Printer Friendly

Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthic infestation in pet and stray dogs in Tabriz (East-azerbaijan Province), Iran.

Introduction

Dogs and other canine act as definitive hosts for many intestinal parasites, some of which are responsible for several zoonotic diseases such as hydatidosis. It is caused by the Echinococcus granulosus [5,6]. In fact dogs are associated with more than 60 zoonotic diseases among which Parasites in particular helminthiases, can pose serious health concern. As well as significant economic impacts from veterinary standpoint [15,16]. The number of stray and pet dogs that coexist with human being is high in most cities and villages of the world, especially in developing countries, because of this bring about great quantity of feces, which constitute a potential risk of infection for human beings especially children due to their land-grabbing habit. Because the distribution and intensity of disease are influenced by climatic, geographical, cultural, and economic factors, it is necessary to analyze situation in every given region. Accordingly, several studies have been carried out on the gastrointestinal parasites of stray and pet dogs in the world and Iran [2]. Although human infection with Echinococcus granulosus have very importance, but other helminths reported in this study also have importance rule for heath of stray and pet dogs [14]. This study was performed in order to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthic infection among stray and pet dogs in Tabriz (center of East Azerbaijan province) and to emphasis the importance of this concept for public health and veterinary standpoint.

Material and Method

This survey is one cross-sectional study and from September to December 2010, 100 fecal samples from 50 stray and 50 pet dogs in Tabriz area were collected. The aim of this study was to determine of gastrointestinal infestation among stray and pet dogs in Tabriz. For sampling of glove, sampling container and glassier bars were used. In beginning one designed form consist of age, sex, species, body weight, place and time of sampling and telephone number of dog's owners also for intimation from results of examination were collected, of course the last choice not exist for stray dogs, also in this form reason of examination and rule of this research in health of dogs and owners of them had recommend.

For keeping the samples of formalin 10% (threefold of samples bulk) were used and for laboratory survey this samples were transferred to parasitology laboratory of veterinary faculty of Islamic Azad University, Tabriz branch.

In examination of samples at first seeming disposition of this fecal samples were observed because in some time can with survey by non-armed eye some helminthic infection distinguished. In present survey fecal samples were examined using flotation technique in saturated sodium chloride solution and shitersolution and of sedimentation technique also were used [7,18,21].

Results:

In this survey 41% of dogs (stray and pet) infected to egg and larvae of various gastrointestinal helminths were observed, also Table1 shows the prevalence of helminths found in 100 stray and pet dogs from Tabriz area.

Conclusion

In this survey contamination rate to egg and larvae of gastrointestinal parasites in stray and pet dogs from Tabriz area, 41% were computed. Maximum infestation rate with Toxocara canis (12%) and minimum infestation rate with Angiostrongylus vasorum (1%) in this study were observed. Infestation rate with Ancylostoma caninum and Dipylidium caninum respectively 8% and 7% were observed, also infestation rate of Trichuris vulpis 6% were distinguished. In this survey conform to two study by hejazi and et al. (2003 (and with hoghooghi rad and et al [9,10]. The egg of Echinococcus granulosus only in fecal samples of stray dogs was isolated. Incidentally in present survey one type digestive Trematoda of stray dogs were isolated that with result of Fok and et. al in 2001 and El-shehabi and et al. in 1992 have not conformances [4,8]. In this study contamination rate toDipylidium caninum 12.24% were appointment that this case have conform with results of Martinez-Morano and et al. in 2007 on Spanish stray dogs which was 13.12%.Unlike results of Senlik and et al. in 2006 which 1.2% of samples of them was infected to egg of Uncinaria stephanocephala in samples of this survey egg of Uncinaria stephanocephala were not observed [11,17]. Incidentally unlike one study by Sowemimo and et al. in 2008 and Martinez in Spanish 2007, in this survey macracantorhincus hirodinasesus were not isolated [12,19]. In this survey 5.08%of stray dogs was infected to egg of Taenia hydatigena that this subject have difference with one study by Dalimi Asl and et al. in west of Iran(2006) with 53.01% infection rate which can say infestation rate of Taenia hydatigena in Tabriz is rare [1].

In this survey 11% of stray dogs fecal samples infected to Toxocara canis were observed that this result also is conform to one study by Equia-Aguilar and et al. in Mexico (2005) with infestation rate of this nematoda 13.3% had reported [3]. Also in this survey unlike results of one survey by Unlu and Eren in Turkish (2007) and one survey by Oliveriasequeira in Brazil in 2002 Spirocerca lupi and Toxascaris leonina were not isolated [13,20].

Of whole dogs in this study 4.2% of them had been infected to egg of Taenia hydatigena and Ancylostoma caninum and 14% of them had been infected to Toxocara canis which with results of one study by Shirzad gholami and et al. in sari region in 2006 with 56.7% infestation rate and in one other study by Motamedi and et al. in western part of Iran in 2005 with 53.1% infestation rate for Taenia hydatigena and 4.54% infestation rate for Ancylostoma caninum is unlike [1].

In present survey 8% of stray dogs fecal samples infected to Echinococcus granulosus were observed which have medical and veterinary importance [5] our finding showed that dogs(especially stray dogs) are under constant exposure to risk factors to many parasites. Therefore to control stray dogs' population, to avoid contamination of environment, water supplies and food with dog faces, to reinforce social behaviors, to take care of pets and avoid having them being contact with contaminated environments are essential to ensure human health and reduction economic losses caused by stray dogs parasitism.

According to results of this survey can say, use of raw food regime, non-execution of anti-parasitic therapy and non-execution of anti-parasitic spray in environment especially in case of stray dogs in comparison with gastrointestinal helminths.

By attention to not isolation the eggs of Trichuris vulpis and Dipylidium caninum and Echinococcus granulosus in pet dogs can such comprehension that anti parasitic therapy program, type and quality of nutrition, hygienic systems and act was with success in pet dogs.

Also in this survey egg of Uncinaria stephanocephala, macracantorhincus hirodinasesus, Spirocerca lupi, Toxascaris leonina were not isolated that can for dry weather, decrease in rate of rain in recent years, winter with cold weather and dry summer and oven nutrition of this animals from drug plants in pastures and farms. In this survey for pet dogs of breeds consist of Spitz, Terrier, Pekingese, German shepherd, Great Dane, Rottweiler and Chihuahua for fecal sampling were used, but between breed of dogs and infestation rate no implication relation were observed.

References

[1.] Dalimi, A., A. Sattari, G. Montamedi, 2006. study on intestinal helminthes of dogs, foxes and jackals in the western part of Iran. Vet. Parasitol, 142(1-2): 129-133.

[2.] Dalimi, A. and I. Mobedi, 1992. Helminth parasites of carnivores in northern Iran. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, 57: 395-397.

[3.] Eguia- Aguilar, P., A. Cruz-Reyes and J.J. Maritinez-Maya, 2005. Ecological analysis and description of the intestinal helminthes present in dogs in Mexico City. vet. parasitol., 127(2): 139-146.

[4.] EI-Shehabi, F.S., S.K. Abdel-hafez and S.A. Kamhawi, 1992. Prevalence of intestinal helminthes of dogs and foxes from Jordan. parasitol. res., 85(11): 928-934.

[5.] Eslami A. Veterinary Helminthology, 2008. Cestodes 4th ed. Tehran University Press. Tehran, 2: 172-177.

[6.] Eslami A. Veterinary Helminthology, 2008. Nematoda and Acaothocaphala 4th ed. Tehran University Press. Tehran, 3: 278-900.

[7.] Faust, E.C., J.W. Ingalls, J.K. See, 1946. The diagnosis of schistosomiasis japonica. II. Technics for the recovery of eggs. American Journal of Tropical Medicine, 26: 559-584.

[8.] Fok, E. and V. Szatmari, K. Busak and F. Rozgonyi, 2001. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in dogs in some urban and rural areas of Hungary. Vet. Q., 23(2): 96-98.

[9.] Hejazi, H., N. Pestechian, J. Abdi, 2003. Survey on cestodes of stray dogs in Esfahan, medical science magazine of Esfahan University, 33(1): 50.

[10.] Hoghooghi Rad, N., B. Mosallanegad, 1995. survey on intestinal cestodes of stray dogs in Ahvaz,[DVM Dissertation] collage of veterinary medicine, shahid chamran university, 284.

[11.] Martinez, C., E. Berriatua, M. Garijo, J. Martinez, F.D. Alonso and R.R. de Ybanez, 2007. Epidemiological study of non-systemic parasitism in dogs in southeast Mediterranean Spain assessed by carpological and post-mortem examination.Zoonoses public Health, 54(5): 195-203.

[12.] Martinez, F.J., S. Hernandez, E. Lopezcobos, C. Bacerra, I. Acosta and A. Moreno, 2007. Estimation of canine intestinal parasites in Cordoba (spain) and their risk to public health, Vet. Parasitol, 143(1): 7-13.

[13.] Oliveira-Sequeira, T.C., A.F. Amarante, T.B. Ferrari and L.C. Nunes, 2002. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in dogs from Sao Paulo state Brazil. Vet. Parasitol., 103(1-2): 19-27.

[14.] Orhun, R., E. Avaz, 2006. Prevalence of helminthes in dogs in the region of Van and their potential public health significance. Turkish Parazitol Derf., 30(2): 103.

[15.] Ranjbar-bahadori, S.H., S. Lotfollazadeh, G. Vaezi, A. Eslami, 2008. Epidemiological study of human cystic echinococcosis in Iran. Res J Parasitol., 3(4): 130-136.

[16.] Rhindali, L., A. Biggeri, S. Carbon, V. Musella, D. Catelon, V. Venziano, G. Cringoli. 2006. Canine fecal contamination and parasitic risk in the city of Naples (southern Italy). BMC Vet Res., 2: 29.

[17.] Senlik, B., V.Y. Cirak and A. Karabacak, 2006. Intestinal nematode infections in Turkish military dogs with special reference to Toxocara Canis. J. Helminthol., 80(3): 299-303.

[18.] Sheather, A.L., 1923. The detection of intestinal protozoa and mange parasites by a flotation technic. J. Comp. Ther., 36: 266-275.

[19.] Sowemimo, O.A. and S.O. Asaolu, 2008. Epidemiology of intestinal helminthes parasites of dogs Ibadan, Nigeria. J. Helminthol and 82(1): 89-93.

[20.] Unlu, H. and H. Eren, 2007. Gastrointestinal helminthes detected by fecal examination in stray dogs in the Aydin province. Turkey parazitol. Dreg, 31(1): 46-50.

[21.] Willis, H.H., 1921. A simple levitation method for the detection of hookworm ova. The Medical Journal of Australia, 29: 375-376.

(1) Garedaghi Y., (2) Safar Mashaei S.

(1) Assistant professor of pathobiology Department, faculty of veterinary medicine, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz branch, Tabriz, Iran.

(2) Fourth year student of DVM in the field of veterinary in Islamic Azad University, Tabriz branch, and member of Tabriz young Research club, Tabriz, Iran.

Garedaghi Y., Safar Mashaei S., Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Helminthic Infestation in Pet and Stray Dogs in Tabriz (East-azerbaijan Province), Iran.

Corresponding Author

Garedaghi Yagoob, Assistant professor of pathobiology Department, faculty of veterinary medicine, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz branch, Tabriz, Iran.

Tel: 00989143110499

Fax: 00984116373935

E-mail: Y_garedaghi@yahoo.com, Y_garedaghi@iaut.ac.ir
Table 1: Prevalence of GI helminths in 100 stray and pet dogs
from Tabriz, Iran.

parasites Number Actual % Commulative %

No parasites 59 59 59
Toxocara canis 12 12 71
Ancylostoma caninum 8 8 79
Dipylidium caninum 7 7 86
Trichuris vulpis 6 6 92
Taenia hydatigena 5 5 97
Alaria canis 2 2 99
Angiostrongylus vasorum 1 1 100
Total 100 100 --
COPYRIGHT 2011 American-Eurasian Network for Scientific Information
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2011 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Title Annotation:Original Article
Author:Y., Garedaghi; S., Safar Mashaei
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:7IRAN
Date:Mar 1, 2011
Words:1927
Previous Article:Survey of experimental contamination to ichthyophthirius multifiliis in cultural rainbow trout consequently vaccination with aquavac garvetil.
Next Article:An Evaluation of pesticide stress induced proteins in three Cyanobacterial species-Anabaena fertilissima, Aulosira fertilissima and Westiellopsis...
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2021 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters