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Prevalence of Anemia in Pediatric IBD Patients and Impact on Disease Severity: Results of the Pediatric IBD-Registry CEDATA-GPGE[R].

1. Introduction

Pediatric onset inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of chronic, relapsing disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, which affect an increasing number of children and adolescents. While incidence in adult populations seems to stabilize, pediatric onset is increasing. In recent decades, there has been a general increase in the incidence and prevalence of IBD in both industrialized and emerging countries [1]. A shift towards earlier onset of IBD has been observed within pediatrics [2]. Recent studies indicate incidence rates of 5 to 11 per 100,000 children under the age of 18 years [3]. About 20% of all IBD patients are diagnosed before the age of 18 years, and early onset disease is associated with a high degree of patient morbidity, missed work or school, decreased quality of life, and psychosocial issues [4-7]. Anemia is a common problem in IBD patients. In pediatric IBD, anemia is reported in up to 75% of patients [8, 9]. The description of various phenotypic presentations in pediatric IBD and a higher rate of anemic patients has also led to the notion of anemia being an important extraintestinal manifestation of IBD [7, 10].

Anemia can occur in pediatric IBD patients for different reasons: gastrointestinal blood loss, insufficient dietary intake of iron, decreased absorption of dietary iron, and decreased activity of bone marrow because of chronic inflammation [11]. Anemia potentially leads to significant reduction in health-related quality of life, impairs physiological development, growth, and psychosocial processes [12], and poses a significant economic burden on health systems [13].

This interferes with the aims of therapy in pediatric IBD: relief of symptoms, normal growth and pubertal development, improved quality of life, but minimization of drug toxicity [14]. Diagnosis and adequate treatment of iron deficiency anemia is important, especially since previous studies have shown that duration of anemia can be reduced by iron supplementation [15].

Previous studies on anemia in pediatric IBD included relatively small patient numbers [16]. The aim of this study is to provide prevalence data of anemia and iron treatment in the, to date, largest cohort of pediatric IBD patients at time of diagnosis and after one to five years of their disease. We also explored the impact of anemia on subjective and objective measurements of disease activity and subjective general well-being.

2. Methods

CEDATA-GPGE is a registry, currently based at the University Children's Hospital Giessen for pediatric IBD patients (0-18 years of age) in German-speaking countries from over 90 pediatric gastroenterology centers in Germany and Austria [7]. The database included all patient data sets with diagnosis from 2004 until July 2010. Inclusion criteria comprised of at least one follow-up within 3 months of the first report to the registry. This period of time (time of diagnosis until the first follow-up) will subsequently be referred to as "at diagnosis." To further improve data quality, only patients with at least two follow-up visits within one year following diagnosis were included. Data were analyzed retrospectively for the time of diagnosis and during follow-up (mean 103 days, range 1-1645 days).

Anemia was defined as hemoglobin below the 3rd percentile for age and gender in recent population-based pediatric Hb reference values in Germany as published by the KiGGS Study (Table 1). To evaluate the clinical significance of anemia, severe anemia was defined as a concentration of hemoglobin more than 2 g/dl below the 3rd percentile for age and gender [17].

Patient self-assessment was quantified on a Likert scale from 1 to 5 (1 = very good and 5 = very bad). Disease activity was measured by physicians' general assessment on a 4 point scale (1=no activity/remission and 4 = severe activity) and by calculation of the Pediatric Crohn's Disease Activity Index (PCDAI) for patients with CD and the Pediatric Ulcerative Colitis Activity Index (PUCAI) [18, 19]. The hematocrit in PCDAI and rectal bleeding in PUCAI were excluded, since they are directly related to bleeding and anemia to calculate a modified PCDAI or PUCAI, respectively, at time of diagnosis.

Prevalence of anemia were calculated once at the time of diagnosis and subsequently in a cross section fashion in all patients after one to five years follow-up of their disease course. The registry does not hold data on ferritin or transferrin. A decrease in mean corpuscular volume (MCV) was considered as suggestive for iron deficiency anemia. Since azathioprine can increase MCV, azathioprine therapy was compared in patients with anemia and without anemia to correct for potential bias.

2.1. Statistical Methods. Analysis was performed in SAS (Cary, NC, USA) and R (The R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vers 3.0.2). Some of the graphics and tables were redrawn in Microsoft Excel. Distribution was assessed for normality, and t-test was performed when comparing continuous or pseudonormal data; otherwise, Mann-Whitney U Test was performed where appropriate. Statistical significance was assumed when p < 0.05. The database and reporting procedure were examined and approved by the relevant ethics committees and data protection employees of the three institutions that maintained the registry during the time period covered by the research (the Institute for Medical Informatics and Biometry (IMB) of Technische Universitat Dresden; the Institute of Epidemiology at the Helmholtz Zentrum, LMU Munich; and the Department of General Pediatrics and Neonatology, JLU Giessen). The Austrian hospitals that participated also obtained local ethics approval.

3. Results

3554 patients were initially included in the study, with a total of 25,765 patient contact documentations. 109 patients were excluded because of incomplete initial data, 51 for missing date of primary diagnosis, 22 for implausible data or typing errors, and 616 patients for missing the second follow-up. 2756 patients (1753 CD, 882 UC, and 121 IBD-U (IBD unclassified)) were available for analysis.

Of 2756 children and adolescents with IBD, 1743 (63.2%) suffered from anemia at any time during the disease course--referred to standard values for hemoglobin from the KiGGS study (Table 1). Anemia was slightly more frequent in CD (65.2%) than in UC (60.2%, p = 0.013) and in IBD-U (61.8%, p = 0.049).

Anemic CD patients assessed their own well-being significantly worse than CD patients without anemia (3.0 [+ or -] 0.9 versus 2.5 [+ or -] 0.9, mean [+ or -] standard deviation, p < 0.0001). Similar significant differences were found in anemic versus nonanemic UC patients (2.9 [+ or -] 0.9 versus 2.3 [+ or -] 0.9, mean [+ or -] standard deviation (SD), p < 0.0001) and in anemic versus nonanemic IBD-U (median 3.0, interquartile range (IQR) versus median 2.0, IQR; p < 0.001 Mann-Whitney U test) (Figure 1).

The physicians' general assessment was significantly worse in anemic than in nonanemic patients in CD (2.7 [+ or -] 0.8 versus 2.1 [+ or -] 0.9, p <0.0001), UC (2.6 [+ or -] 0.9 versus 2.0 [+ or -] 0.8, p <0.0001), and IBD-U (median 2.5 versus 2.0, IQR 1; p = 0.0003 MWU). In all three disease groups, anemic patients had higher disease activity with a median between low and medium activity (Figure 2).

Anemic CD patients showed a significantly higher PCDAI (27.1 [+ or -] 14.1 versus 18.7 [+ or -] 12.0, mean [+ or -] SD, p <0.0001) than nonanemic, PUCAI was significantly higher in anemic versus nonanemic UC patients (36.1 [+ or -] 24.7 versus 19.1 [+ or -] 20.4, p <0.0001).

The Pearson correlation coefficient for disease activity indices (PCDAI or PUCAI, resp.) and hemoglobin concentration in CD patients and UC patients was moderately negative with -0.66 and -0.45 (p = 0.0057; p = 0.0173).

The prevalence of anemia during follow-up in the three IBD groups for the first 5 years is displayed in Figure 3. Noticeable is the decrease in prevalence of anemia in UC during the first five years of disease in comparison to a relatively unchanged high prevalence in CD.

Average MCV was significantly below normal in all patient groups (see Tables 2 and 3 reference values from KiGGS study). MCV was significantly lower in patients without azathioprine than in patients with azathioprine (regardless of anemia): CD (n = 956 with azathioprine versus 798 without azathioprine), 77.29 [+ or -] 7.54 versus 81.67+ -7.76; UC (n = 550 versus 331), 80.06 [+ or -] 7.53 versus 84.24 [+ or -] 7.76; and IBD-U (n = 90 versus 31), 77.27 fl [+ or -] 7.51 versus 84.27 fl [+ or -] 6.28, p < 0.0001 for all). 60.1% of patients on azathioprine and 65.3% without azathioprine presented with anemia (p = 0.003, OR 0.79 (0.67-0.92 95% CI)). While 38% of anemic patients on azathioprine had low MCV, the share in patients without azathioprine was 56% (p < 0.001, OR 0.48 (0.39-0.59)). When correcting for an estimated +4 fl effect of azathioprine on MCV, this difference was not significant (57% versus 56%), so the residual share of microcytic anemia, a correlate of iron deficiency anemia, can be estimated at about 50%. The correlation between MCV and azathioprine dosage was weak to moderate depending on group selection (r = 0.14-0.30).

A subgroup analysis was performed for potential correlation of anemia with severity of disease and age group. In the youngest age group (patients < 6 years of age), 46% of CD, 53% of UC, and 38% of IBD-U patients were anemic.

In the group 6 to <10 years, 60% of CD patients, 61% UC patients, and 42% of IBD-U patients showed anemia. In the oldest age group > 10 years, CD patients were anemic in 67% of the cases, UC in 61%, and IBD-U in 58%. Anemia prevalence was significantly higher in adolescents with CD in comparison to CD patients < 6 years (p = 0.0005, OR 2.34 (95% CI 1.45-3.79)), and all other differences were not significant.

Of all anemic pediatric IBD patients, 94% had mild and 6% severe anemia. In all age groups, mild anemia was noted in 63.5% of CD patients, 54.6% of UC patients, and 46.6% of IBD-U patients and severe anemia in 2.1%, 5.8%, and 5.3%, respectively. In the patients < 6 years of age, 42.3% of CD patients suffered from mild and 4.2% from severe anemia, while 41.4% of UC patients had mild and 12.1% severe anemia (IBD-U 33.3% and 4.7%).

56.9% of CD patients from the middle age group (6 to <10 years) suffered from mild anemia, 3.6% from severe, and in UC, the percentage was 54.4% and 6.4% (IBD-U 38.4% and 3.8%). The adolescents > 10 years of age had a mild anemia in 65.3% and severe in 1.8% when CD was the diagnosis, 55.7% and 5.1% when UC was the diagnosis, and 52.4% and 5.9% when IBD-U was the diagnosis, respectively.

Only 740 (42.5%) of 1743 anemic patients received iron therapy at the time anemia was present and documented. While in UC, a larger population of female anemic patients received iron supplementation compared to their male counterparts (52.2% (145) versus 43.1% (109), p = 0.0365), and this trend did not reach statistical significance in CD or IBD-U (43% (196) versus 38.1% (262); 46.2% (12) versus 38.1% (16)). Data on route of iron supplementation (oral or parenteral) or dosing regiments were not recorded in the registry. CD and UC patients with severe anemia received iron supplementation more often than patients with mild anemia: 41% versus 18.9% of UC patients, 22.2% versus 14.4% of CD patients and 20.4% versus 20% of IBD-U patients.

4. Discussion

We found in our study that almost two-thirds of pediatric IBD patients were anemic at the time of diagnosis. So far, there are very few studies that aim at anemia and iron deficiency in pediatric IBD, most of them in rather small cohorts and with short follow-up [8, 9, 15, 16].

Previously reported data from smaller studies have shown similar prevalence of anemia with 70% in children and 42% in adolescents compared to 40% in adults [9, 16].

At presentation, we found a relatively high percentage of anemic patients (all IBD 63.2%, CD 65.5%, UC 60.4%, and IBD-U 51.9%), but less than in other studies reported like the 75% observed by Wiskin et al. [8].

When comparing age groups 0 to <6 years, 6 to <10 years, and [greater than or equal to]10 years, we found an increase in anemia rate at presentation with age (CD 46.5% versus 60.5% versus 67.1%; UC 53.4% versus 60.8% versus 61.0%; IBD-U 38.1% versus 42.3% versus 58.3%). However, the proportion of severe anemic patients decreases (CD 4.2% versus 3.6% versus 1.8%; UC 12.1% versus 6.4% versus 5.2%; IBD-U 4.8% versus 3.8% versus 5.9%). A potential explanation could be the prolonged diagnostic latency in early and very early onset IBD that has been described previously for the German population [20].

Wiskin et al. also reported that 30% of patients with pediatric IBD are anemic two years after their initial diagnosis [8]. In our population, prevalence of anemia two years after the initial diagnosis was higher for CD with 44.8%, but comparable for UC (36.31%) and IBD-U (33.3%). This confirms the relatively high rates found by Gerasimidis et al. with 65% after one year [16].

Looking at the long-term data, in CD patients the anemia rate remains surprisingly stable at about 50%, while prevalence decreases for UC (from 53.4% at diagnosis to 37.9% after 5 years) and IBD-U (from 50% at diagnosis to 35.4% after 5 years).

The impact of anemia on adult patients' quality of life has previously been described. Typical symptoms include not only headache, fatigue, and dizziness but also impairment of cognitive function, stomatitis, and esophageal webs [21]. Our data support the suggested association of anemia with low self-assessed well-being, high disease activity as evaluated by the physician, and higher activity indices, despite correction for obviously anemia-related items, namely, hematocrit in PCDAI and bloody stools and hemoglobin in PUCAI. These items were eliminated in the calculation to avoid a bias towards anemic patients having more inflammatory activity.

4.1. Iron Deficiency Anemia. Besides the multifactorial etiology of anemia in IBD, the vast majority of anemic IBD patients suffer from iron deficiency anemia [11, 21].

Wiskin et al. reported prevalences of iron deficiency in 90%, respectively, 95% and 70% in CD and UC patients, respectively, 65% at follow-up after two years [8].

Our data can only provide indirect information on the etiology ofanemia from hemoglobin and MCV, since no parameters of iron metabolism like ferritin, transferrin saturation, or soluble transferrin receptor were obtained by the registry.

Decreased MCV as a surrogate marker for iron deficiency anemia has to be interpreted with caution since medication used in pediatric IBD can significantly change MCV. Several studies have suggested a correlation with 6-thioguaninnucleotide (6-TGN) levels, and some even suggested MCV as a surrogate marker instead of measuring metabolites for therapeutic drug monitoring [22].

From our data, correction for azathioprine exposure was difficult to estimate, since metabolism differs significantly between individuals even receiving the same dose of azathioprine or 6-MP [23] and metabolite concentrations were not collected in the registry.

In our patient cohort, we confirmed a significantly higher MCV in the patient groups with azathioprine compared to patients without, but the difference was less pronounced (+4 fl; data not shown). When corrected for this difference, the residual share of microcytic anemia, therefore estimated share of iron deficiency anemia was around 50%.

4.2. Iron Therapy. Only about 1/3 to half of anemic patients received iron supplementation (Table 4). This is astonishing since data in adult anemic IBD patients show that treatment is safe and well tolerated in most IBD patients either orally or intravenously and is associated with rapid improvement in clinical, hematological, and quality of life evaluations [24, 25]. Such data does not exist for pediatric patients, but Goodhand et al. also reported that less children (13%) and adolescents (30%) with anemia and IBD received oral iron compared to adults (48%) [9].

Pels et al. showed that expectant management of anemia in pediatric IBD patient leads to a slower hematologic recovery [15]. Persistent anemia in IBD patients is associated with fatigue and other impairments of health-related quality of life [26]. In this study, for the first time shown in a large cohort of pediatric IBD patients, general well-being, as measured by self-assessment, is significantly lower in anemic patients.

Treatment with iron supplementation seems mandatory for patients with proven iron deficiency anemia. For physicians from our registry considering all limitations, an under-treatment of highly prevalent microcytic anemia, potential iron deficient anemia has to be suspected. Possible causes are suspected side effects of iron supplementation orally or parenterally or a suspected cause for anemia in chronic inflammation. A possible explanation could be seen in the high number of patients with relatively mild anemia (less than 2g/dl Hb below 3rd percentile), but even when looking at severe anemic patients alone, the proportion of patients that receive iron supplementation only increases slightly to 41% in UC, 22.2% in CD, and 20.4% in IBD-U.

The strength of this study is the large number of children and adolescents and the number of follow-up data from our pediatric IBD registry since well-powered studies and registry analysis are scarce in pediatric patients. Limitations are the collection method and study design, which is not tailored to reflect individual courses of disease but rather group characteristics with a cross-sectional instead of longitudinal approach, corresponding to the initial question. To answer questions about treatment and individual patients' benefit, a longitudinal approach has to be taken and is on the way in a future analysis.

5. Conclusion

There is a high prevalence of anemia in pediatric patients with IBD. Even more patients with CD are anemic than patients with UC. The rate is highest in adolescents at the onset of disease, and in young children, the rate of patients with severe anemia is higher. Anemia is associated with impairment in patient self-assessment of general well-being, physician assessment of disease activity, and higher disease activity as determined by activity indices. During the disease course, the prevalence of anemia remains high. In contrast, only one-third of patients are treated by iron supplementation. This undertreatment should be addressed by pediatric gastroenterologists.

Additional Points

Core Tip. About 2/3 of pediatric IBD patients are anemic at the time of diagnosis and during follow-up. Anemia correlates to disease severity and patients' self-assessment. In contrast, only about half of the patients receive iron therapy.

Ethical Approval

The database and reporting procedure were examined and approved by the relevant ethics committees and data protection employees of the three institutions that maintained the registry during the time period covered by the research (Institute for Medical Informatics and Biometry (IMB) of Technische Universitat Dresden; Institute of Epidemiology at the Helmholtz Zentrum, LMU Munich; Department of General Pediatrics and Neonatology, JLU Giessen). The Austrian hospitals that participated also obtained local ethics approval.

Consent

Inclusion in the registry CEDATA-GPGE was only done after detailed information of the parents and depending on the age of the children and adolescents, too. All study participants, or their legal guardian, provided informed written consent prior to study enrollment.

https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/8424628

Conflicts of Interest

Martin W. Laass received speakers' fees from Vifor Pharma and Dr. Falk Pharma GmbH. Martin W. Laass took part in retrospective study on use of intravenous iron financed by Vifor Pharma. Stephan Buderus received speakers' fees from Dr. Falk Pharma GmbH, Abbvie, and Nestle Nutrition Institute (NNI). The other authors have no conflicts of interest relevant to this article to disclose.

Authors' Contributions

Jan de Laffolie, Martin W. Laass, Dietmar Scholz, Klaus-Peter Zimmer, and Stephan Buderus were involved in the design of the registry and the current study. All authors including in the members of the study group participated in the data collection and their critical review and analysis. Jan de Laffolie and Dietmar Scholz performed the data extraction and statistical analysis; Jan de Laffolie, Martin W. Laass, Dietmar Scholz, Klaus-Peter Zimmer1, and Stephan Buderus4 analyzed the data and results with respect to the current study objective; Jan de Laffolie wrote the draft of the paper, and Martin W. Laass and Stephan Buderus critically revised the manuscript for important intellectual content. Stephan Buderus and Jan de Laffolie finalized the manuscript.

Acknowledgments

The authors thank all members of the CEDATA-GPGE study group and the Saxonian Pediatric IBD registry for participating in the recruitment and our patients and their families. The authors greatly acknowledge the ongoing dedication and contribution for the technical assistance of the registry by C. Wendt and T. Weidenhausen. The current member list of the core CEDATA-GPGE study group are as follows: Antje Ballauff (Krefeld, Germany), antje.ballauff@helioskliniken.de; Thomas Berger (Datteln, Germany), t.berger@kinderklinik-datteln.de; Stephan Buderus (Bonn, Germany), stephan.buderus@marien-hospital-bonn.de; Martin Clafien (Bremen, Germany), martin.classen@klinikum-bremen-ldw.de; Sohnke Dammann (Stuttgart, Germany), s.dammann@klinikum-stuttgart.de; Jan de Laffolie (Giefien, Germany), Jan.DeLaffolie@paediat.med.uni-giessen.de; Almuthe Hauer (Graz, Austria), almuthe.hauer@medunigraz.at; Klaus-Michael Keller (Wiesbaden, Germany), klaus-michael.keller@helioskliniken.de; Sibylle Koletzko (Munchen, Germany), sibylle. koletzko@med.uni-muenchen.de; Andreas Krahl (Dortmund, Germany), andreas.krahl@kinderkliniken.de; Martin Laafi (Dresden, Germany), martin.laass@uniklinikum-dresden.de; Thomas Lang (Regensburg, Germany), thomas.lang@barmherzige-regensburg.de; Carsten Posovszky (Ulm, Germany), Carsten.Posovszky@uniklinik-ulm.de; Burkhard Rodeck (Osnabruck, Germany), b.rodeck@ckos.de; Stefan Trenkel (Potsdam, Germany), strenkel@klinikumevb.de; and KlausPeter Zimmer (Giefien, Germany), Klaus-Peter.Zimmer@paediat.med.uni-giessen.de. Vifor Pharma partially sponsored the study without influencing the design, data collection, and analysis or any part of the manuscript. The registry CEDATA-GPGE has received financial support from the Falk-Foundation and the foundation "Ein Herz fur Kinder" and the German Crohn's and Colitis Association "DCCV."

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Jan de Laffolie, (1) Martin W. Laass, (2) Dietmar Scholz, (3) Klaus-Peter Zimmer, (1) Stephan Buderus, (4) and CEDATA-GPGE Study Group (5)

(1) General Pediatrics & Neonatology, Justus-Liebig-University, Giessen, Germany

(2) Department of Pediatrics, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universitat Dresden, Dresden, Germany

(3) Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany

(4) Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, GFO Kliniken Bonn, St. Marien-Hospital, Bonn, Germany

(5) Gesellschaft fur padiatrische Gastroenterologie und Ernahrung, Chausseestr 128-129, Berlin, Germany

Correspondence should be addressed to Jan de Laffolie; jan.delaffolie@paediat.med.uni-giessen.de

Received 10 May 2017; Accepted 8 June 2017; Published 5 December 2017

Academic Editor: Amosy M'Koma

Caption: FIGURE 1: Self-assessment of general well-being of pediatric IBD patients comparing anemic (white) and nonanemic (filled bars) patients (mean [+ or -] SD where parametric, median interquartile range (IQR) where nonparametric) (n = CD 1144/609; UC 531/351; CI 68/53).

Caption: FIGURE 2: Physicians' general assessment of disease activity in anemic (white) versus nonanemic (filled bars) patients sorted by diagnosis (n = CD 1144/609; UC 531/351; CI 68/53).

Caption: FIGURE 3: Prevalence of anemia in the first five years of disease by disease and gender (n at time points are: 0 = 654; 1 = 1664, 2 = 1559; 3= 1293; 4=1022; 5 = 1114).
TABLE 1: Hemoglobin concentration reference values (in g/dl) from
the German KiGGS study.

Age           P3     P5    P10    P25      P50      P75    P90
(yrs.)                                   (median)

Boys
(n = 7205)

1,5          10,1   10,3   10,6   11,1     11,6     12,1   12,6
2            10,3   10,5   10,7   11,2     11,7     12,2   12,7
2,5          10,4   10,6   10,9   11,4     11,9     12,4   12,8
3            10,5   10,7   11,0   11,5     12,0     12,5   12,9
3,5          10,6   10,8   11,1   11,6     12,1     12,6   13,0
4            10,8   10,9   11,2   11,7     12,2     12,7   13,1
4,5          10,8   11,0   11,3   11,8     12,3     12,8   13,2
5            10,9   11,1   11,4   11,8     12,3     12,8   13,3
5,5          11,0   11,2   11,5   11,9     12,4     12,9   13,3
6            11,1   11,3   11,5   12,0     12,5     13,0   13,4
6,5          11,1   11,3   11,6   12,0     12,5     13,0   13,5
7            11,2   11,4   11,6   12,1     12,6     13,1   13,5
7,5          11,2   11,4   11,7   12,1     12,6     13,1   13,6
8            11,3   11,5   11,7   12,2     12,7     13,2   13,6
8,5          11,3   11,5   11,8   12,2     12,7     13,2   13,7
9            11,4   11,6   11,8   12,3     12,8     13,3   13,7
9,5          11,4   11,6   11,9   12,3     12,8     13,3   13,8
10           11,5   11,7   11,9   12,4     12,9     13,4   13,8
10,5         11,5   11,7   12,0   12,4     13,0     13,5   13,9
11           11,6   11,8   12,0   12,5     13,0     13,5   14,0
11,5         11,6   11,8   12,1   12,6     13,1     13,6   14,1
12           11,7   11,9   12,2   12,7     13,2     13,7   14,2
12,5         11,8   12,0   12,3   12,7     13,3     13,8   14,3
13           11,9   12,1   12,4   12,9     13,4     14,0   14,5
13,5         12,0   12,2   12,5   13,0     13,6     14,2   14,7
14           12,1   12,3   12,7   13,2     13,8     14,4   15,0
14,5         12,3   12,5   12,8   13,4     14,0     14,6   15,2
15           12,5   12,7   13,0   13,6     14,2     14,9   15,5
15,5         12,7   12,9   13,3   13,8     14,5     15,1   15,7
16           12,9   13,1   13,5   14,0     14,7     15,3   15,9
16,5         13,1   13,3   13,6   14,2     14,9     15,5   16,1
17           13,2   13,5   13,8   14,4     15,0     15,7   16,3
17,5         13,4   13,6   13,9   14,5     15,2     15,9   16,5

Girls
(n = 6870)

1,5          10,3   10,5   10,8   11,3     11,9     12,4   12,8
2            10,4   10,6   10,9   11,4     11,9     12,4   12,9
2,5          10,5   10,7   11,0   11,5     12,0     12,5   12,9
3            10,6   10,8   11,1   11,5     12,1     12,5   13,0
3,5          10,7   10,8   11,1   11,6     12,1     12,6   13,0
4            10,7   10,9   11,2   11,7     12,2     12,7   13,1
4,5          10,8   11,0   11,3   11,8     12,3     12,7   13,2
5            10,9   11,1   11,4   11,8     12,3     12,8   13,2
5,5          11,0   11,2   11,4   11,9     12,4     12,9   13,3
6            11,0   11,2   11,5   12,0     12,4     12,9   13,3
6,5          11,1   11,3   11,6   12,0     12,5     13,0   13,4
7            11,2   11,4   11,6   12,1     12,6     13,0   13,4

Age           P3     P5    P10    P25      P50      P75    P90
(yrs.)                                   (median)

7,5          11,2   11,4   11,7   12,1     12,6     13,1   13,5
8            11,3   11,5   11,7   12,2     12,7     13,1   13,5
8,5          11,4   11,5   11,8   12,2     12,7     13,2   13,6
9            11,4   11,6   11,9   12,3     12,8     13,2   13,6
9,5          11,5   11,6   11,9   12,3     12,8     13,3   13,7
10           11,5   11,7   11,9   12,4     12,9     13,4   13,8
10,5         11,5   11,7   12,0   12,4     12,9     13,4   13,8
11           11,6   11,8   12,0   12,5     13,0     13,5   13,9
11,5         11,6   11,8   12,1   12,5     13,0     13,5   14,0
12           11,6   11,8   12,1   12,6     13,1     13,6   14,0
12,5         11,6   11,8   12,1   12,6     13,1     13,6   14,1
13           11,6   11,8   12,1   12,6     13,1     13,6   14,1
13,5         11,6   11,8   12,1   12,6     13,1     13,7   14,1
14           11,6   11,8   12,1   12,6     13,2     13,7   14,2
14,5         11,6   11,8   12,1   12,6     13,2     13,7   14,2
15           11,5   11,7   12,1   12,6     13,2     13,7   14,2
15,5         11,5   11,7   12,0   12,6     13,2     13,7   14,2
16           11,5   11,7   12,0   12,6     13,2     13,7   14,3
16,5         11,4   11,6   12,0   12,6     13,2     13,8   14,3
17           11,4   11,6   12,0   12,5     13,2     13,8   14,3
17,5         1,3    11,6   11,9   12,5     13,1     13,8   14,3

Age          P95    P97
(yrs.)

Boys
(n = 7205)

1,5          12,8   13,0
2            13,0   13,1
2,5          13,1   13,2
3            13,2   13,4
3,5          13,3   13,5
4            13,4   13,5
4,5          13,5   13,6
5            13,5   13,7
5,5          13,6   13,8
6            13,7   13,8
6,5          13,7   13,9
7            13,8   13,9
7,5          13,8   14,0
8            13,9   14,0
8,5          13,9   14,1
9            14,0   14,2
9,5          14,0   14,2
10           14,1   14,3
10,5         14,2   14,4
11           14,3   14,4
11,5         14,4   14,5
12           14,5   14,7
12,5         14,6   14,8
13           14,8   15,0
13,5         15,0   15,3
14           15,3   15,5
14,5         15,6   15,8
15           15,8   16,0
15,5         16,1   16,3
16           16,3   16,5
16,5         16,5   16,8
17           16,7   17,0
17,5         16,9   17,2

Girls
(n = 6870)

1,5          13,1   13,2
2            13,1   13,3
2,5          13,2   13,3
3            13,2   13,4
3,5          13,3   13,4
4            13,3   13,5
4,5          13,4   13,6
5            13,5   13,6
5,5          13,5   13,7
6            13,6   13,7
6,5          13,6   13,8
7            13,7   13,8

Age          P95    P97
(yrs.)

7,5          13,7   13,9
8            13,8   13,9
8,5          13,8   14,0
9            13,9   14,0
9,5          14,0   14,1
10           14,0   14,2
10,5         14,1   14,2
11           14,1   14,3
11,5         14,2   14,4
12           14,3   14,4
12,5         14,3   14,5
13           14,4   14,5
13,5         14,4   14,6
14           14,4   14,6
14,5         14,5   14,7
15           14,5   14,7
15,5         14,5   14,7
16           14,6   14,8
16,5         14,6   14,8
17           14,6   14,8
17,5         14,6   14,9

TABLE 2: Hematological results of Crohn's disease patients with
anemia (mean [+ or -] SD). Hb: hemoglobin concentration; MCV: mean
corpuscular volume; Hct: hematocrit; m: male; f: female.

Time point
(years after                      Hb (g/dl)            MCV(fl)
diagnosis)

0/at           m (n = 122)    10.9 [+ or -] 1.3   72.9 [+ or -] 6.0
diagnosis      f (n = 91)     10.0 [+ or -] 1.2   73.0 [+ or -] 7.4

1              m (n = 337)    11.8 [+ or -] 1.5   78.7 [+ or -] 7.7
               f (n = 227)    11.2 [+ or -] 1.5   78.6 [+ or -] 7.8

2              m (n = 273)    11.7 [+ or -] 1.5   79.1 [+ or -] 8.0
               f (n =177)     11.0 [+ or -] 1.5   80.2 [+ or -] 8.3

3              m (n = 211)    11.8 [+ or -] 1.2   79.7 [+ or -] 8.0
               f (n = 143)    10.8 [+ or -] 1.4   80.0 [+ or -] 8.0

4              m (n = 167)    12.0 [+ or -] 1.5   79.6 [+ or -] 8.8
               f (n = 99)     11.0 [+ or -] 1.1   78.9 [+ or -] 8.3

5              m (n = 203)    12.5 [+ or -] 1.8   81.3 [+ or -] 7.8
               f (n =137)     11.3 [+ or -] 1.4   81.0 [+ or -] 9.3

Time point
(years after                       Hct (%)
diagnosis)

0/at           m (n = 122)    34.7 [+ or -] 4.7
diagnosis      f (n = 91)     32.4 [+ or -] 3.5

1              m (n = 337)    36.1 [+ or -] 5.3
               f (n = 227)    34.4 [+ or -] 3.8

2              m (n = 273)    35.2 [+ or -] 2.9
               f (n =177)     34.5 [+ or -] 5.4

3              m (n = 211)    36.0 [+ or -] 4.1
               f (n = 143)    34.1 [+ or -] 3.2

4              m (n = 167)    36.4 [+ or -] 4.1
               f (n = 99)     34.3 [+ or -] 4.2

5              m (n = 203)    38.0 [+ or -] 5.2
               f (n =137)     33.2 [+ or -] 2.1

TABLE 3: Hematological results of ulcerative colitis patients with
anemia (mean [+ or -] SD). Hb: hemoglobin concentration; MCV: mean
corpuscular volume; Hct: hematocrit; m: male; f: female.

Time
(years after                     HB (g/dl)           MCV (fl)
diagnosis)

0              m (n = 51)    10.1 [+ or -] 1.5   75.5 [+ or -] 7.7
               f (n = 45)     9.7 [+ or -] 1.5   77.8 [+ or -] 6.5

1              m (n = 129)   11.9 [+ or -] 1.7   80.5 [+ or -] 7.1
               f (n =136)    10.9 [+ or -] 1.7   80.5 [+ or -] 7.7

2              m (n = 87)    10.9 [+ or -] 1.4   79.2 [+ or -] 8.9
               F (n = 92)    10.3 [+ or -] 1.2   80.2 [+ or -] 9.0

3              m (n = 74)    11.6 [+ or -] 1.7   80.0 [+ or -] 7.0
               f (n = 84)    10.3 [+ or -] 1.3   81.5 [+ or -] 8.5

4              m (n = 58)    11.6 [+ or -] 1.5   81.2 [+ or -] 7.9
               f (n = 56)    11.2 [+ or -] 1.3   80.6 [+ or -] 7.1

5              m (n = 66)    12.0 [+ or -] 2.0    82.6[+ or -]8.5
               f (n = 74)    11.4 [+ or -] 1.5   82.8 [+ or -] 7.9

Time
(years after                      Hct (%)
diagnosis)

0              m (n = 51)    30.9 [+ or -] 5.8
               F (n = 45)    31.8 [+ or -] 6.4

1              m (n = 129)   36.2 [+ or -] 4.4
               f (n =136)    34.2 [+ or -] 6.0

2              m (n = 87)    34.0 [+ or -] 7.2
               F (n = 92)    32.4 [+ or -] 7.2

3              m (n = 74)    35.6 [+ or -] 4.0
               f (n = 84)    32.3 [+ or -] 3.5

4              m (n = 58)    36.1 [+ or -] 3.9
               f (n = 56)    32.8 [+ or -] 7.2

5              m (n = 66)    38.2 [+ or -] 4.1
               f (n = 74)    35.1 [+ or -] 3.2

TABLE 4: Treatment of anemic patients with iron supplementation.

Iron             Crohn's disease          Ulcerative colitis
treatment
               Male         Female         Male         Female

Yes         262 (38.1%)   196 (43.0%)   109 (43.1%)   145 (52.2%)
No          426 (61.9%)   260 (57.0%)   144 (56.9%)   133 (47.8%)

Iron                IBD-U
treatment
               Male        Female

Yes         16 (38.1%)   12 (46.2%)
No          26 (61.9%)   14 (53.8%)
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Title Annotation:Research Article; irritable bowel disease
Author:de Laffolie, Jan; Laass, Martin W.; Scholz, Dietmar; Zimmer, Klaus-Peter; Buderus, Stephan
Publication:Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:4EUGE
Date:Jan 1, 2017
Words:6884
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