Preparation and study the mechanical properties of (CMC-PEG) polymer blends as aqueous solutions.
CMC is an ionic linear polysaccharide derived from cellulose it is an important industrial polymer with a wide range of applications in flocculation's, drug reduction, detergents, textiles, papers foods, roiling oil and drugs [13G]. CMC is a water--soluble synthetic polymers. CMC is used primarily because it has high viscosity, it is non-toxic, and is non-allergenic. CMC has a wide range of applications due to its low cost  Because of its polymeric structure and high molecular Wight, it can be used as filler in bio- composite films . CMC is able to improve the mechanical and barrier properties of pea starch-based films ; Because of its pronounced visco- elastic and structure-forming properties, the cellulose ether sodium carboxymethylcellulose (Na-CMC) is employed as a flow enhancer, stabilizer, and also as an agent for binding, suspending and thickening. the physical properties are strongly dependent not only on the molecular weight and concentration of polymer but also the kind of solvent systems.
PEG is a water-soluble synthetic polymer, due to the characteristics of easy preparation, good biodegradability, excellent chemical resistance, and good mechanical properties, polyethylene Glycol is used mainly as a solution in water but its solubility in water depends on its degree of polymerization and degree of hydrolysis of its precursor (poly vinyl acetate), solvent effects might therefore be expected to influence the ultrasonic relation behavior, the absorption of ultrasonic in liquid polymer systems is governed by local modes of motion and cooperative whole molecule movement because of the strong intermolecular interaction within the polymer it should be possible to observe cooperative motion in the ultrasonic range . Acoustic relaxation measurements on other polymers have been reported by several worker , ultrasonic technique is good method for studying the structural changes associated with the information of mixture assist in the study of molecular interaction between two species; some of mechanical properties of different polymers were carried by some workers using ultrasonic technique .
The purpose of this research was to investigate the Mechanical properties of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) with Polyethylene glycol (PEG, 4000) as aqueous solutions by ultrasound wave at fixed frequency (45 KHZ) and study the effect of adding PEG on the Mechanical properties of CMC to enhance its different applications
2.1 Preparation of Solutions:
(CMC, Mw. 700000 Daltons) was purchased from Hercules with assay (99.8%), Polyethylene glycol (PEG, Mw 4000 Daltons) with assay (99.6%) was purchased from Sigma Aldrich company The CMC solution was prepared by dissolving a known weights of CMC powder in affixed volume (400 ml) of distilled water under stirring at (70[degrees]C) for (30 min). then PEG was added with different weights (0.4, 0.8, 1.2)gm. to all CMC Concentrations. The resulting solution was stirred continuously for (30 min) until the solution mixture became a homogeneous.
2.2 Density and Mechanical measurements:
The density is a mass per unit volume, density of the solutions ([rho]) was determined by density bottle method and their viscosities measured before and after adding PEG for all CMC concentrations by using Ostwald viscometer with accuracy of [+ or -] 1.05% [Ehssan D.J.2004 ].
2.3 Ultrasonic measurements:
Ultrasonic measurements were made by pulse technique of sender-receiver type (SV-DH-7A/SVX-7 velocity of sound instrument) with constant frequency (45 KHz), the receiver quartz crystal mounted on a digital fernier scale of slow motion, the receiver crystal could be displaced parallel to the sender and the samples were put between sender and receiver. The sender and receiver pulses (waves) were displaced as two traces of cathode ray oscilloscope, and the digital delay time (t) of receiver pulses were recorded with respect to the thickness of the samples (x). The pulses height on oscilloscope (CH1) represents incident ultrasonic wave's amplitude ([A.sub.0]) and the pulses height on oscilloscope (CH2) represents the receiver ultrasonic wave's amplitude (A).
2.4 Theoretical calculation
The absorption coefficient (a) was calculated from Lambert--Beer law :
A/[A.sub.0] = [e.sup.(- [alpha] x)] (1)
where ([A.sub.0])is the initially amplitude of the ultrasonic waves,(A) is the wave amplitude after absorption and (x) is the thickness of the sample.
The ultrasonic wave velocity (v) was calculated using the following equation :
v = x / t (2)
where (t) is time that the waves need to cross the samples (digital obtained from the instrument). Attenuation is generally proportional to the square of sound frequency so the relaxation amplitude (D) was calculated from the following equation [Josef and Herbert 1990] where (f) is the ultrasonic frequency:
D = [alpha]/ [f.sup.2] (3)
The acoustic impedance of a medium (Z), it was calculated by equation :
Z = [rho] v (4)
Bulk modulus (K) is the substance's resistance to uniform compression, it is defined as the pressure increase needed to decrease the volume; it was calculated by Laplace equation :
K = [rho] [v.sup.2] (5)
Compressibility ([beta]) is a measure of the relative volume change of a fluid or solid as a response to a pressure (or mean stress) change, it was calculated by the following equation :
[beta] = [([rho] [v.sup.2]).sup.-1] (6)
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
3. Mechanical properties:
Density is a physical property of matter that expresses a ratio of mass to volume. Since different substances have different densities, density measurements are very useful for identification and characterization of different substances. Density for all solutions of polymer CMC before and after addition PEG has been measured at room temperature and the results are given in the fig. (1), which shows that increases the density values with increasing concentration of CMC and this is because the increased the mass of the solution and the swelling made in the polymer chains as a result of soluble in distilled water and in particular polymers of higher molecular weight .
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]
Fig.(1) also shows that the uniform increment of density with the increase of polymer concentrations in distilled water after the additions of PEG, this attributed that density is a mass per unit volume and when adding PEG will consist of new conformations and configurations which leads to the occupancy of the spaces among these molecules in solution and thus increase the mass of polymer material per unit volume and this result is agree with behavior of reference ,when studied the polymer PEG.
Fig.2 shows that absorption coefficient is increasing with concentration this attributed to the fact that when polymer concentration increase there will be more molecules in solution this lead to more attenuation against wave propagation, the attenuation can be attributed to the friction and heat exchange between the particles and the surrounding medium as well as to the decay of the acoustic wave in the forward direction due to scattering by the Particles , this behavior same to that give by  for other polymers, adding PEG enhances absorption coefficient by increasing its values. This attributed As we explained that adding PEG reduced the viscosity of the solution this means that there were more flexibility for these polymer chains in solution as a result of adding PEG molecules, and because ultrasonic waves propagate as compression and rarefaction in a medium so there are variation in density medium and there were more attenuation to energy of ultrasound waves when adding PEG. Ultrasonic velocity is increasing with increasing concentration as shown in (fig.3) this because structural or volume relaxation it occurs in associated liquids such as polymers, a liquid when at rest has a lattice structure similar to that possessed by solid when waves are propagated through it, the resultant periodic changes of wave pressure causes molecules to flow into vacancies in the lattice during compression phase and to return to their original positions in the lattice during rarefaction so when concentration increases the velocity is also increase . Adding PEG increase the velocity, this attributed that ultrasonic waves interact with polymers causing association between the two types of molecules that lead to increase the velocity.
The bulk modulus is increasing with concentration (fig.4) ; this behavior same to that give by ., Relaxation Amplitude was calculated by using equation no. (3) and (fig.5) shows that values are increasing with concentration, this behavior same to that give by for other polymers,( also fig.5) Shows that relaxation Amplitude increasing when adding PEG this attributed to the fact that ultrasonic energy depends on viscosity thermal conductivity, scattering and intermolecular processes , thermal conductivity and scattering effects are known to be negligible . Specific acoustic impedance shown in (fig.6) is increasing with concentrations this behavior same to that given by  for other polymers and attributed to the equation no. (4) has only one variable parameter which is velocity and density has very small variations with respect to that of velocity. Fig.6 shows that adding PEGincrease acoustic impedance because PEG polymer chains fills the valances by swallowing water molecules and be closer to CMC macromolecules that increasing Specific acoustic impedance .
[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]
[FIGURE 4 OMITTED]
[FIGURE 5 OMITTED]
[FIGURE 6 OMITTED]
[FIGURE 7 OMITTED]
The compressibility is decreasing with the increase of concentration (fig.7) and attributed to the fact that in Laplace equation no. (6) There are inverse proportionality between compressibility and ultrasonic velocity.
1--Adding PEG polymer to CMC enhances the ultrasonic absorption coefficient as a result of high values after addition.
2--the velocity increases when concentration increases there will be complexes molecules were formed in the solution by the effect of peroxide and roots that rebounded to Network formations between polymer chains when adding PEG.
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Safa Ahmed Jabbar
Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research-Iraq
Received 25 January 2015; Accepted 28 February 2016; Available 25 March 2016
Address For Correspondence:
Safa Ahmed Jabbar, Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research-Iraq.
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|Author:||Jabbar, Safa Ahmed|
|Publication:||Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences|
|Date:||Feb 1, 2016|
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