublished data).

Samplings made in sweet pepper greenhouses in the area of La Plata, Buenos Aires province (34[degress] 90' 65.67" S, 58[degrees] 14' 25.71" W) resulted in the capture of numerous specimens of the genus Chrysoperla. The species determination was done in the Miguel Lillo Foundation through the use of taxonomic keys. The material analyzed corresponded to C. asoralis and C. argentina, thus representing the first record for both species in the Buenos Aires province (Fig. 1) in addition to the association of those species with sweet pepper.

[FIGURES 2-4 OMITTED]

The aim of this report is to provide a formal record of the presence of these two species in that region, gather information on their distribution, and report a new association with the sweet pepper per se. Furthermore, we have also included here the most relevant taxonomic characters of the larvae and adults of these species (Figs. 2-4 and 5-7).

[FIGURES 5-7 OMITTED]

According to Gonzalez Olazo et al. (2011), C. asoralis could be displacing C. externa on the basis of the high number of individuals found in several locations. Although more studies in the field have to be carried out in order to corroborate the hypothesis, an initial sampling done during a two-year period indicated that C. asoralis was more abundant than C. externa. For this reason, ecotoxicological studies are presently being carried out with an emphasis on a comparison of the susceptibility to insecticides between C. externa and C. asoralis (Haramboure et al. unpublished data). The association of C. asoralis with sweet pepper pests would point to that species as being a potential biologic control agent, with the possibility of ultimately being able to include this species in integrated-pest-management programs. These studies could also be useful in acquiring more information on the taxonomy of the Chrysoperla species before their mass rearing for field releases.

Recibido: 29-VIII-2014; aceptado: 16-X-2014

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

R.A.A. and M.I.S. are members of the Carrera del Investigador Cientifico y Tecnologico of the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas from Argentina (CONICET). M.H. is a fellowship holder of CONICET. The financial support for this research was provided by the National Agency of Promotion of Science and Technology (ANPCyT-FONCYT, PICT 2011-1752). C.R. thanks Entomology Institute of Miguel Lillo Foundation, Tucuman. We are grateful to Jorge Barneche for his assistance to improve the figures. Dr. Donald F. Haggerty, a retired career investigator and native English speaker, edited the final version of the manuscript.

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HARAMBOURE, Marina (1), Carmen REGUILON (2), Raul A. ALZOGARAY (3,4) & Marcela Ines SCHNEIDERI, (5)

(1) Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia: Plaguicidas y Control Biologico. Centro de Estudios Parasitologicos y de Vectores [CEPAVE (CONICET LA PLATA-UNLP)], Bv. 120 s/n e/61 y 62, La Plata CP 1900, Buenos Aires, Argentina. E-mail: mschneider@cepave.edu.ar

(2) Instituto de Entomologia, Fundacion Miguel Lillo, Tucuman, Argentina.

(3) Centro de Investigaciones de Plagas e Insecticidas (CIPEIN-UNIDEF/CONICET), Villa Martelli, Bs. As., Argentina.

(4) Instituto de Investigacion e Ingenieria Ambiental (3IA-UNSAM).

(5) Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo. Universidad Nacional de la Plata, La Plata, Bs. As., Argentina.
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Title Annotation:Nota Cientifica
Author:Haramboure, Marina; Reguilon, Carmen; Alzogaray, Raul A.; Schneider, Marcela Ines
Publication:Revista de la Sociedad Entomologica Argentina
Date:Jul 1, 2014
Words:1745
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