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Prepartum body condition score affects milk yield, lipid metabolism, and oxidation status of Holstein cows.

INTRODUCTION

In the transition period, dairy cows experience oxidative stress and are susceptible to metabolic disorders and immunologic challenges [1,2]. At the time of early lactation, cows go through a period of negative energy balance (NEB) which may lead to oxidative stress and health problems in these animals [3]. Early lactation NEB not only decreases milk yield but also increased concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) [4,5]. NEFA in the blood is mobilized from adipose tissue while BHBA is an intermediate metabolite of fatty acid oxidation [6]. NEFA and BHBA are considered to be biomarkers of NEB, and oxidative stress during the transition period [7,8]. The body condition score (BCS) is an assessment of body fat and reflects the NEB of Holstein dairy cows [9,10]. It was reported that the BCS of cows were associated with differences in milk production and composition, reproduction, and health [7,11]. Cows with higher BCS at calving had higher concentrations of NEFA [12,13] and BHBA [13] in early lactation compared these with lower BCS. Cows with higher BCS are more sensitive to oxidative stress [14,15]. Oxidative stress is mainly derived from an imbalance between reactive oxygen metabolites and antioxidants and the concentration of some oxidative status indices such as malondialdehyde (MDA) was higher in cows with higher BCS before calving [15].

But the change of BCS during the transition period and their effects on the health and subsequent performance of dairy cows was few systematically studied. Therefore, the relations between the BCS and milk production, lipid metabolism, oxidative status of dairy cows were investigated in the present study. Consequently, this study may be used as reference for the dairy farms to improve the animals' health status and performance by adjusting prepartum BCS.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Animals and experimental design

The trial was carried out at a commercial dairy farm with about 5,000 lactating cows in Dongying City, Shandong Province, P.R. China. The average milk yield per lactation of the cows was more than 40 kg (305 day). The BCS (5-point scale) was individually recorded 21 days before calving, on the calving day and 21 days after calving [9]. Multiparous Holstein cows (second or third lactation) were selected according to their BCS at 21 days before calving and divided into 4 groups (28 animals per group): medium BCS (3.0 to 3.25, MBCS), high BCS (3.5 to 3.75, HBCS), higher BCS (4.0 to 4.25, HerBCS), and highest BCS (4.5 to 5.0, HestBCS). The cows were given access to total mixed ration and water ad libitum. The cows received a far-off diet (1.33 Mcal/kg) from -60 d to -22 d, and a close-up diet (1.50 Mcal/kg) was offered during the last 21 d. From 4 to 6 days postpartum, cows were supplemented with propylene glycol (PG, 300 mL) as a gluconeogenic precursor for both treatment and prevention of ketosis during transition. Cows were fed lactation diet I until 21 d (1.78 Mcal/kg) and lactation diet II (1.83 Mcal/kg) from 22 d to 100 d and milked four times at approximately 6:00, 12:00, 18:00, and 0:00; the individual milk yield was recorded every 3 days. The compositions of the diets are shown in Table 1 [16]. All of the animal experimental procedures were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee at Jilin Agricultural University.

Blood and milk samples

Blood was sampled via the coccygeal vein after morning feeding at days 21, 14, and 7 prepartum (precalving), day 0 (calving), and days 7, 14, and 21 postpartum (after calving). Serum was collected in (1.5 mL) after centrifuging at 2,000xg at 4[degrees]C for 10 min and stored at -20[degrees]C until analytical determination. Colostrum was taken immediately after calving, and the levels of lactoprotein, lactose, solid-not-fat, and ash were analyzed by a milk analyzer (Foss Electric, Hillerod, Denmark) while the density and immune globulin concentration were analyzed by a refractometer (Yucheng To You Optical Instruments Co. Ltd., Shandong, China). The concentrations of NEFA, BHBA, superoxide dismutase (SOD), MDA, catalase (CAT), vitamin A (VA) and vitamin E (VE) in serum were analyzed using commercial bovine specific enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay kits (Shanghai Enzyme-linked Biotechnology Co. Ltd., Shanghai, China) according to the instructions. Reaction is terminated by sulphuric acid. The color change is measured spectrophotometrically at a wavelength of 450 nm (Multiskan FC, Thermo scientific, Waltham, MA, USA) and calculated by comparing the optical density of the samples to the standard curve, respectively.

Statistical analysis

All of the data are presented as the means [+ or -] standard error and were subjected to one-way analysis of variance (colostrum composition) and general linear model by SPSS computer software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). The specify model included BCS (MBCS, HBCS, HerBCS, and HestBCS), Time (precalving, calving, postcalving) and their interactions (BCSx time) as fixed effects and cow within the treatment as random effect. Statistical significance is defined when p values are less than 0.05. Pearson correlation coefficients among the detected parameters were also calculated.

RESULTS

Colostrum composition, milk yield, and body condition score loss

The density of colostrum and the levels of immune globulin and lactoprotein of cows in the HestBCS group were higher (p<0.05) than those in the other groups (Table 2). The milk yields of cows in the MBCS, HBCS, HerBCS, and HestBCS groups peaked ([greater than or equal to]50 kg/d) at days 19 to 82, 22 to 100, 25 to 73, and 31 to 97, respectively. The average milk yields (0 to 100 days) were 52.35 kg/d, 50.94 kg/d, 48.59 kg/d, and 48.78 kg/d, respectively (Figure 1; Table 2). In addition, the present data showed that the animals in the HestBCS group had a greater BCS loss after calving (Figure 2). The percentages of lost BCS were 23.62% (HestBCS), 14.36% (HerBCS), 13.33% (HBCS), and 5.53% (MBCS) (Figure 2).

Lipid metabolism and oxidative status

NEFA was affected by both BCS (p<0.01) and time (p<0.01), while BHBA was only affected by BCS (p<0.01). There were no BCSxtime effects on NEFA (p = 0.21) or BHBA (p = 0.97) during the transition period (Table 3). The serum levels of NEFA in cows in the HestBCS group on the calving day and after calving were all higher than those observed in other groups (p<0.05). In addition, the concentrations of BHBA were the highest (p<0.05) in HestBCS on precalving, calving, and postcalving days. Table 4 shows that MDA, SOD, and VA were affected by both BCS and time (p<0.05). There were BCSxtime effects on SOD and VA during the transition period (p = 0.05). The concentrations of MDA, SOD, CAT, VA, and VE (except during precalving) in HestBCS (4.5 to 5.0) cows were all higher (p<0.05) than those in the other groups. Positive Pearson correlation coefficients were observed for NEFA (r = 0.260), BHBA (r = 0.496), MDA (r = 0.700), SOD (r = 0.606), CAT (r = 0.342), VA (r = 0.245), and VE (r = 0.448) to BCS (Table 5).

DISCUSSION

In early lactation, dairy cows experience a period of NEB due to the sudden increase in requirements of the mammary glands for milk production [17]. The mobilization of adipose tissue is associated with decreasing body weight (BW), and cows in transition with higher BCS lose more BW [18,19]. Similar results were observed in our study as the cows in the HestBCS group had the greatest BCS loss at 21 d after calving. Loker et al [20] suggested that lower production is associated with greater BCS. In our study, animals in the HestBCS group had a delayed peak milk yield. However, Dechow et al [21] found that fatter cows with more loss of BCS in early lactation have greater milk production. Milk composition is positively associated with BCS, and higher calving BCS means more protein and lactose during early lactation [22,23]. In our research, a higher level of lactoprotein was observed in HestBCS cows.

The NEFA and BHBA are commonly measured as indices of NEB and fat oxidization, and their concentrations during the early postpartum period are associated with BCS [10,19, 24,25]. The NEFA concentration in blood can be a reason for adipose tissue mobilization due to excess acetyl CoA generated from [beta]-oxidation into ketone bodies, this leads to the loss of BCS [26,27]. In the present study, more rapid BCS loss and higher levels of NEFA and BHBA after calving were found in HestBCS cows, which is consistent with the results of Adrien et al [28]. Barletta et al [19] indicated that cows that lost BCS during the transition period had higher concentrations of NEFA and BHBA and more health events during the lactation. However, Mansouryar et al [23] fund that there was no significant differences in concentrations of NEFA and BHBA in high and normal BCS cows in early lactation. A BCS of 3.5 or higher at calving is associated with increased risk for ketosis [15], and a concentration of BHBA [greater than or equal to]1,200 [micro]mol/L is considered as a sign of clinical ketosis [29,30]. However, no cows in the present study were diagnosed as ketotic at 1 week postpartum, as the BHBA concentrations were all lower than 1,200 [micro]mol/L. This may be because choline (STACHOL) was added in the close-up diet [31] and PG was orally fed to cows at 4 days postpartum [32,33].

The MDA is the end product of the oxidative destruction of lipids, and its content can indicate the oxidative status of dairy cows [34,35]. In the present study, the highest level of MDA was found in HestBCS cows and MDA were increased on the calving day and decreased after calving. These data demonstrate that cows suffered the most serious oxidative stress on calving day and cows with higher BCS suffered much more serious oxidative stress than the other BCS cows before or after calving. It is probable that a negative association between BCS and dry matter intake in early lactation [36]. To maintain the requirements for milk production, prepartum cows with higher BCS experience more serious NEB [17].

The SOD is considered to be the first defense against pro-oxidants that convert the superoxide ([O.sup.-.sub.2]) to hydrogen peroxide ([H.sub.2][O.sub.2]) [37] and Bernabucci et al [38] used SOD in blood to assess the oxidative status of transition dairy cows. In the current study, HestBCS cows had the highest SOD concentrations. And the concentration of SOD was commonly higher on calving day which was similar to the report of Bernabucci et al [15]. CAT is a critical antioxidant enzyme that prevents the accumulation of [H.sub.2][O.sub.2] and is considered to be an index of antioxidative status [39,40]. In the present study, CAT and MDA showed positive correlations, which is consistent with a previous study [35].

The VA and VE are fat-soluble membrane antioxidants that are important for enhancing antioxidant defense systems against oxidative stress [41,42]. Jin et al [43] reported that a diet supplemented with VA increases the concentration of serum SOD and CAT, which is consistent with the results of the current study. The VE supplementation reduces oxidative damage in the livers of heifers [44] and mitigates oxidative stress in crossbred cows [45]. In the present study, an oxidative (NEFA, BHBH, MDA)-antioxidative (SOD, CAT, VA, VE) balance was obviously observed in the cows, which might be the result of homeostatic control.

CONCLUSION

This study indicates that the milk yield, lipid metabolism, and oxidative status of Holstein cows are related to prepartum BCS and BCS loss during the transition period. Holstein cows with MBCS have better milk yield performance after calving whereas the animals with HestBCS suffer greater BCS loss and higher oxidative stress. Our data may provide some theoretical basis for improving the postpartum health and performance of dairy cows by adjusting prepartum BCS.

CONFLICT OF INTEREST

We certify that there is no conflict of interest with any financial organization regarding the material discussed in the manuscript. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.18.0817

Submitted Oct 30, 2018; Revised Jan 23, 2019;

Accepted Mar 22, 2019

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The study was financially supported by Jilin Province Science and Technology Key Project (20160301003NY) and Jilin Province Feed Engineering and Technology Research Center (20170623075TC). The authors would like to thank Dr Yang Zhi Liu and Dr Zhe Sun for their helps during the submission.

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Wei Zhao (1,2), Xue Chen (1,2), Jun Xiao (2), Xiao Hui Chen (1), Xue Feng Zhang (1,2,3,4), Tao Wang (1,2,3,4), Yu Guo Zhen (1,2,3,4) *, and Gui Xin Qin (1,3,4) *

* Corresponding Authors:

Yu Guo Zhen

Tel: +86-431-8453-3231, Fax: +86-431-8453-2992, E-mail: nickzhen@263.net

Gui Xin Qin Tel: +86-431-8453-3231, Fax: +86-431-8453-2992, E-mail: qgx@jlau.edu.cn

(1) College of Animal Science and Technology, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun 130118, China

(2) JLAU-Borui Dairy Science and Technology R&D Centre of Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun 130118, China

(3) Key Laboratory of Animal Production, Product Quality and Security, Ministry of Education, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun 130118, China

(4) Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science of Jilin Province, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun 130118, China

ORCID

Wei Zhao

https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3052-3123

Xue Chen

https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7537-1525

Jun Xiao

https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6841-438X

Xiao Hui Chen

https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8218-8582

Xue Feng Zhang

https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7676-0319

Tao Wang

https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1876-0097

Yu Guo Zhen

https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6966-6965

Gui Xin Qin

https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6918-1709

Caption: Figure 1. Average milking yield of Holstein cows after calving (0 to 100 days).

Caption: Figure 2. Body condition score of Holstein cows before calving, at calving, and after calving. a-d Means in the same row followed by different superscripts differ at p<0.05. The same letter or no letter indicates no significant difference.
Table 1. Ingredients (kg/head/d) and chemical composition (% of dry
matter) of the experimental diets

Items                      Far-off diet       Close-up diet
                         (-60 d to -22 d)   (-21 d to calving)

Ingredients
  Corn silage                  6.00               12.00
  Fermented rice straw         7.00                 --
  Alfalfa hay                   --                  --
  Wet distilled                 --                 3.00
    grain solubles
  Oat grass                    6.00                3.80
  Steam-flaked corn             --                  --
  Corn                          --                 1.40
  Urea                         0.04                0.05
  Soybean                      0.70                0.50
  Spouting corn bran           0.50                 --
  Soybean hull                 0.50                0.70
  Rapeseed meal                1.30                1.00
  Extruded soybean              --                  --
  Premix I (1)                 0.20                 --
  Premix II (2)                 --                 0.80
  Premix III (3)                --                  --
  Fat powder                    --
  Rumen bypass protein          --                 0.50
  Diamond V XPC                 --                0.025
  STA-CHOL                      --                0.056
  Rumen-protected               --                 0.02
    nicotine
  KHC[O.sub.3]                  --                  --
  Molasses                      --                  --
  Wet matter                  22.24               23.85
    (kg/head/d)
  Dry matter intake           13.40               13.10
    (kg/head/d)
  Chemical
    composition
Acid detergent                32.92               22.41
  fiber
  NEl (Mcal/kg dry             1.33                1.50
    matter) (4)
  Neutral detergent           49.00               36.60
    fiber
  Crude protein               13.00               13.85
  Starch                      13.50               23.30
  Non-fiber                   30.00               37.85
    carbohydrates
  Calcium                      0.51                1.20
  Phosphorus                   0.39                0.44

Items                    Lactation diet I    Lactation diet II
                         (calving to 21 d)    (22 d to 100 d)

Ingredients
  Corn silage                  14.00                --
  Fermented rice straw          --                  --
  Alfalfa hay                  3.70                4.00
  Wet distilled                2.00                5.00
    grain solubles
  Oat grass                    0.50                 --
  Steam-flaked corn            2.50                4.40
  Corn                         1.40                2.20
  Urea                         0.04                0.07
  Soybean                      1.50                2.30
  Spouting corn bran            --                  --
  Soybean hull                 0.80                 --
  Rapeseed meal                 --                 0.50
  Extruded soybean              --                 0.50
  Premix I (1)                  --                  --
  Premix II (2)                 --                  --
  Premix III (3)               0.68                0.68
  Fat powder                   0.15                0.30
  Rumen bypass protein         1.20                1.20
  Diamond V XPC                0.025               0.025
  STA-CHOL                     0.060                --
  Rumen-protected              0.02                 --
    nicotine
  KHC[O.sub.3]                 0.05                 --
  Molasses                     0.80                1.00
  Wet matter                   29.42               45.18
    (kg/head/d)
  Dry matter intake            17.30               24.40
    (kg/head/d)
  Chemical
    composition
Acid detergent                 18.69               16.64
  fiber
  NEl (Mcal/kg dry             1.78                1.83
    matter) (4)
  Neutral detergent            27.87               26.28
    fiber
  Crude protein                16.40               17.36
  Starch                       26.37               30.90
  Non-fiber                    43.81               46.06
    carbohydrates
  Calcium                      1.09                0.85
  Phosphorus                   0.45                0.45

(1) Nutrients provided/kg of additive: vitamin A, 700 kIU; vitamin
[D.sub.3], 200 kIU; vitamin E, 8,500 IU; Cu, 650 mg; Zn, 1,656 mg;
Mn, 1,335.6 mg; Co, 40 mg; I, 80 mg; Se, 32 mg; CaC[O.sub.3], 122
g; CaHP[O.sub.4]-2[H.sub.2] O, 34 g; NaCl, 120 g.

(2) Nutrients provided/kg of additive: vitamin A, 400 kIU; vitamin
[D.sub.3], 100 kIU; vitamin E, 5,000 IU; Cu, 375 mg; Zn, 345 mg;
Organic Zn, 225 mg; Mn, 508.8 mg; Co, 6 mg; I, 24 mg; Organic Se,
24 mg; Ca, 143.8 g; P, 13.6 g; Cl, 158.8 g; S, 49.6 g.

(3) Nutrients provided/kg of additive: vitamin A, 400 kIU; vitamin
[D.sub.3], 150 kIU; vitamin E, 3,000 IU; Cu, 650 mg; Zn, 2,415 mg;
Mn, 1,303.8 mg; Co, 24 mg; I, 60 mg; Se, 24 mg; Ca, 157.7 g; P,
32.3 g; NaCl, 130 g.

4) NEl (Mcal/kg DM) was calculated according to NRC [16].

Table 2. Influence of body condition score on the colostrum
composition (%) and average milking yield (kg/d, 0 to 100 d)
of Holstein cows

Variables            MBCS (3.0 to 3.25)       HBCS (3.5 to 3.75)

Density (%)        19.49 [+ or -] 4.07(a)   20.30 [+ or -] 3.19(a)
Immune             18.77 [+ or -] 3.08(a)   18.31 [+ or -] 3.22(a)
  globulin (%)
Lactoprotein (%)    6.06 [+ or -] 1.08(a)    5.75 [+ or -] 1.38(a)
Lactose (%)         8.84 [+ or -] 1.14       8.26 [+ or -] 1.88
Solid-not-         16.52 [+ or -] 2.18      17.12 [+ or -] 2.05
  fat (%)
Ash (%)             1.19 [+ or -] 0.20       1.12 [+ or -] 0.29
Average milking    52.35 [+ or -] 7.03      50.94 [+ or -] 7.42
  yield (kg/d)

Variables           HerBCS (4.0 to 4.25)      HestBCS (4.5 to 5.0)

Density (%)        20.11 [+ or -] 4.15(a)    29.39 [+ or -] 2.77(b)
Immune             19.59 [+ or -] 3.63(a)    27.34 [+ or -] 3.92(b)
  globulin (%)
Lactoprotein (%)    6.57 [+ or -] 0.99(ab)    7.59 [+ or -] 0.62(b)
Lactose (%)         9.21 [+ or -] 1.38        9.22 [+ or -] 1.61
Solid-not-         18.64 [+ or -] 1.52       20.06 [+ or -] 1.45
  fat (%)
Ash (%)             1.27 [+ or -] 0.18        1.33 [+ or -] 0.27
Average milking    48.59 [+ or -] 3.83       48.78 [+ or -] 5.43
  yield (kg/d)

MBCS, medium BCS (3.0 to 3.25); HBCS, high BCS (3.5 to 3.75);
HerBCS, higher BCS (4.0 to 4.25); HestBCS, highest BCS (4.5 to 5.0).

(a,b) Means in the same row followed by different superscripts
differ at p <0.05.

Table 3. Influence of body condition score on the levels of
non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) of
Holstein cows

Variables                          Treatments (1)

                                MBCS (3.0 to 3.25)

NEFA         Precalving    1,372.50 [+ or -] 309.31(b)
  ([micro]   Calving         871.14 [+ or -] 101.89(aA)
  mol/L)     Postcalving   1,510.20 [+ or -] 270.87(bB)
BHBA         Precalving      322.13 [+ or -] 49.80(a)
  ([micro]   Calving         345.75 [+ or -] 34.87(a)
  mol/L)     Postcalving     369.01 [+ or -] 50.22(a)

Variables                          Treatments (1)

                                HBCS (3.5 to 3.75)

NEFA         Precalving    1,412.50 [+ or -] 311.67(b)
  ([micro]   Calving         774.00 [+ or -] 159.33(aA)
  mol/L)     Postcalving     900.50 [+ or -] 147.92(aA)
BHBA         Precalving      347.96 [+ or -] 64.95(a)
  ([micro]   Calving         324.50 [+ or -] 52.98(a)
  mol/L)     Postcalving     343.23 [+ or -] 47.27(a)

Variables                          Treatments (1)

                               HerBCS (4.0 to 4.25)

NEFA         Precalving    1,535.00 [+ or -] 351.96(b)
  ([micro]   Calving         833.00 [+ or -] 126.91(aA)
  mol/L)     Postcalving     889.75 [+ or -] 124.59(aA)
BHBA         Precalving      409.32 [+ or -] 58.72(a)
  ([micro]   Calving         345.83 [+ or -] 60.62(a)
  mol/L)     Postcalving     388.38 [+ or -] 83.62(a)

Variables                         Treatments (1)

                              HestBCS (4.5 to 5.0)

NEFA         Precalving    1,730.00 [+ or -] 446.29
  ([micro]   Calving        1,369.0 [+ or -] 137.25(b)
  mol/L)     Postcalving   1,632.50 [+ or -] 153.60(b)
BHBA         Precalving      571.37 [+ or -] 68.07(b)
  ([micro]   Calving         549.92 [+ or -] 89.82(b)
  mol/L)     Postcalving     559.71 [+ or -] 66.13(b)

Variables                           p-vale

                            BCS    Time    BCSxtime

NEFA         Precalving    <0.01   <0.01     0.21
  ([micro]   Calving
  mol/L)     Postcalving
BHBA         Precalving    <0.01   0.61      0.97
  ([micro]   Calving
  mol/L)     Postcalving

BCS, body condition score.

(1) MBCS, medium BCS (3.0 to 3.25); HBCS, high BCS (3.5 to 3.75);
HerBCS, higher BCS (4.0 to 4.25); HestBCS, highest BCS (4.5 to 5.0).

(a,b) Means in the same row followed by different superscripts
differ at p <0.05.

(A,B) Means in the same column followed by different superscripts
differ at p <0.05.

Table 4. Influence of body condition score on oxidative status
of Holstein cows

Variables                       Treatments (1)

                             MBCS (3.0 to 3.25)

MDA         Precalving      8.75 [+ or -] 2.37(a)
(nmol/mL)   Calving         9.13 [+ or -] 1.19(a)
            Postcalving     8.59 [+ or -] 1.97(ab)
SOD         Precalving    177.40 [+ or -] 27.52(a)
(U/mL)      Calving       191.46 [+ or -] 32.91(a)
            Postcalving   183.98 [+ or -] 24.94(b)
CAT         Precalving    139.96 [+ or -] 27.46(a)
(U/mL)      Calving       126.49 [+ or -] 18.16(a)
            Postcalving   148.05 [+ or -] 27.20(a)
VA          Precalving     79.45 [+ or -] 15.02(aB)
(ng/mL)     Calving        65.60 [+ or -] 11.42(aB)
            Postcalving    62.22 [+ or -] 12.64(aA)
VE          Precalving     35.24 [+ or -] 5.99(b)
(ug/mL)     Calving        33.55 [+ or -] 5.79(aB)
            Postcalving    26.09 [+ or -] 5.21(aA)

Variables                       Treatments (1)

                             HBCS (3.5 to 3.75)

MDA         Precalving      8.84 [+ or -] 1.49(aAB)
(nmol/mL)   Calving         9.48 [+ or -] 1.16(aB)
            Postcalving     6.93 [+ or -] 1.96(aA)
SOD         Precalving    171.08 [+ or -] 22.67(aB)
(U/mL)      Calving       177.01 [+ or -] 23.70(aB)
            Postcalving   125.09 [+ or -] 19.07(aA)
CAT         Precalving    137.81 [+ or -] 28.03(a)
(U/mL)      Calving       120.44 [+ or -] 18.30(a)
            Postcalving   122.45 [+ or -] 45.15(a)
VA          Precalving     61.36 [+ or -] 20.36(aA)
(ng/mL)     Calving        64.89 [+ or -] 13.09(aA)
            Postcalving   108.88 [+ or -] 11.37(bB)
VE          Precalving     29.54 [+ or -] 6.51
(ug/mL)     Calving        32.15 [+ or -] 2.34(a)
            Postcalving    30.14 [+ or -] 8.91(a)

Variables                       Treatments (1)

                            HerBCS (4.0 to 4.25)

MDA         Precalving      9.05 [+ or -] 1.28(aAB)
(nmol/mL)   Calving         9.54 [+ or -] 2.1(aB)
            Postcalving     6.69 [+ or -] 1.52(aA)
SOD         Precalving    180.14 [+ or -] 18.03(aB)
(U/mL)      Calving       192.71 [+ or -] 25.65(aB)
            Postcalving   131.74 [+ or -] 20.74(aA)
CAT         Precalving    132.66 [+ or -] 18.75(a)
(U/mL)      Calving       119.56 [+ or -] 13.79(a)
            Postcalving   144.79 [+ or -] 59.91(a)
VA          Precalving     62.24 [+ or -] 21.59(aA)
(ng/mL)     Calving        71.44 [+ or -] 13.44(aA)
            Postcalving   123.63 [+ or -] 24.73(bB)
VE          Precalving     29.12 [+ or -] 6.43
(ug/mL)     Calving        36.17 [+ or -] 9.96(a)
            Postcalving    31.93 [+ or -] 8.32(ab)

Variables                       Treatments (1)

                            HestBCS (4.5 to 5.0)

MDA         Precalving     12.64 [+ or -] 1.81(bB)
(nmol/mL)   Calving        17.17 [+ or -] 2.42(bC)
            Postcalving    10.03 [+ or -] 1.23(bA)
SOD         Precalving    256.79 [+ or -] 25.84(bA)
(U/mL)      Calving       348.58 [+ or -] 23.43(bB)
            Postcalving   216.57 [+ or -] 26.10(cA)
CAT         Precalving    196.25 [+ or -] 32.81(b)
(U/mL)      Calving       198.61 [+ or -] 20.01(b)
            Postcalving   207.02 [+ or -] 45.58(b)
VA          Precalving    113.15 [+ or -] 25.84(bA)
(ng/mL)     Calving       123.20 [+ or -] 19.61(bAB)
            Postcalving   135.30 [+ or -] 9.55(cAB)
VE          Precalving     36.90 [+ or -] 9.51
(ug/mL)     Calving        46.70 [+ or -] 9.31(b)
            Postcalving    40.62 [+ or -] 9.39(b)

Variables                          p-value

                           BCS    Time    BCSxtime

MDA         Precalving    <0.01   <0.05     0.16
(nmol/mL)   Calving       <0.01
            Postcalving   <0.01
SOD         Precalving    <0.01   <0.05     0.05
(U/mL)      Calving       <0.01
            Postcalving   <0.01
CAT         Precalving    <0.01   0.51      0.47
(U/mL)      Calving       <0.01
            Postcalving   <0.01
VA          Precalving    <0.01   <0.05     0.05
(ng/mL)     Calving
            Postcalving
VE          Precalving    <0.01   0.13      0.37
(ug/mL)     Calving
            Postcalving

BCS, body condition score; MDA, malondialdehyde; SOD, oxidase
dismutase; CAT, catalase; VA, vitamin A; VE, vitamin E.

(1) MBCS, medium BCS (3.0 to 3.25); HBCS, high BCS (3.5 to
3.75); HerBCS, higher BCS (4.0 to 4.25); HestBCS, highest BCS
(4.5 to 5.0).

(a,b) Means in the same row followed by different superscripts
differ at p <0.05.

(A,B) Means in the same column followed by different superscripts
differ at p <0.05.

Table 5. Pearson correlation coefficients of the levels of
non-esterified fatty acid and beta-hydroxybutyrate, and indices of
oxidative status and body condition score of Holstein cows

        NEFA      BHBA       MDA       SOD

NEFA     --
BHBA   0.572**     --
MDA    0.468**   0.764**     --
SOD    0.379**   0.624**   0.781**     --
CAT    0.524**   0.750**   0.585**   0.594**
VA     0.354**   0.636**   0.375**   0.487**
VE     0.417**   0.788**   0.741**   0.671**
BCS    0.260*    0.496**   0.700**   0.606**

         CAT       VA        VE      BCS

NEFA
BHBA
MDA
SOD
CAT      --
VA     0.512**     --
VE     0.527**   0.639**     --
BCS    0.342**   0.245*    0.448**   --

NEFA, non-esterified fatty acid; BHBA, beta-hydroxybutyrate; MDA,
malondialdehyde; SOD, oxidase dismutase; CAT, catalase; VA, vitamin
A; VE, vitamin E; BCS: body condition score.

* p<0.05, ** p<0.01.
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Article Details
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Author:Zhao, Wei; Chen, Xue; Xiao, Jun; Chen, Xiao Hui; Zhang, Xue Feng; Wang, Tao; Zhen, Yu Guo; Qin, Gui
Publication:Asian - Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Date:Dec 1, 2019
Words:6182
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