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Preliminary inventory of mammals from Yurubi National Park, Yaracuy, Venezuela with some comments on their natural history.

In Venezuela, mammals represent the second richest group of terrestrial vertebrates, after birds (Hilty et al. 2003, Ochoa & Aguilera 2003). Linares (1998) documented 327 species included in 12 orders and 42 families. Later, Ochoa & Aguilera (2003) reported 351 species in 13 orders and 43 families and this number has increased in recent years thanks to taxonomic contributions and new descriptions (e.g., Anderson 2003, Lew & Perez-Hernandez 2004, Sanchez et al. 2005, Lew et al. 2006, Weskler et al. 2006, Molinari 2007, Gutierrez & Molinari 2008). The current checklist based on Wilson & Reeder (2005) and supported with additional publications (e.g., Gardner 2008, Davalos & Corthals 2008, Gutierrez & Molinari 2008, Ochoa et al. 2008, Anderson & Gutierrez 2009) increases the number to 383 species into 14 orders and 47 families with 25 endemic species in six orders: Didelphimorphia, Carnivora, Lagomorpha, Soricomorpha, Chiroptera, Artiodactyla and Rodentia (Linares 1998, Ochoa & Aguilera 2003, Wilson & Reeder 2005, Lew et al. 2006, Molinari 2007, Gardner 2008, Gutierrez & Molinari 2008, Anderson & Gutierrez 2009, Helgen et al. 2009).

Currently, Venezuela has 43 National Parks of which 23 have mammalogical records (Handley 1976, Valdez et al. 1984, Ochoa 1986, Gardner 1988, Guerrero et al. 1989, Fernandez-Badillo & Ulloa 1990, Ochoa & Gorzula 1992, Ojasti et al. 1992, Ochoa et al. 1993, 1995, 2000, 2005, Bisbal 1995, 1998, 2008, Soriano et al. 1990, 1999, Linares & Rivas 2003, MARN 2003, 2005, Rivas & Salcedo 2005, Lew et al. 2009).

Regarding the Yurubi National Park, there is no inventory linked with mammals, and the only mammalogical survey close to the study area was the expedition between 1965-1968 by the Smithsonian Venezuelan Project (Handley 1976), in the locality called "Minas de Aroa" in the Sierra de Aroa, where the Yurubi National Park is located. Much of the surface of the Sierra de Aroa is fragmented by farming, and perhaps the only area that has not been affected is the Yurubi National Park, due to its status of protected area (Lentino & Esclasans 2005).

Taxonomic studies of other vertebrates in localities of the Sierra de Aroa and in the Yurubi National Park have resulted in descriptions of new endemic species: a highland forest frog (Dendropsophus yaracuyanus Mijares-Urrutia & Rivero 2000); a caecilian (Caecilia flavopuntacta Roze & Solano 1963), and 10 fishes (Rodriguez-Olarte et al. 2005). For Yurubi vegetation, there is endemism reported in some plant species in families Rubiaceae: Hoffmania aroensis, H. stenocarpa and Piperaceae: Piperomia croizatiana (Delascio 1977).

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Because there is a lack of mammalogical information in Yurubi National Park, added to anthropogenic pressures that threaten the permanence of species that inhabit the mountain regions in Cordillera de la Costa (Ochoa et al. 1995, Rodriguez & Rojas 1998), here, we present the preliminary results of an inventory focused on the need to generate baseline information as an effort to contribute with some information and to stimulate the conservation of local wildlife.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Study Area: The Yurubi National Park is located in the Sierra de Aroa, Yaracuy State, Venezuela (Fig. 1). It has a surface of 23 670ha (Lentino & Esclasans 2005) and an altitudinal range between 100-1 940m. The climate is seasonal and macrothermic, with an average annual precipitation between 800-1 500mm and a bimodal temporal distribution with a rainy season in July-August and other in November-December (Alvarado 2008). The annual average temperature is between 10-26.5[degrees]C.

Data acquisition: The first step of this survey was the collection of all information on mammals from specimens deposited in national institutions (museums and universities) and literature review. The second step consisted of three field expeditions, beginning on August 29-September 6 2008, for the locality called "Mayorica" (10[degrees]26' N-68[degrees]40' W; 100-230m), and we then carried out two expeditions on February 6-14 2009 and May 16-21 2009, in the locality "El Silencio" (10[degrees]25' N-68[degrees]48' W; 1 446m). The fieldwork consisted of seven days for "Mayorica" and six days for "El Silencio", with nights with limited moonlight.

We selected three vegetation types in Yurubi National Park: an evergreen forest at 197m, located in "Mayorica". The under-story was open with the families Palmae (e.g., Geonoma sp., Euterpe longiptiolata and Chamaedorea sp.), Melastomataceae, Piperaceae and Rubiaceae, being the most observed in the lower stratum. In watercourses, we noted Heliconiaceae (e.g., Heliconia psittacorum and H. bihai), Acanthaceae, Poaceae (e.g., Olyra sp.), Arecaceae and Haemodoraceae (e.g., Xiphidium caeruleum). Trees included Ficus spp. (Moraceae), Gyranthera caribensis (Malvaceae), Pachira aquatica (Bombacaceae), Clusia sp. (Guttiferae), Lecythis ollari (Lecythidaceae), Inga sp. (Leguminosae), Ocotea sp. (Lauraceae) and Brownea grandiceps (Fabaceae) among others. Epiphytism was represented by Bromeliaceae (e.g., Guzmania), Orchidaceae (e.g., Epidendrum and Eulophidium) and Araceae (e.g., Philodendron).

We selected within this same locality a strip of semi-deciduous forest ranging 100-213m, and here, trees belonging to the following genera: Bursera (Burseraceae), Hura (Euphorbiaceae), Ceiba (Bombacaceae), Cedrela (Meliaceae), Ceroxilum (Arecaceae), Tabebuia (Bignoniaceae) and Spondias (Anacardiaceae) were the best represented; in addition Leguminosae, Araceae, Selagineceae, abundant lianas and epiphytes in the lower stratum.

The last site chosen was a cloud forest at 1 446m in "El Silencio". The following plant genera were the most common in this locality: Persea, Clusia, Guarea, Sapium, Lecythis, Calatea, Ficus, Podocarpus, Brosimum, Gustavia, Gyranthera, Oliganthes, Catoblastus, Guzmania, Cecropia and Cyathea belonging to the families Lauraceae, Guttiferae, Meliaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Lecythidaceae, Marantaceae, Moraceae, Podocarpaceae, Arecaceae, Malvaceae, Asteraceae, Bromeliaceae, Urticaceae and Cyatheaceae.

Capture of small non-volant mammals: We set four types of traps following of Ochoa et al. (2008) recommendations.

1) Victor traps, were placed on the ground and heights ranging from 1-2m for the capture of taxa using the ground (terrestrial) and the middle stratum (arboreal). 2) Sherman live traps, were placed on the ground level to capture terrestrial taxa. 3) Havahart live traps were placed on the ground to capture terrestrial taxa and 4) a pitfall-trap system to capture of terrestrial and semi-arboreal taxa. All traps, except the pitfall-trap system, were baited daily with some of the following baits: 1) a mixture of oats, sardines, oil and vanilla extract). 2) ripe plantain (Musa sp.) and 3) food for birds (canary seed). These traps were placed at approximately 20m intervals along existing trails, and the pitfall-trap system was placed at ground level and it was spaced 5m apart every plastic buckets with a fence in a linear series. Total traps (Victor, Sherman and Havahart), used were 80 and the total sampling effort was 1 382 trap-nights and 109 bucket-days.

Capture of bats: The procedure followed Ochoa et al. (2008). We set three mist nets of 9m and three mist nets of 12m in different forest strata (understory and mid-canopy). Mist nets were activated from 18:00-22:00 hours and in some occasions from 04:00-06:00 hours in order to cover two major peaks of activity. In addition to we carried out occasional searches of shelters in the daytime (e.g., caves, crevices, foliage, hollows in trees and logs, etc.). The total sampling effort was 323 net-hours.

Medium-large sized mammals: To record medium-large sized mammals (e.g., Carnivora, Artiodactyla, Perissodactyla and Rodentia), we used a field guide to interview local residents together with our direct and indirect sightings (e.g., tracks, vocalizations and scats). We interviewed seven persons and we carried out 36 hours of observations.

Identifications followed Wilson & Reeder (2005) and Gardner (2008) for most species, Weksler et al. (2006) for Oryzomyini, Larsen et al. (2007) for large-sized Artibeus, Lim et al. (2008) for small-sized Artibeus and voss & Jansa (2009) for didelphid marsupials. We followed guidelines approved by Gannon et al. (2007), for animals captured in the field. voucher specimens were fixed in 10% formalin and preserved in 70% ethanol, and are deposited at the Museo de la Estacion Biologica de Rancho Grande (EBRG-Maracay) and Museo de Zoologia (MZUC), Departamento de Biologia, Facultad Experimental de Ciencias y Tecnologia FACYT, Universidad de Carabobo, valencia, Carabobo State, Venezuela.

RESULTS

At least 79 species, representing 10 orders inhabit in the study area (Table 1). Of these, 73% (n=58) represent new records in Yurubi National Park. Chiroptera (39 spp.), Carnivora (13 spp.) and Rodentia (9 spp.) were the orders with the highest taxonomic richness. Among the vegetation types sampled (Table 1), the evergreen forest (n = 67), had the highest richness, followed by the cloud forest (n = 45), and finally by the semi-deciduous forest (n = 41). Sampling efforts in every inventoried locality are shown in Table 2.

Species accumulation curves for taxa inventoried with traps (Didelphimorphia: family Didelphidae and Rodentia: families Sciuridae, Heteromyidae, Cricetidae and Echimyidae) and mist nets (Chiroptera) at different locations did not reach saturation (Fig. 2).

For Chiroptera, results indicated a high richness concentrated in Phyllostomidae (74.36%), Emballonuridae (7.69%) and Mormoopidae (5.13%) (Table 1). Noteworthy records of foliage gleaning bats (e.g., Micro nycteris hirsuta, M. megalotis, M. microtis, M. minuta, Lonchorhina aurita, Mimon crenulatum, Tonatia saurophila and Lophostoma silvicolum) were obtained in this study (Table 1). There were no representatives of Molossidae (free-tailed bats), Natalidae (funnel-eared bats) and Thyropteridae (disk-winged bats), documented in other localities of the Sierra de Aroa and Cordillera de la Costa.

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Rodents captured (Transandinomys talamancae, Heteromys anomalus, H. catopterius, Nephelomys caracolus and Proechimys guairae) represented important records for the mammalian fauna from Yurubi National Park. Of these, the latter three species were endemics (Heteromys catopterius endemic in the Cordillera de la Costa, Nephelomys caracolus endemic for the Cordillera de la Costa and Sierra de San Luis and Proechimys guairae endemics for five bioregions in Northern Venezuela).

Marsupials documented were Didelphis marsupialis, Marmosa demererae, Marmosops fuscatus, Chironectes minimus and Monodelphis palliolata (Table 1). The first three taxa with semi-arboreal habits; Chironectes, a terrestrial species associated with watercourses and Monodelphis, fully terrestrial. All these were captured and observed in primary habitats in Yurubi National Park.

We recorded 10 species assigned in some threat category for the country (Table 1). This number includes six species "Vulnerable", one "Near threatened" and three with "Data deficient". It is interesting to mention those mammals, such as monkeys (e.g., Alouatta seniculus and Cebus olivaceus), carnivores (e.g., Conepatus semistriatus, Cerdocyon thous, Potos flavus and Procyon cancrivorus) and the tapir (Tapirus terrestris), were apparently common, according to the interviews and occasional records in the study area. Another situation occurs for the paca (Cuniculus paca), peccaries (Tayassu pecari and Pecari tajacu), agouti (Dasyprocta leporina), deer (Mazama americana and Odocoileus cariacou), cats (Panthera onca, Puma concolor) and rabbits (Sylvilagus brasiliensis), which are the mainly hunted mammals, according to local residents.

From the total of mammals listed, 15 taxa have their restricted distributions in Northern Venezuela: Marmosops fuscatus, Monodelphis palliolata, Diphylla ecaudata, Anoura cultrata, Lonchorhina aurita, Sturnira erythromos, S. oporaphilum, Myotis keaysi, Conepatus semistriatus, Sciurus granatensis, Heteromys anomalus, H. catopterius Nephelomys caracolus, Transandinomys talamancae and Proechimys guairae.

DISCUSSION

Records obtained here provide new data for the Sierra de Aroa (Handley 1976) and update the list of mammals from Yurubi National Park. The documentation of these species represents 28% of 278 reported mammals in Northern Venezuela (Wilson & Reeder 2005).

With respect to medium-large sized mammals of hunting interest such as peccaries (Pecari tajacu and Tayassu pecari), paca (Cuniculus paca), agouti (Dasyprocta leporina) and deer (Mazama americana and Odocoileus cariacou) among others, their use as food can be considered as occasional, but it can be transformed if the daily use by local residents results successful in their hunting activities. They hunt very often, but this activity does not represent their basic sustenance. Apparently, only Mazama americana, a large-sized mammal evaluated in "Data deficient" for Venezuela (Rodriguez & Rojas 2008), was used in Yurubi National Park as food by local residents; the rest of medium-large sized mammals recorded in this study, and threatened in other localities of the country (Ochoa et al. 1995, Ochoa 2000), were apparently not hunted here.

Of carnivores defined in Venezuela within some threat category (Rodriguez & Rojas 2008), Puma concolor (Near threatened), Panthera onca, Leopardus pardalis and Leopardus sp. (Vulnerable) would be species mostly affected in the study area, because to the fear of local residents with these cats. It is important to mention the definition of "surrogate species" for some taxa recorded in Yurubi National Park: Panthera onca is defined as "umbrella species" and Puma concolor as "flagship species". These species are used in ecosystem conservation programs in the Neotropics (Isasi 2011); however, in an occasional encounter with these cats in the study area, they can be hunted without any importance of their conservation status. Another taxon considered "flagship species" in Yurubi National Park was the tapir (Tapirus terrestris); this large-sized mammal apparently was not hunted in the study area according to interviews with local residents.

According to surveys, the following taxa were considered common in the forest and they were not used for any purpose: Didelphis marsupialis, Tamandua tetradactyla, Alouatta seniculus, Cebus olivaceus, Procyon cancrivorus, Conepatus semistriatus and Potos flavus.

Small mammals showed a high number of species and families for bats (Phyllostomidae, Emballonuridae and Mormoopidae), marsupials (Didelphidae) and rodents (Sciuridae, Heteromyidae, Cricetidae and Echimyidae), very close to values found in other localities of the Northern side of the country (Handley 1976, Ochoa et al. 1995).

There are few records for Transandinomys talamancae in the Sierra de Aroa (which Handley 1976, assigned to the Oryzomys "capito" complex), and this rodent together with Sciurus granatensis, Heteromys anomalus, H. catopterius, Nephelomys caracolus and Proechimys guairae were the only representatives of families Sciuridae, Heteromyidae, Cricetidae and Echimyidae in the evaluated vegetation types. Some researchers regarded Heteromys anomalus, as one of the most common terrestrial rodent of forests in Northern Venezuela from sea level to over 2 000m (Handley 1976, Valdez et al. 1984), but a recent taxonomic study (Anderson & Gutierrez 2009), has confirmed a new species (Heteromys catopterius), from populations previously ascribed to the anomalus complex.

This new species was found between 1 500-1 940m (Anderson & Gutierrez 2009). This record in Sierra de Aroa, represents the first one for this rodent, and a substantial range extension to the West occurring from the West of the Depresion de Yaracuy, it is likely disjunctive from known records to the East.

It is noteworthy to mention the importance of Proechimys guairae, Heteromys catopterius and Nephelomys caracolus as endemic species to Northern Venezuela (Musser & Carleton 2005, Anderson & Gutierrez 2009). In the present, these rodents have not been evaluated in threat categories defined in the country (Rodriguez & Rojas 2008).

Phyllostomid bats such as Carollia perspicillata, Artibeusplanirostris and Sturnira lilium were the most common and with higher capture frequencies, in agreement with other records in primary forests in Venezuela (Handley 1976, Ochoa et al. 1995, Ochoa 2000). They commonly represent the dominant fraction in the understory of Neotropical forests (Ochoa et al. 1995, 2005), partly because of their very general food requirements (e.g., these bats consume fruits of understory and canopy plants like Piper spp., Ficus spp., Cecropia spp. and Solanum spp., Ochoa 2000); furthermore, there is no overlap in items consumed (Carollia is specialized in Piper, Artibeus in Ficus and Cecropia and Sturnira in Solanum, Ochoa 2000, Thies & Kalko 2004); there is no overlap in flight patterns during the search of food (flights in understory for Carollia spp. and Sturnira spp., and understory and canopy for Artibeus spp., Soriano 2000); echolocation is less developed, making them easier to catch with mist nets, and another argument is related with capabilities to inhabit highly disturbed environments, as well as those in a pristine condition (Ochoa 2000).

Particularly in the evergreen forest, which had a primary condition, we observed forest Piper species in the understory, consumed mainly by Carollia spp. (Thies & Kalko 2004), as well as the typical species of Ficus spp., which provide fruits throughout the year. Some bats captured in this inventory were considered strict frugivores (e.g., Artibeus spp., Carollia spp., and Sturnira spp.), using these resources as items of their diet (Kalko et al. 1996, Thies & Kalko 2004).

An interesting record is the presence in the study area of 13 of the 20 species in the Cordillera de la Costa (Linares 1998) of bats belonging to the subfamily Phyllostominae. Bats captured in Yurubi National Park of this subfamily are considered rare and have low relative abundances (Ochoa 2000); their feeding strategies include insectivorous (e.g., Lonchorhina aurita, Lophostoma silvicolum and Mimon crenulatum), fruits consumers as an additional component to their diet of insects (e.g., Micronycteris spp., and Tonatia saurophila), pollen and nectar consumers (e.g., Phyllostomus discolor and P. hastatus) and small vertebrate consumers (e.g., Chrotopterus auritus and Trachops cirrhosus).

In addition to their ecological preferences, which make their capture difficult (because these bats habit in primary forests and use a variety of habitats with different availability of food and shelter resources), they seem to be sensitive elements not tolerant to high disturbances in forests (Fenton et al. 1992, Ochoa 2000).

Another support of the primary condition of the vegetation inventoried was the absence of individuals of the common vampire (Desmodus rotundus) in sampled days. This vampire consumes only blood, with preference for the cattle, and often is considered a "damaging species" in localities with great disturbances (Fernandez-Badillo & Ulloa 1990). Although we did not captured Desmodus rotundus in the study area, local residents recognize it because sometimes their domestic animals suffer bite injuries.

Similarly, the capture of another vampire, Diphylla ecaudata, collected in the evergreen forest at 197m, indicates the primary condition of environments. This species unlike Desmodus rotundus, has been recorded mostly at elevations above 800m, in pristine forests in Venezuela (Handley 1976) and specializes in the consumption of vertebrate blood, with preferences for the avian one (Greenhall et al. 1984) from species that live in forested environments, making it a rare species to collect in disturbed areas.

The mammals of Yurubi National Park are an important component of the biodiversity of forests in the Cordillera de la Costa. Data and observations obtained in this inventory (e.g., endemism, mammals known as "surrogate species" threatened in Venezuela) give an important role at the Yurubi National Park, for the maintenance and conservation of ecosystems and local wildlife, threatened by human pressures of present times.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Authors wish to thank the staff of the Museo de la Estacion Biologica de Rancho (Francisco Bisbal and Javier Sanchez), for allowing us to review the material deposited at the museum and supported us in fieldworks (equipment loans); Hylda Siliet, Edward Camargo, Ivan Diaz, and Vicente Colmenares for all logistical support of lodging at both locations; the Departamento de Biologia, Universidad de Carabobo, especially Hector Silva, Antonio Perez, Guillermo Florez, Jorge Gimenez [dagger], Karen Lopez, and Yoiber Mujica for their fieldwork supports, and Carlos Varela for his help in some identifications of botanical taxa, Robert Anderson for his suggestions and the Instituto Nacional de Parques INPARQUES-Yaracuy.

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Franger J. Garcia (1,2), Mariana Delgado-Jaramillo (1,2), Marjorie Machado (1) & Luis Aular (2)

(1.) Departamento de Biologia, Facultad Experimental de Ciencias y Tecnologia (FACYT), Universidad de Carabobo; cormura@yahoo.com, marianadelgado13@yahoo.es, mmachado3@uc.edu.ve

(2.) Grupo de Exploraciones Cientificas Minas de Aroa, Yaracuy (GECMA-Yaracuy); guacharocuy@hotmail.com

Received 22-IX-2010. Corrected 20-V-2011. Accepted 21-VI-2011.
TABLE 1
Mammals recorded in Yurubi National Park, Yaracuy State,
Northern Venezuela

TAXA                                      Vegetation types

                                        SDF             EF
DIDELPHIMORPHIA
DIDELPHIDAE
DIDELPHINAE
Chironectes minimus (1)                              T, O, I
Didelphis marsupialis (1, 2, 3, 4)       I             O, I
Marmosops fuscattus (2)
Marmosa demerarae (3)
Monodelphis palliolata (2)
CINGULATA
DASYPODIDAE
DASYPODINAE
Dasypus novemcinctus (2)                 I             O, I
PILOSA
BRADYPODIDAE
Bradypus variegatus (4)                  I             O, I
MYRMECOPHAGIDAE
Myrmecophaga tridactyla                  I              I
Tamandua tetradactyla                    I             O, I
PRIMATES
CEBIDAE
CEBINAE
Cebus olivaceus (5)                      I             O, I
ATELIDAE
ALOUATTINAE
Alouatta seniculus (5)                O, V, I      BP, O, V, I
LAGOMORPHA
LEPORIDAE
Sylvilagus brasiliensis                  I              I
CHIROPTERA
EMBALLONURIDAE
EMBALLONURINAE
Peropteryx kappleri (7)                                3MR
Saccopteryx bilineata (4)                              1MR
Saccopteryx leptura (4)                                 1R
PHYLLOSTOMIDAE
DESMODONTINAE
Desmodus rotundus (8)                                  O, I
Diphylla ecaudata (4)                                   1C
GLOSSOPHAGINAE
Anoura cultratra (4)
Glossophaga soricina (4)                 2C          4C, 3MR
PHYLLOSTOMINAE
Chrotopterus auritus (4)                                1C
Lonchorhina auritca (4, 8)                         4C, 1R, O, 2MR
Lophostoma silvicolum (4)                               1C
Micronycteris hirsuta (6)                              1MR
Micronycteris megalotis (4)              1C
Micronycteris microtis (4)                              2C
Micronycteris minuta (4)                                1C
Mimon crenulatum (4)                                    1C
Phylloderma stenops (4)                                 1C
Phyllostomus discolor (4)                1C            3MR
Phyllostomus hastatus (4)                1C            1MR
Tonatia saurophila (4)                   1C             1C
Trachops cirrhosus (1, 4)                               1C
CAROLLIINAE
Carollia brevicauda (4)                            2C, 1R, 2MR
Carollia perspicillata (4, 8)            8R        6C, 7MR, 61R
STENODERMATINAE
Artibeus bogotensis (4)                              6C, 1MR
Artibeus lituratus (4)                   1C           2C, 5R
Artibeus planirostris (4)              2C, 9R        4C, 18R
Chiroderma villosum (4)                                 1C
Platyrrhinus helleri (4)                 1C             3C
Platyrrhinus umbratus (4)
Platyrrhinus vittatus (4)
Uroderma bilobatum (4)                             5C, 1MR, 2R
Vampyressa thyone (4)                                   2C
Sturnira erythromos (4)
Sturnira lilium (4)                    3C, 8R        5R, 6MR
Sturnira oporaphilum (4)                             1C, 2MR
MORMOOPIDAE
Pteronotus parnellii (4)                               2MR
Pteronotus personatus (1,4)                             1C
VESPERTILIONIDAE
VESPERTILIONINAE
Eptesicus furinalis (4)                  1C            1MR
Rhogeessa io (4)                         1C             2C
MYOTINAE
Myotis keaysi (4, 8)                                    5C
CARNIVORA
FELIDAE
FELINAE
Leopardus pardalis                       I              I
Leopardus sp.(wiedii or tigrinus)        I              I
Puma concolor                            I              I
Puma yagouaroundi (2)                    I             O, I
PANTHERINAE
Panthera onca                            I             T, I
CANIDAE
Cerdocyon thous                          I              I
Speothos venaticus (2)                                  O
MUSTELIDAE
MUSTELINAE
Eira barbara (2)                         I              O
Mustela frenata
MEPHITIDAE
Conepatus semistriatus                   I              I
PROCYONIDAE
Nasua nasua                              I              I
Procyon cancrivorus (1,2)                I         I, FR, O, I
Potos flavus (5)                         I           O, V, I
PERISSODACTYLA
TAPIRIDAE
Tapirus terrestris (1, 2)                            T, S, I
ARTIODACTYLA
TAYASSUIDAE
Pecari tajacu                            I            2H, I
Tayassu pecari                           I              I
CERVIDAE
Mazama americana                         I              I
Odocoileus cariacou                                     I
RODENTIA
SCIURIDAE
SCIURINAE
Sciurus granatensis (4)                 O, I           O, I
HETEROMYIDAE
HETEROMYINAE
Heteromys anomalus (2)                   5C             O
Heteromys catopterius (2)
CRICETIDAE
SIGMODONTINAE
Nephelomys caracolus (2)
Transandinomys talamancae (2)            1C             1C
ERETHIZONTIDAE
Coendou prehensilis                      I              I
DASYPROCTIDAE
Dasyprocta leporina                      I              I
CUNICULIDAE
Cuniculus paca (2)                       I             T, I
ECHIMYIDAE
EUMYSOPINAE
Proechimys guairae (2)                   I           1C,O, I

TOTAL                                    41             68

                                      Vegetation
                                        types
TAXA
                                                     Threat
                                          CF       Categories
DIDELPHIMORPHIA
DIDELPHIDAE
DIDELPHINAE
Chironectes minimus (1)
Didelphis marsupialis (1, 2, 3, 4)        I
Marmosops fuscattus (2)                2C, 1MR
Marmosa demerarae (3)                     1C
Monodelphis palliolata (2)                3C
CINGULATA
DASYPODIDAE
DASYPODINAE
Dasypus novemcinctus (2)                  I
PILOSA
BRADYPODIDAE
Bradypus variegatus (4)                   I
MYRMECOPHAGIDAE
Myrmecophaga tridactyla                                VU
Tamandua tetradactyla                     I
PRIMATES
CEBIDAE
CEBINAE
Cebus olivaceus (5)                       I
ATELIDAE
ALOUATTINAE
Alouatta seniculus (5)                 V, I, BP
LAGOMORPHA
LEPORIDAE
Sylvilagus brasiliensis                   I
CHIROPTERA
EMBALLONURIDAE
EMBALLONURINAE
Peropteryx kappleri (7)
Saccopteryx bilineata (4)
Saccopteryx leptura (4)
PHYLLOSTOMIDAE
DESMODONTINAE
Desmodus rotundus (8)
Diphylla ecaudata (4)                                  DD
GLOSSOPHAGINAE
Anoura cultratra (4)                     1MR
Glossophaga soricina (4)                 1MR
PHYLLOSTOMINAE
Chrotopterus auritus (4)
Lonchorhina auritca (4, 8)
Lophostoma silvicolum (4)
Micronycteris hirsuta (6)
Micronycteris megalotis (4)              2MR
Micronycteris microtis (4)
Micronycteris minuta (4)
Mimon crenulatum (4)
Phylloderma stenops (4)
Phyllostomus discolor (4)
Phyllostomus hastatus (4)
Tonatia saurophila (4)
Trachops cirrhosus (1, 4)
CAROLLIINAE
Carollia brevicauda (4)               2C, 2MR, 2R
Carollia perspicillata (4, 8)
STENODERMATINAE
Artibeus bogotensis (4)
Artibeus lituratus (4)                  8C, 2R
Artibeus planirostris (4)               7C, 6R
Chiroderma villosum (4)
Platyrrhinus helleri (4)
Platyrrhinus umbratus (4)                8MR           DD
Platyrrhinus vittatus (4)                 1C
Uroderma bilobatum (4)
Vampyressa thyone (4)
Sturnira erythromos (4)                  1MR
Sturnira lilium (4)                    2C, 1MR
Sturnira oporaphilum (4)               13C, 11R
MORMOOPIDAE
Pteronotus parnellii (4)                5C, 2R
Pteronotus personatus (1,4)
VESPERTILIONIDAE
VESPERTILIONINAE
Eptesicus furinalis (4)
Rhogeessa io (4)
MYOTINAE
Myotis keaysi (4, 8)                     2MR
CARNIVORA
FELIDAE
FELINAE
Leopardus pardalis                        I            VU
Leopardus sp.(wiedii or tigrinus)         I            VU
Puma concolor                             I            NT
Puma yagouaroundi (2)                     I
PANTHERINAE
Panthera onca                            T, I          VU
CANIDAE
Cerdocyon thous                           I
Speothos venaticus (2)                                 VU
MUSTELIDAE
MUSTELINAE
Eira barbara (2)                          I
Mustela frenata                           I
MEPHITIDAE
Conepatus semistriatus                    I
PROCYONIDAE
Nasua nasua
Procyon cancrivorus (1,2)                 I
Potos flavus (5)                         V, I
PERISSODACTYLA
TAPIRIDAE
Tapirus terrestris (1, 2)              T, S, I         VU
ARTIODACTYLA
TAYASSUIDAE
Pecari tajacu                             I
Tayassu pecari                            I
CERVIDAE
Mazama americana                        1C, I          DD
Odocoileus cariacou
RODENTIA
SCIURIDAE
SCIURINAE
Sciurus granatensis (4)                   I
HETEROMYIDAE
HETEROMYINAE
Heteromys anomalus (2)
Heteromys catopterius (2)                 4C
CRICETIDAE
SIGMODONTINAE
Nephelomys caracolus (2)                  2C
Transandinomys talamancae (2)            10C
ERETHIZONTIDAE
Coendou prehensilis                       I
DASYPROCTIDAE
Dasyprocta leporina                       I
CUNICULIDAE
Cuniculus paca (2)                      BP, I
ECHIMYIDAE
EUMYSOPINAE
Proechimys guairae (2)

TOTAL                                     45

Vegetation types in sampled days of this work are: SDF: semi-deciduous
forest, EF: evergreen forest and CF: cloud forest. Abbreviations of
methods for the recording are: I: Interviews with local residents,
O: Observations by authors, C: Collected in this inventory, MR: Museum
records, BP: Bone parts found, T: Tracks, FR: Food remains, S: Scats,
V: vocalizations, H: Hunting and R: Released. Numbers indicate stratum
of collection or observations: (1) = Associated with watercourses,
(2) = Ground, (3) = Liana, (4) = Understory, (5) = Canopy,
(6) = Hole in tree, 7 = Crevices and 8 = Caves. Threat categories in
Venezuela are based in Rodriguez & Rojas-Suarez (2008): Vu=Vulnerable,
NT = Near threatened, DD=Data deficient.

TABLE 2
Sampling efforts in evaluated localities of Yurubi National Park,
Yaracuy State, Northern Venezuela

                            Sampled Localities and effort

Methods                         Mayorica               El Silencio

                  Semi-deciduous      Evergreen        Cloud forest
                      forest            forest

Traps             591 trap-nights         --          790 trap-nights
Mist nets          15 net-hours      128 net-hours     180 net-hours
Pitfall system          --          32 bucket-days    77 bucket-days
Observations         10 hours          16 hours          10 hours
Interviews           3 persons         3 persons         1 person
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Title Annotation:articulo en ingles
Author:Garcia, Franger J.; Delgado-Jaramillo, Mariana; Machado, Marjorie; Aular, Luis
Publication:Revista de Biologia Tropical
Date:Mar 1, 2012
Words:5882
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