Printer Friendly

Preparation and study the mechanical properties of (CMC-PEG) polymer blends as aqueous solutions.


CMC is an ionic linear polysaccharide derived from cellulose it is an important industrial polymer with a wide range of applications in flocculation's, drug reduction, detergents, textiles, papers foods, roiling oil and drugs [13G]. CMC is a water--soluble synthetic polymers. CMC is used primarily because it has high viscosity, it is non-toxic, and is non-allergenic. CMC has a wide range of applications due to its low cost [7] Because of its polymeric structure and high molecular Wight, it can be used as filler in bio- composite films [24]. CMC is able to improve the mechanical and barrier properties of pea starch-based films [4]; Because of its pronounced visco- elastic and structure-forming properties, the cellulose ether sodium carboxymethylcellulose (Na-CMC) is employed as a flow enhancer, stabilizer, and also as an agent for binding, suspending and thickening. the physical properties are strongly dependent not only on the molecular weight and concentration of polymer but also the kind of solvent systems.

PEG is a water-soluble synthetic polymer, due to the characteristics of easy preparation, good biodegradability, excellent chemical resistance, and good mechanical properties, polyethylene Glycol is used mainly as a solution in water but its solubility in water depends on its degree of polymerization and degree of hydrolysis of its precursor (poly vinyl acetate), solvent effects might therefore be expected to influence the ultrasonic relation behavior, the absorption of ultrasonic in liquid polymer systems is governed by local modes of motion and cooperative whole molecule movement because of the strong intermolecular interaction within the polymer it should be possible to observe cooperative motion in the ultrasonic range [20]. Acoustic relaxation measurements on other polymers have been reported by several worker [31], ultrasonic technique is good method for studying the structural changes associated with the information of mixture assist in the study of molecular interaction between two species; some of mechanical properties of different polymers were carried by some workers using ultrasonic technique [8].

The purpose of this research was to investigate the Mechanical properties of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) with Polyethylene glycol (PEG, 4000) as aqueous solutions by ultrasound wave at fixed frequency (45 KHZ) and study the effect of adding PEG on the Mechanical properties of CMC to enhance its different applications

2. Experimental:

2.1 Preparation of Solutions:

(CMC, Mw. 700000 Daltons) was purchased from Hercules with assay (99.8%), Polyethylene glycol (PEG, Mw 4000 Daltons) with assay (99.6%) was purchased from Sigma Aldrich company The CMC solution was prepared by dissolving a known weights of CMC powder in affixed volume (400 ml) of distilled water under stirring at (70[degrees]C) for (30 min). then PEG was added with different weights (0.4, 0.8, 1.2)gm. to all CMC Concentrations. The resulting solution was stirred continuously for (30 min) until the solution mixture became a homogeneous.

2.2 Density and Mechanical measurements:

The density is a mass per unit volume, density of the solutions ([rho]) was determined by density bottle method and their viscosities measured before and after adding PEG for all CMC concentrations by using Ostwald viscometer with accuracy of [+ or -] 1.05% [Ehssan D.J.2004 ].

2.3 Ultrasonic measurements:

Ultrasonic measurements were made by pulse technique of sender-receiver type (SV-DH-7A/SVX-7 velocity of sound instrument) with constant frequency (45 KHz), the receiver quartz crystal mounted on a digital fernier scale of slow motion, the receiver crystal could be displaced parallel to the sender and the samples were put between sender and receiver. The sender and receiver pulses (waves) were displaced as two traces of cathode ray oscilloscope, and the digital delay time (t) of receiver pulses were recorded with respect to the thickness of the samples (x). The pulses height on oscilloscope (CH1) represents incident ultrasonic wave's amplitude ([A.sub.0]) and the pulses height on oscilloscope (CH2) represents the receiver ultrasonic wave's amplitude (A).

2.4 Theoretical calculation

The absorption coefficient (a) was calculated from Lambert--Beer law [33]:

A/[A.sub.0] = [e.sup.(- [alpha] x)] (1)

where ([A.sub.0])is the initially amplitude of the ultrasonic waves,(A) is the wave amplitude after absorption and (x) is the thickness of the sample.

The ultrasonic wave velocity (v) was calculated using the following equation [9]:

v = x / t (2)

where (t) is time that the waves need to cross the samples (digital obtained from the instrument). Attenuation is generally proportional to the square of sound frequency so the relaxation amplitude (D) was calculated from the following equation [Josef and Herbert 1990] where (f) is the ultrasonic frequency:

D = [alpha]/ [f.sup.2] (3)

The acoustic impedance of a medium (Z), it was calculated by equation [19]:

Z = [rho] v (4)

Bulk modulus (K) is the substance's resistance to uniform compression, it is defined as the pressure increase needed to decrease the volume; it was calculated by Laplace equation [29]:

K = [rho] [v.sup.2] (5)

Compressibility ([beta]) is a measure of the relative volume change of a fluid or solid as a response to a pressure (or mean stress) change, it was calculated by the following equation [27]:

[beta] = [([rho] [v.sup.2]).sup.-1] (6)


3. Mechanical properties:

Density is a physical property of matter that expresses a ratio of mass to volume. Since different substances have different densities, density measurements are very useful for identification and characterization of different substances. Density for all solutions of polymer CMC before and after addition PEG has been measured at room temperature and the results are given in the fig. (1), which shows that increases the density values with increasing concentration of CMC and this is because the increased the mass of the solution and the swelling made in the polymer chains as a result of soluble in distilled water and in particular polymers of higher molecular weight [28].



Fig.(1) also shows that the uniform increment of density with the increase of polymer concentrations in distilled water after the additions of PEG, this attributed that density is a mass per unit volume and when adding PEG will consist of new conformations and configurations which leads to the occupancy of the spaces among these molecules in solution and thus increase the mass of polymer material per unit volume and this result is agree with behavior of reference ,when studied the polymer PEG.

Fig.2 shows that absorption coefficient is increasing with concentration this attributed to the fact that when polymer concentration increase there will be more molecules in solution this lead to more attenuation against wave propagation, the attenuation can be attributed to the friction and heat exchange between the particles and the surrounding medium as well as to the decay of the acoustic wave in the forward direction due to scattering by the Particles [31], this behavior same to that give by [11] for other polymers, adding PEG enhances absorption coefficient by increasing its values. This attributed As we explained that adding PEG reduced the viscosity of the solution this means that there were more flexibility for these polymer chains in solution as a result of adding PEG molecules, and because ultrasonic waves propagate as compression and rarefaction in a medium so there are variation in density medium and there were more attenuation to energy of ultrasound waves when adding PEG. Ultrasonic velocity is increasing with increasing concentration as shown in (fig.3) this because structural or volume relaxation it occurs in associated liquids such as polymers, a liquid when at rest has a lattice structure similar to that possessed by solid when waves are propagated through it, the resultant periodic changes of wave pressure causes molecules to flow into vacancies in the lattice during compression phase and to return to their original positions in the lattice during rarefaction so when concentration increases the velocity is also increase [5]. Adding PEG increase the velocity, this attributed that ultrasonic waves interact with polymers causing association between the two types of molecules that lead to increase the velocity.

The bulk modulus is increasing with concentration (fig.4) ; this behavior same to that give by [1]., Relaxation Amplitude was calculated by using equation no. (3) and (fig.5) shows that values are increasing with concentration, this behavior same to that give by for other polymers,( also fig.5) Shows that relaxation Amplitude increasing when adding PEG this attributed to the fact that ultrasonic energy depends on viscosity thermal conductivity, scattering and intermolecular processes , thermal conductivity and scattering effects are known to be negligible [29]. Specific acoustic impedance shown in (fig.6) is increasing with concentrations this behavior same to that given by [3] for other polymers and attributed to the equation no. (4) has only one variable parameter which is velocity and density has very small variations with respect to that of velocity. Fig.6 shows that adding PEGincrease acoustic impedance because PEG polymer chains fills the valances by swallowing water molecules and be closer to CMC macromolecules that increasing Specific acoustic impedance [6].






The compressibility is decreasing with the increase of concentration (fig.7) and attributed to the fact that in Laplace equation no. (6) There are inverse proportionality between compressibility and ultrasonic velocity.


1--Adding PEG polymer to CMC enhances the ultrasonic absorption coefficient as a result of high values after addition.

2--the velocity increases when concentration increases there will be complexes molecules were formed in the solution by the effect of peroxide and roots that rebounded to Network formations between polymer chains when adding PEG.


[1.] Abdul-Kareem J. Rashid and Burak Y Kadem, 2011. "Effect of variable ultrasonic frequencies on some physical properties of Iraqi palm fiber PVA composite" Journal of Asian Scientific Research, 1(7): 359-365

[2.] Abdul-Kareem, J., Rashid, Ehssan Dhiaa Jawad and Burak Y. Kadem, 2011. "A Study of Some Mechanical Properties of Iraqi Palm Fiber-PVA Composite by Ultrasonic" European Journal of Scientific Research, 61 (2): 203-209.

[3.] Al-Bermany, K.J., 2010. "Enhancement of mechanical properties using gamma radiation for HECPolymer ", Journal of college of Education ,Babylon university, 1(5): 10-15.

[4.] Almasi, H., B. Ghanbarzadeh, A.A. Entezami, 2010. " Physicochemical properties of starch-CMC-Nano clay biodegradable films" Boil Micromole, 46: 1-5.

[5.] Alaa, J., Kadham Algidsawi, Ahmed Hashim and Hayder J. Kadham Algidsawi, 2011. "The Effect of (LiF-CuCl2.2H2O) on Mechanical Properties of Poly-Vinyl Alcohol", European Journal of Scientific Research, 65(1): 74-78.

[6.] Ahmed Hashim, Alaa J. Kadham Algidsawi, Hayder J. Kadham Algidsawi and Shaymaa Hadi 2011. "Mechanical Properties of (PVA-CoNO3, BaSO4.5H2O) Composites", European Journal of Scientific Research, 65(2) , 163-167.

[7.] Biswal, D.R., R.P. Singh, 2004. " Characterization of Carboxymethylcellulose and polyacrylamide graft copolymer", Carbohyd Polymer, 57: 379-387.

[8.] BoroDjordjevi, B., 2009. "Ultrasonic characterization of advanced composite materials", the 10th International Conference of the Slovenian Society for Non- Destructive Testing (Application of Contemporary Non-Destructive Testing in Engineering), Ljubljana, Slovenia, 47-57.

[9.] Boutouyrie P., M. Briet, C. Collin, S. Vermeersch and B. Pannier, 2009. "Assessment of pulse wave velocity ", Artery Research, 3(1): 3-8.

[10.] Curi, E., S. Campana, 2006. Journal of Macromolecules science chem.A431, 4.

[11.] Ehssan D.J., 2004. a thesis M.Sc. "Gamma relaxation effect on some physical properties of polymer xanzan cellulose", University of Babylon.

[12.] Fromageau, J., E. Brusseau, D. Vray, G. Gimenez, P. Delachartre, 2003. " characterization of PVA Cryogel for Intravascular Ultrasound Elasticity Imaging", Transactions on Ultrasonic, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control, IEEE, 50(10): 1318-1324.

[13.] George J., M.S. Sreekala S. Thomas, 2001. " A review on interface modification and characterization of natural fiber reinforced plastic composites", Polymer Eng. Sci., 41(9): 1471-1485.

[14.] Guru1, G.S., P. Prasad, H.R. Shiva Kumar1, S.K. Rai, 2008. "Studies on the Compatibility of Pullulan-Carboxymethyl Cellulose Blend Using Simple Techniques", Malaysian Polymer Journal (MPJ), 3(2): 13-23.

[15.] Hassina Khelladi, Frederic Plantier, Jean Luc Daridon and Hakim Djelouah, 2009. "Measurement sunder High Pressure of Ultrasonic Wave Velocity in Glycerol", IEEE International Ultrasonic Symposium Proceedings, 1567-1570.

[16.] Illiger S.R., K.P. Rao and T. Demappa, 2008. "Miscibility Studies of HPMC/PVA Blends in Water by Viscosity, Density, Refractive Index and Ultrasonic Velocity Method", Carbohydrate Polymer, (74): 779-782.

[17.] Jabbar Hussein Ibrahim, 2009. "Effect of Gamma Radiation on some Physical properties of Styrene Butadiene Rubber", University of Babylon , 17(1): 10-15.

[18.] Josef and Herbert Krautkramer, 1990. "Ultrasonic testing of materials" 4th edition, Springer.

[19.] Jarth Mc-Hugh, 2008. A thesis Ph.D. Bundesanstaltfur Materialforschung und -prufung (BAM), Germany.

[20.] Jayanta Chakraborty, Jayashri Sarkar, Ravi Kumar and Giridhar Madra, 2004. "Ultrasonic Degradation of Polybutadiene and Isotactic Polypropylene", Polymer Degradation and Stability, Elsevier, 85(1): 555-558.

[21.] Khalida, H.H., 2004. "Study of Structural and Visco-Relaxation of Polycarbonates Solutions by Ultrasonic Technique", Journal of Al-Qadisiya of Pure Sciences, 9(3): 188-122.

[22.] Ma, X., P.R. Chang, J. Yu, 2008. "Properties of biodegradable thermoplastic pea starch/Carboxymethyl cellulose and pea starch/microcrystalline cellulose composites", Carbohyd polymer, 72: 369-375.

[23.] Mohammad Salem Khan, Riana Amman Qazi and Main Said Wahid, 2008. "Miscibility studies of PVC/PMMA and PS/PMMA blends by dilute solution viscometry and FTIR", African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry, 2(4): 041-045.

[24.] Nie, H., M. Liu, F. Zhan, M. Guo 2004. "Factors on the preparation of Carboxymethylcellulose hydrogel and its degradation behavior in soil", Carbohyd polymer, 58: 185-189.

[25.] Osama EL-Hefian, Mohamed Mahmoud Nasef and Abdul- Hamid Yahiya, 2010. "Preparation and Characterization of Chitosan/ Polyvinyl Alcohol Blends-A Rheological Study", E-Journal of Chemistry, 7(S1): S349-S357.

[26.] Oudry, J., C. Bastard, V. Miette, R. Willinger and L. Sandrin, 2009. "Ultrasound Medical Biolology", 1185-97R.

[27.] Palani and S. Kalavathy, 2011. "Volumetric compressibility and transport studies on molecular interactions of mono, di and tri saccharine in aqueous sodium butyrate mixtures at 303.15 K", Advances in Applied Science Research, 2(2): 146-155.

[28.] Karrar Abd Ali O. Al-Ogaili, 2015. "Enhancement of Some Physical Properties of Polyethylene Glycol by Adding Some Polymeric Cellulose Derivatives and its Applications, Ph.D. thesis, University of Babylon / College of Science Department of Physics.

[29.] Siddhartha Roy, Alexander Winner, 2011. Tillman Beck Thomas Studnitzky and Gunter Stephanie, 2011. "Mechanical properties of cellular solids produced from hollow stainless steel spheres", J Mater Sci., 46: 5519-5526.

[30.] Subhi, K., Hassun, Kadhim H. Hussain and Najiba A. Hassan, 1990. "Visco- Relaxation Studies ofPolystyrene Solutions in Different Solvents by Ultrasonic" , ActaPolymerica, 41(8): 438-441.

[31.] Tomasz Hornowski, Arkadiusz Jozefczak, Andrzej Skumiel and Mikolaj tabowski, 2010. "Effect of Poly(Ethylene Glycol) Coating on the Acoustic Properties of Biocompatible Magnetic Fluid", International Journal of Thermo physics., Springer link, 31(1), 70-76.

[32.] Lazareva, T.G. and E.V. Shingareva, 2002. " Rheological and Electrophysical Characteristics of polyvinyl Alcohol and water- soluble Carboxymethyl Cellulose", Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 75(10): 1688-1691.

[33.] Zong fang Wu and Dong C. Liu, 2011. "Method of improved scattered size estimation without attenuation known a priori", Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering (ICBBE), 4th International Conference, IEEE, 8(10): 1-4.

Safa Ahmed Jabbar

Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research-Iraq

Received 25 January 2015; Accepted 28 February 2016; Available 25 March 2016

Address For Correspondence:

Safa Ahmed Jabbar, Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research-Iraq.

COPYRIGHT 2016 American-Eurasian Network for Scientific Information
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2016 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Jabbar, Safa Ahmed
Publication:Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences
Article Type:Report
Date:Feb 1, 2016
Previous Article:Some possible measures to evaluate the efficiency of drinking water projects in Karbala city by quality index analysis.
Next Article:Experimental and numerical investigation of the nanofluid HeatTransfer capability "Iron Oxide Nanoparticles--Distilled water".

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2019 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters