Primeiro registro de Myotis izecksohni (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae) para a Mata Atlantica de Minas Gerais, sudeste do Brasil.
The Izecksohn's Myotis, Myotis izecksohni Moratelli, Peracchi, Dias et Oliveira, 2011 was described from a review of the Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821) complex, based on analyses of specimens from 4 localities in the Atlantic Forest of south and southeastern Brazil. The species is known only from these localities, 2 of them in Rio de Janeiro state-the type locality (Reserva Biologica do Tingua) and Parque Nacional da Serra dos Orgaos-and 2 in Parana state-Parque Estadual de Campinhos and Balsa Nova municipality (Fig. 1). All these localities are between 700 and 1200 m of elevation (Moratelli et al., 2011; Reis et al., 2013).
All the M. izecksohni specimens were captured with mist nets placed near abandoned builds, entrance of caves, creeks, rocky crevices and along trails and clearings in forest areas (Moratelli et al., 2011). As many other newly described species, little is known about its distribution limits, natural history and ecology.
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
Here, we report new records of M. izecksohni for Minas Gerais State, Southeastern Brazil (Fig. 1). Three specimens were collected during rapid bat surveys in three sites in the Serra da Mantiqueira, which contains areas of semideciduous forest, dense rainforest and some Cerrado patches with occurrence of Araucaria angustifolia (Araucariaceae). This region is classified as a transition between the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado, with vegetation characteristics of the 2 biomes (Ururahy et al., 1983). The Serra da Mantiqueira is a priority area for conservation due to the high level of species endemism and habitat loss (Becker et al., 2013; Jenkins et al., 2013; Le Saout et al., 2013; Myers et al., 2000).
On 3 May 2011, at 19:30 h (ca.120 minutes after local sunset time, according to Moonphase Southern Hemisphere program version 3.3), a non-reproductive adult male (Fig. 2A) was collected with mist net in an area of semideciduous forest (22[degrees]05'26.99" S, 44[degrees]09'38.99" W), 1130 m of elevation, in the Santa Rita do Jacutinga municipality. The specimen is preserved in alcohol 70[degrees] and the skull was removed and cleaned. This voucher is deposited in the mammal collection Adriano Lucio Peracchi, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (ALP) and catalogued as ALP 9665.
Two additional specimens were collected in 2 Atlantic Rainforest areas in the Aiuruoca municipality. One adult male with testicles descended was collected with a mist net placed above a stream, near the waterfall "Cachoeirinha" (22[degrees]3'57.28" S, 44[degrees]36'30.58" W), 1118 m of elevation, at 21:00 h (ca. 210 minutes after local sunset time), on 4 August 2013. This site is a small fragment surrounded by well-preserved patches. Other specimen, a non-reproductive subadult female (Fig. 2B), was collected with mist net above a stream, near the waterfall "Cachoeira das Fadas" (22[degrees]4'49.94" S, 44[degrees]38'47.81" W), a well-preserved remnant at 1342 m of elevation, at 19:00 h (ca. 15 minutes after local sunset time), on 9 January 2014. This site is located within the Area de Protecao Ambiental da Serra da Mantiqueira, and in the buffer zone of the Parque Estadual da Serra do Papagaio.
[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]
These 2 specimens are preserved in alcohol 70[degrees] and their skulls were removed and cleaned. Both are deposited in the bat collection of Laboratorio de Diversidade de Morcegos (LDM), Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, cataloged as LDM 5552 (adult male) and LDM 5578 (subadult female).
Forearm length and cranial measurements were obtained using digital calipers accurate to 0.01 mm, according to criteria by LopezGonzalez et al. (2001). Identifications are based on Moratelli et al. (2011), which also provided useful comparisons among M. izecksohni and other South American congeners.
Our specimens conform closely with the combination of characters that distinguishes M. izecksohni from all other Myotis species. The specimens have plagiopatagium attached to the level of the toes by a broad band of membrane, conspicuously long and silky fur, dorsal fur slightly bicolor with dark bases and dark brown tips, ventral fur bicolor with well-defined banding, dark brown bases and pale grey tips, trailing edge of the interfemoral membrane dark colored and lacking fringe of hairs (only few sparse and short hairs are present), membranes dark brown, braincase long, narrow and flattened, postorbital constriction narrow, breadth across the canines/ postorbital breadth ratio greater than 1.00, supraoccipital region rounded and sagittal crest absent. The second upper premolar (P3) is smaller than the first (P2) and is aligned to the toothrow, not displaced to the lingual side. Measurements of adult specimens (Table 1) match the range of the type series of M. izecksohni (see Moratelli et al., 2011).
Among the Brazilian species of Myotis, 5 are recorded in sympatry with M. izecksohni: M. albescens (E. Geoffroy, 1806), M. levis (I. Geoffroy, 1824), M. nigricans, M. riparius Handley, 1960 and M. ruber (E. Geoffroy, 1806). M. levis and M. nigricans are cryptic with M. izecksohni (see Moratelli et al., 2011). However, M. izecksohni (forearm length 33.1 -38.3 mm; greatest skull length 12.5-14.6 mm) differs from M. nigricans (forearm length 30.235.2 mm; greatest skull length 12.8-13.9 mm) by its larger general size, darker and longer fur and more narrowed postorbital region. In turn, M. levis (forearm length 38.0-41.4 mm; greatest skull length 14.2-15.4 mm), is larger than M. izecksohni, has a fringe of hairs along the trailing edge of the interfemoral membrane, larger ears (ear length 14.8-17.0 mm in M. levis and 8.7-13.2 mm in M. izecksohni), larger postorbital constriction and more inflated interorbital region (Moratelli et al., 2011).
The records of Aiuruoca and Jacutinga extend northwards the distribution of M. izecksohni in ca. 650 km and 695 km, respectively, from the southernmost record in Balsa Nova, Parana. The distribution is also extended in ca. 170 km and 127 km to the west from the northernmost record in Teresopolis, Rio de Janeiro state (Fig. 1). Occurrence records suggest that M. izecksohni is apparently restricted to Atlantic Forest mid elevations (600-1200 m), including remnants in the Atlantic Forest/Cerrado ecotone. Since the Atlantic Forest is suffering from an accelerated deforestation rate and possesses a high concentration of endemic species, it is regarded as a biodiversity hotspot for conservation priorities (Myers et al., 2000; Ribeiro et al., 2009).
Due to its recent description, lack of data on its biology and a poorly known distribution, M. izecksohni has not yet been assessed for its conservation status. Therefore, more efforts to increase the knowledge on the distribution and natural history of these species, such as critical review of museum specimens and additional bat surveys, including areas of high elevations, are required to achieve this goal and support conservation actions.
Recibido 15 octubre 2014. Aceptado 11 noviembre 2014. Editor asociado: UFJ Pardinas
Acknowledgements. We thank Gilberto Ribeiro (RPPN Cahoeira do Tombo) and Pedro Guatimosim Lobao (RPPN da Fragalha and Horizonte Vertical) for their help in the field. We thank Clarice Silva (and other staff of the Parque Estadual da Serra do Papagaio [PESP] and Instituto Estadual de Florestas de Minas Gerais) and Fundacao Matutu for the permits to work in PESP and Matutu's Valley, respectively. WDC received Ph.D scholarship from CAPES; BSX received scholarship fund from FAPERJ and CELE received grants from FAPERJ (E-26/102.960/2012) and CNPq (Process 301061/2007-6). The present study was developed under a permit granted by IBAMA (Processes 1785/89-IBAMA and SISBIO 10356-1) and IEF (UC: 151/11-Extension I).
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Daniela Dias (1), William Douglas de Carvalho (2, 3), Tiago Souto Martins Teixeira (4, 5), Daniel Tavares (4), Bruna da Silva Xavier (2), Egon Luis Vilela do Valle (2), and Carlos Eduardo Lustosa Esberard (2)
(1) Laboratorio de Biologia e Parasitologia de Mamiferos Silvestres Reservatorios, Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. [correspondence: <firstname.lastname@example.org>].
(2) Laboratorio de Diversidade de Morcegos, Departamento de Biologia Animal, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, 74507 Seropedica, RJ, Brazil.
(3) Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes (Ce3C), Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisboa, Portugal.
(4) Departamento de Ecologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 68020 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
(5) Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ecologia e Evolucao, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Table 1 Measurements (in millimeters) for adult specimens of Myotis izecksohni from the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil. Specimens ALP 9665 LDM 5552 ([male]) ([male]) Locality Santa Rita do Aiuruoca, Jacutinga, Minas Gerais Minas Gerais Forearm length 35.84 36.80 Greatest length of the skull 14.96 14.40 (excluding incisors) Condyloincisive length 13.82 13.71 Maxillary toothrow length 5.44 5.54 Breadth across the cingula of 3.62 3.60 upper canines Postorbital breadth 3.50 3.56 Breadth across the upper molars 5.68 5.66 Braincase breadth 6.76 6.81 Zygomatic breadth 8.64 8.82 Mastoid breadth 7.06 7.12 Mandibular length 10.22 10.04 Mandibular toothrow length 5.90 5.73 Specimens Type series ([male][male][male]; [female][female]) Locality Reserva Biologica do Tingua, Rio de Janeiro Forearm length 35.20-38.30 Greatest length of the skull 14.46-14.93 (excluding incisors) Condyloincisive length 13.49-13.77 Maxillary toothrow length 5.41-5.55 Breadth across the cingula of 3.52-3.74 upper canines Postorbital breadth 3.35-3.52 Breadth across the upper molars 5.60-5.81 Braincase breadth 6.61-6.79 Zygomatic breadth 8.72-8.93 Mastoid breadth 7.05-7.11 Mandibular length 10.13-10.29 Mandibular toothrow length 5.80-5.96
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|Author:||Dias, Daniela; de Carvalho, William Douglas; Martins Teixeira, Tiago Souto; Tavares, Daniel; da Silv|
|Date:||Jun 1, 2015|
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