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Prevalence of torus palatinus and torus mandibularis in Jordanian population.

Byline: DERAR AL-SEBAIE and MASHOOR ALWRIKAT

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of torus palatanis and torus mandibularis in relation to age and gender among patients who attended Dental Department of Queen Alia Military Hospital in Jordan.

In this study 1218 subjects were examined for the presence of tori by inspection and palpations.

Out of 1218 subjects 28.7% had torus palatinus or mandibularis. The highest percentage (44.1%) of tori were in the age group of 31-41 years. Female percentage with either tori was higher (39.0%) than males (20.0%).

Key words: Torus palatinus, torus mandibularis

INTRODUCTION

The tori are exostosis that are formed by a dense cortical bone and limited amount of bone marrow, and they are covered with a thin and poorly vascularized mucosa. It represent an anatomical variation rather than a pathological condition and they usually become apparent during second or third decade of life.

Torus palatinus (TP) is usually located along me- dian palatine suture involving both processi palatine. Torus mandibularis (TM) occurs most commonly in small size. They are often located at the canine to premolar area.

There is no specific etiology but there are many predisposing factors according to many researchers7,8,9,12 such as genetic, environmental and nutritional. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of torus palatinus and torus mandibularis in relation to age and gender in patients attending Queen Alia Mili- tary Hospital.

METHODOLOGY

A total of 1218 subjects attended dental department of Queen Alia Military Hospital from 1st Jan to 31 March 2010 and they were also examined for the presence of TP and TM.

The presence of tori were confirmed by clinical examination and palpation. Subjects were divided according to gender and were divided into 6 age groups namely 11-20, 21-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60 and greatre than 61 years.

RESULTS

In the present study the age of the patient with tori ranged from 16 to 69 years, majority (30.0%) of patients were in the age group of 21-30 years. The age of male patients ranged from 16 to 65 years while those of female from 18 to 69 years.

The prevalence of tori in age group ranged from 8.4% in age group 11 to 20 years to 44.1% in age group 31 to 40 years (Table 1). In this study TP, TM were significantly more prevalent in females than in males (39.0% and 20.0% respectively). The overall prevalence was 28.7% (Table 2).

A Singaporean study is the only study that shows the same frequency of torus palatinus in both sexes.20 There is no certain explanation for the higher prevalence of tori in females but genetics may be suggested as major factor.3,4,7,9,13,15,21,23

TABLE 1: PREVALENCE OF TORI ACCORDING TO AGE

###Age/year###Male+###M+F with###Preva-

###female###tori###lence

###11-20###169###14###8.4

###21-30###435###133###31.5

###31-40###221###98###44.1

###41-50###170###63###37.1

###51-60###132###21###15.4

greatre than###61###91###21###3.1

Total###1218###350###28.7

TABLE 2: AGE AND GENDER DISTRIBUTION OF PATIENTS

Age/years###Male###Male+tori###%###Female###Female+tori###%

11-20###85###7###8.2###84###7###8.3

21-30###183###32###17.5###252###131###51.9

31-40###92###26###28.3###129###72###55.8

41-50###67###26###38.8###103###37###35.9

51-60###56###13###23.2###76###8###10.5

61 greatre than###45###6###13.3###46###15###32.6

Total###528###110###20.0###690###270###39.0

DISCUSSION

Oral tori have been defined as slow growing, os- seous out growths at the mid line of the hard palate and at the lingual surface of the mandible. Tori are ana- tomical variant and has been termed exostosis.27,28 Studies showing TP and ranging from 1.4 to 66.0% in different populations is given in Table 3.

Tori have been consistently seen more frequently in Mongolians than in the Caucasians.37,38 Costich stated that tori may be less common in blacks than in whites.39 Yaacob et al found a high rate of 24.4% of torus palatine in Malaysian but low prevalence of torus mandibularis (2.2%).38 This difference in prevalence in different populations may be due to ethnicity. It was reported that among similar ethnic groups living in different areas,6,16 or different ethnics groups living in same areas have various prevalences of TP and TM.21,45

Large number of investigators have evaluated the effects of environmental7,12 and genetic factors8,9 includ- ing masticatory stress7,8,21 and nutritional factors.6

Dietary factors may have a role for the tori prevalence. Eggen and Natvig investigated the influence of nutri- ent in the etiology of tori.45 The prevalence of TP and TM in this study correspond to the previous studies of Jordanian population.14

CONCLUSION

The results of this study show significant relation- ship between the occurrence of tori and gender and support the findings that the etiological factors of tori are multifactorial namely genetic and environmental factors.

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DERAR AL-SEBAIE, MASHOOR ALWRIKAT Correspondence: Dr Derar Al-Sebaie, Specialist Prosthodontics, Royal Medical Services, PO Box 620416, Irbid Jordan. Tel: 00962795523598, E-mail: derar25@yahoo.com, Specialist of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
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Author:Al-Sebaie, Derar; Alwrikat, Mashoor
Publication:Pakistan Oral and Dental Journal
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:7JORD
Date:Jun 30, 2011
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