Prevalence of periparturient reproductive disorders and calving pattern in buffaloes.
Peri-parturient disorders are recognized as most important factors affecting fertility (Wilde 2006). About 18-40% buffaloes are culled and reach slaughter house primarily due to infertility. Decreased reproductive performance has direct economic losses due to reduced production and additional managemental cost (Mulligan et al., 2006).
A slaughter house study revealed incidence of reproductive disorders in buffaloes to be about 37.5% (Sharma et al., 1993) but it is stressed that at any given point of time, animals with reproductive problems should not exceed 10%. Hence, a retrospective study was planned to assess prevalence of peri-parturient reproductive disorders and determine seasonal calving pattern in buffaloes in Central India.
Materials and Methods
The study was undertaken in most densely populated buffalo tract of Asia, located in Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh. This buffalo belt in Central India has approximately 60,000 buffaloes within a radius of 4 km. It is situated at 23.17[degrees] latitude and 79.57[degrees] longitude at 410.87 MSL (metres above sea level) in Southern part of agroclimatic zone viz. Kymore plateau and Satpura hills having an average rainfall of 1241 mm.
A total of 9745 calving records of graded Murrah dairy buffaloes between 2005-2010 were screened retrospectively for peripartum reproductive disorders viz. retained placenta (RP), cervicovaginal prolapse (CVP), uterine prolapse and metritis/endometritis. The data were obtained from various dairy farms. The prevalence was calculated as per method described by Thrusfield (2007).
Results and Discussion
The year wise number of calving and prevalence of different peripartum reproductive disorders have been presented in Table 1. The overall prevalence of retained placenta (RP), cervicovaginal prolapse (CVP), uterine prolapse and metritis/endometritis was 10.87%, 0.21%, 1.87% and 20.28%respectively.
The monthwise calving recorded in buffaloes has been depicted in Fig.1. Highest number of monthwise calvings were recorded in August (16.75%) followed by July (13.63%) and October (10.68%) while least calvings were recorded in February (4.02%).
Seasonal analysis revealed higher number of calving in rainy (40%) and winter (37%) season than summer (23%). Retained placenta and uterine prolapse followed calving trend, being higher in rainy and winter season than summer. The occurrence of CVP was greater in summer followed by rainy and winter season. Highest numbers of metritis/endometritis were recorded in winter (Oct-Feb) (Table 2).
In present study, prevalence of retained placenta (RP) was higher (10.87%, range 9.55-13.08%) than 5.24% reported by Gupta et al. (1999) from same region. However trend of highest occurrence in rainy season followed by winter and summer season was similar in both studies. Since retention of fetal membranes is associated with calving, therefore seasonal calving pattern in buffaloes may be responsible for higher occurrence of retained placenta in rainy and winter season.
The prevalence of RP found in present study is in agreement with finding of Bhalaru et al. (1983) who reported upto 10% RP; whereas Rawal and Singh (1991) noticed low incidence of 1.52-2.35% in buffaloes. Singh et al. (2003) reported higher prevalence of 15.22% and 23.32% retained placenta from Bareilly and Allahabad, respectively. They reported higher seasonal occurrence in summer. Khan et al. (2009) reported 2.73-9.72% incidence of retention of placenta from different states of India.
The prevalence of uterine prolapse in present study ranged from 1.34-2.22% in different years. Singh et al. (2003) reported almost similar i.e., 0.92 and 2.12 % prevalence of uterine prolapse at organized farms of Bareilly and Allahabad, respectively. In contrast, higher (4.07%) incidence of uterine prolapse was reported by Kumar and Singh (2009) and more reported to occur in summer. The higher occurrence of uterine prolapse in rainy and winter season than summer in present study may be attributed to higher number of calving (2/3rd) occurring between July and December.
Metritis/endometritis cases within one month post-calving ranged from 18.30-21.95%. The results are in close agreement with 20.68% reported by Rao and Sreemannarayan (1982) and 18.65% reported by Naidu and Rao (2004). Singh et al. (2003) reported that prevalence of metritis at Bareilly and Allahabad was 18.14% and 33.42%, respectively. Khan et al. (2009) reported 3.41-12.45% metritis and 4.08-28.72% endometritis from different states of India.
The farm records in present study revealed that most cases (43.82%) of purulent or mucopurulent discharges were subjected to uterine infusions in three consecutive months of August, September and October. This may be attributed to higher number of calvings in rainy season (July-Sept) and also to more unhygienic conditions prevailing in this season. Buffaloes are also more vulnerable to ascending uterine infection from vagina as compared to cattle, due to loose apposition of vulvar lips in this species.
The study provides insight on seasonal calving trend and occurrence of different peri-parturient reproductive disorders in graded Murrah buffaloes. The results have been derived from a large population size in buffalo tract of Central India. Greater awareness about seasonal predisposition of certain disorders may draw attention towards a proactive approach for better management, thus improving productivity.
This work is a part of doctoral research of first author conducted at NDVSU, Jabalpur as a sponsored candidate by SKUAST-Jammu.
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Nishi Pande (1), R.G. Agrawal (2), Rajesh Agrawal (3) O.P. Shrivasatava (4) and S.K. Jain (5)
Department of Veterinary Gynaecology and Obstetrics College of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry Nanaji Deshmukh Veterinary Science University (NDVSU) Jabalpur--482001 (Madhya Pradesh)
(1.) Present Address: Assistant Professor, FVSc & A.H., SKUAST-J, Jammu and Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
(2.) Retired Professor and Head
(3.) Division of Veterinary Medicine, FVSc & A.H., SKUAST-J, Jammu
(4.) Professor and Head
Table 1: Prevalence of peripartum uterine disorders in buffaloes Year Calving Retained Placenta (RP) n (%) 2005 1442 138 (9.57) 2006 1497 143 (9.55) 2007 1570 167 (10.63) 2008 1736 192 (11.05) 2009 1758 230 (13.08) 2010 1742 189 (10.85) Total 9745 1059 (10.87) Year Genital Prolapse Cervico-vaginal Uterine prolapse prolapse (CVP) (a) n (%) n (%) 2005 2 (0.14) 28 (1.94) 2006 3 (0.20) 26 (1.74) 2007 3 (0.19) 21 (1.34) 2008 5 (0.29) 36 (2.07) 2009 4 (0.23) 39 (2.22) 2010 4 (0.23) 32 (1.84) Total 21 (0.21) 182 (1.87) Year Metritis/Endometritis (b) n (%) 2005 279 (19.35) 2006 274 (18.30) 2007 310 (19.74) 2008 381 (21.95) 2009 373 (21.22) 2010 359 (20.60) Total 1976 (20.28) (a) CVP included only those cases recorded within one month prior to calving (b) Metritis/endometritis included cases with purulent or mucopurulent discharges (with or without systemic illness) that were subjected to uterine infusions in [less than or equal to] 30 days post partum Values in parenthesis represent percentage; n= number of cases Table 2: Season wise proportional occurrence of peripartum reproductive disorders in buffaloes Season Calving n (%) CVP n (%) RP n (%) Summer (March-June) 2197(22.50) 8(38.09) 262(24.74) Rainy (July-Sept) 3930(40.33) 7(33.33) 459 (43.34) Winter (Oct-Feb) 3618(37.12) 6(28.57) 338(31.92) Total 9745 21 1059 Season Uterine Metritis/ prolapse n (%) Endometritis n (%) Summer (March-June) 43(23.62) 391(19.79) Rainy (July-Sept) 74(40.66) 761(38.51) Winter (Oct-Feb) 65 (35.71) 824(41.70) Total 182 1976 n = number of cases Values in parenthesis represent percentage Fig. 1: Monthwise calving pattern in buffaloes January 4.13 February 4.02 March 4.08 April 4.61 May 5.92 June 7.92 July 13.63 August 16.75 September 9.93 October 10.68 November 9.83 December 8.45 Note: Table made from pie chart.
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|Title Annotation:||Research Article|
|Author:||Pande, Nishi; Agrawal, R.G.; Agrawal, Rajesh; Shrivasatava, O.P.; Jain, S.K.|
|Date:||Jul 1, 2014|
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