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Prevalence of periparturient reproductive disorders and calving pattern in buffaloes.


Peri-parturient disorders are recognized as most important factors affecting fertility (Wilde 2006). About 18-40% buffaloes are culled and reach slaughter house primarily due to infertility. Decreased reproductive performance has direct economic losses due to reduced production and additional managemental cost (Mulligan et al., 2006).

A slaughter house study revealed incidence of reproductive disorders in buffaloes to be about 37.5% (Sharma et al., 1993) but it is stressed that at any given point of time, animals with reproductive problems should not exceed 10%. Hence, a retrospective study was planned to assess prevalence of peri-parturient reproductive disorders and determine seasonal calving pattern in buffaloes in Central India.

Materials and Methods

The study was undertaken in most densely populated buffalo tract of Asia, located in Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh. This buffalo belt in Central India has approximately 60,000 buffaloes within a radius of 4 km. It is situated at 23.17[degrees] latitude and 79.57[degrees] longitude at 410.87 MSL (metres above sea level) in Southern part of agroclimatic zone viz. Kymore plateau and Satpura hills having an average rainfall of 1241 mm.

A total of 9745 calving records of graded Murrah dairy buffaloes between 2005-2010 were screened retrospectively for peripartum reproductive disorders viz. retained placenta (RP), cervicovaginal prolapse (CVP), uterine prolapse and metritis/endometritis. The data were obtained from various dairy farms. The prevalence was calculated as per method described by Thrusfield (2007).

Results and Discussion

The year wise number of calving and prevalence of different peripartum reproductive disorders have been presented in Table 1. The overall prevalence of retained placenta (RP), cervicovaginal prolapse (CVP), uterine prolapse and metritis/endometritis was 10.87%, 0.21%, 1.87% and 20.28%respectively.

The monthwise calving recorded in buffaloes has been depicted in Fig.1. Highest number of monthwise calvings were recorded in August (16.75%) followed by July (13.63%) and October (10.68%) while least calvings were recorded in February (4.02%).

Seasonal analysis revealed higher number of calving in rainy (40%) and winter (37%) season than summer (23%). Retained placenta and uterine prolapse followed calving trend, being higher in rainy and winter season than summer. The occurrence of CVP was greater in summer followed by rainy and winter season. Highest numbers of metritis/endometritis were recorded in winter (Oct-Feb) (Table 2).

In present study, prevalence of retained placenta (RP) was higher (10.87%, range 9.55-13.08%) than 5.24% reported by Gupta et al. (1999) from same region. However trend of highest occurrence in rainy season followed by winter and summer season was similar in both studies. Since retention of fetal membranes is associated with calving, therefore seasonal calving pattern in buffaloes may be responsible for higher occurrence of retained placenta in rainy and winter season.

The prevalence of RP found in present study is in agreement with finding of Bhalaru et al. (1983) who reported upto 10% RP; whereas Rawal and Singh (1991) noticed low incidence of 1.52-2.35% in buffaloes. Singh et al. (2003) reported higher prevalence of 15.22% and 23.32% retained placenta from Bareilly and Allahabad, respectively. They reported higher seasonal occurrence in summer. Khan et al. (2009) reported 2.73-9.72% incidence of retention of placenta from different states of India.

The prevalence of uterine prolapse in present study ranged from 1.34-2.22% in different years. Singh et al. (2003) reported almost similar i.e., 0.92 and 2.12 % prevalence of uterine prolapse at organized farms of Bareilly and Allahabad, respectively. In contrast, higher (4.07%) incidence of uterine prolapse was reported by Kumar and Singh (2009) and more reported to occur in summer. The higher occurrence of uterine prolapse in rainy and winter season than summer in present study may be attributed to higher number of calving (2/3rd) occurring between July and December.

Metritis/endometritis cases within one month post-calving ranged from 18.30-21.95%. The results are in close agreement with 20.68% reported by Rao and Sreemannarayan (1982) and 18.65% reported by Naidu and Rao (2004). Singh et al. (2003) reported that prevalence of metritis at Bareilly and Allahabad was 18.14% and 33.42%, respectively. Khan et al. (2009) reported 3.41-12.45% metritis and 4.08-28.72% endometritis from different states of India.

The farm records in present study revealed that most cases (43.82%) of purulent or mucopurulent discharges were subjected to uterine infusions in three consecutive months of August, September and October. This may be attributed to higher number of calvings in rainy season (July-Sept) and also to more unhygienic conditions prevailing in this season. Buffaloes are also more vulnerable to ascending uterine infection from vagina as compared to cattle, due to loose apposition of vulvar lips in this species.

The study provides insight on seasonal calving trend and occurrence of different peri-parturient reproductive disorders in graded Murrah buffaloes. The results have been derived from a large population size in buffalo tract of Central India. Greater awareness about seasonal predisposition of certain disorders may draw attention towards a proactive approach for better management, thus improving productivity.


This work is a part of doctoral research of first author conducted at NDVSU, Jabalpur as a sponsored candidate by SKUAST-Jammu.


Bhalaru, S.S., Tiwana, M.S. and Dhillon, J.S. (1983). Factors affecting the incidence of retention of placenta in buffaloes. Trop. Vet. Anim. Sci. Res1: 81. (Anim. Breed. Abstr. 51: 5944).

Gupta, A., Pandit, R.K., Jogi, S. and Agarwal, R.G. (1999). Retention of placenta in relation to parity season and sex of calf in Murrah buffaloes. Buffalo Bulletin 18: 5-7.

Khan, H.M., Bhakat, M., Mohanty, T.K., Gupta, A.K., Raina, V.S. and Mir, M.S. (2009). Peripartum reproductive disorders in buffaloes--An overview. Vetscan 4: 38.

Kumar, R. and Singh, R. (2009). Incidence of uterovaginal prolapse among the buffaloes under field conditions of western Uttar Pradesh. Indian J. Anim. Sci. 79: 847-49.

Mulligan, F.J., O'Grady, L., Rice, D.A and Doherty, M.L. (2006). A herd health approach to dairy cow nutrition and production disease of the transition cow. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 96: 331-53.

Naidu, G.V. and Rao, K.B. (2004). A note on the incidence of reproductive disorders in buffaloes in Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh. Indian J. Anim. Reprod. 25: 37-38.

Rao, A.V. and Sreemannarayan, O. (1982). Clinical analysis of reproductive failure among female buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) under village management in Andhra Pradesh. Theriogenology 18: 403-11.

Rawal, C.V.S. and Singh, R. (1991). Incidence of retention of placenta in buffaloes. Indian J. Anim. Sci. 61: 841-42.

Sharma, A.K., Takkar, O.P. and Choudhary, K.C. (1993). Plasma prolactin and milk production in Murrah (Bubalis bubalis) buffaloes fed with elevated energy levels during pre and postpartum period. Indian J. Anim Reprod. 14: 1-4.

Singh, R., Shankar, H. and Arora, B.M. (2003). A retrospective study on periparturient disorders in crossbred cows at organized farms in Uttar Pradesh. Indian J. Anim. Reprod. 24: 165-67

Thrusfield, M. (2007). Veterinary Epidemiology, 3rd ed. Blackwell Science Ltd., Iowa, USA. 62p.

Wilde, D. (2006). Influence of macro- and microminerals in the periparturient period on fertility in dairy cattle. Anim. Reprod. Sci. 96: 240-49.

Nishi Pande (1), R.G. Agrawal (2), Rajesh Agrawal (3) O.P. Shrivasatava (4) and S.K. Jain (5)

Department of Veterinary Gynaecology and Obstetrics College of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry Nanaji Deshmukh Veterinary Science University (NDVSU) Jabalpur--482001 (Madhya Pradesh)

(1.) Present Address: Assistant Professor, FVSc & A.H., SKUAST-J, Jammu and Corresponding author. E-mail:

(2.) Retired Professor and Head

(3.) Division of Veterinary Medicine, FVSc & A.H., SKUAST-J, Jammu

(4.) Professor and Head

(5.) Professor
Table 1: Prevalence of peripartum uterine disorders in buffaloes

Year    Calving   Retained Placenta (RP)

                          n (%)

2005     1442           138 (9.57)
2006     1497           143 (9.55)
2007     1570          167 (10.63)
2008     1736          192 (11.05)
2009     1758          230 (13.08)
2010     1742          189 (10.85)
Total    9745          1059 (10.87)

Year    Genital Prolapse

         Cervico-vaginal     Uterine prolapse
        prolapse (CVP) (a)

              n (%)               n (%)

2005         2 (0.14)           28 (1.94)
2006         3 (0.20)           26 (1.74)
2007         3 (0.19)           21 (1.34)
2008         5 (0.29)           36 (2.07)
2009         4 (0.23)           39 (2.22)
2010         4 (0.23)           32 (1.84)
Total       21 (0.21)           182 (1.87)

Year    Metritis/Endometritis (b)

                  n (%)

2005           279 (19.35)
2006           274 (18.30)
2007           310 (19.74)
2008           381 (21.95)
2009           373 (21.22)
2010           359 (20.60)
Total         1976 (20.28)

(a) CVP included only those cases recorded within one
month prior to calving

(b) Metritis/endometritis included cases with purulent
or mucopurulent discharges (with or without systemic
illness) that were subjected to uterine infusions in
[less than or equal to] 30 days post partum Values in
parenthesis represent percentage; n= number of cases

Table 2: Season wise proportional occurrence of
peripartum reproductive disorders in buffaloes

Season                Calving n (%)   CVP n (%)    RP n (%)

Summer (March-June)    2197(22.50)    8(38.09)    262(24.74)
Rainy (July-Sept)      3930(40.33)    7(33.33)    459 (43.34)
Winter (Oct-Feb)       3618(37.12)    6(28.57)    338(31.92)
Total                     9745           21          1059

Season                   Uterine        Metritis/
                      prolapse n (%)   Endometritis
                                          n (%)

Summer (March-June)     43(23.62)       391(19.79)
Rainy (July-Sept)       74(40.66)       761(38.51)
Winter (Oct-Feb)        65 (35.71)      824(41.70)
Total                      182             1976

n = number of cases Values in parenthesis represent

Fig. 1: Monthwise calving pattern in buffaloes

January     4.13
February    4.02
March       4.08
April       4.61
May         5.92
June        7.92
July        13.63
August      16.75
September   9.93
October     10.68
November    9.83
December    8.45

Note: Table made from pie chart.
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Article Details
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Title Annotation:Research Article
Author:Pande, Nishi; Agrawal, R.G.; Agrawal, Rajesh; Shrivasatava, O.P.; Jain, S.K.
Publication:Intas Polivet
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9INDI
Date:Jul 1, 2014
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