Predictors of mood states among adolescents: A multivariate study.
Keywords : Mood- States, Adolescents, Family- Pathology, Academic-Achievement, Self-Concept, Birth-Order, Working Status of Mother, and Educational Status of Mother.
Modern psychology interprets adolescence as a phase of an individual,s continuous growth and development. It is the most important and crucial period of human life, in which the adolescents should be given every opportunity to develop a wholesome personality satisfying and socially acceptable physical and mental status, emotional and social adjustment. Adolescent development and adjustment are matters of serious concern, not only to the parents, but also to the persons concerned with school education and to all those who are interested in youth psychosocial well-being, as well as in the future progress of the nation and society.
Adolescents are strength of the present and hope of the future. It is imperative, therefore, that educators and parents should get as much understanding as is possible, concerning the various characteristics, needs, interest and growth potentialities of maturing adolescents. For a potential growth and development of the nation, what is urgently needed is the best utilization of all the available human resources. Adolescents are rightly said to be the richest national resources. To the extent the diverse talents and potentialities and prosperity of the nation are fostered. Proper development of the potentiality of the adolescent is possible only when there is an all-around awareness of the personality hazards of this crucial period. It is imperative that clinical hazards of adolescent's personality are recognized and their magnitude ascertained. Only then we can suggest some intervention programmes for the adolescents. The present investigation has, therefore, attempted to study the psychosocial correlates of mood states among adolescents. Early investigations have tried to study the role of different variables on mood states but the field is still full of contradictory findings and conflicting opinions and loyalties. All those reasons tempted me to select a problem from this field and so here it is.
A person is always experiencing some emotion at any time, since when the present emotion fades away so another emotion will take its place and be felt by him. No single emotional response can be permanent. When any emotion, such as anger is experienced the person can stay angry only for sometime, eventually the anger will fade away and a fresh emotion will arise. In present study eight mood states Anxiety, Stress, Depression, Regression, Fatigue, Guilt, Extraversion and Arousal are taken. Margolese, Stephanie, Kin (2002) revealed that stress reactivity was more strongly correlated with depression, guilt, anxiety, hopelessness and suicidal ideation among adolescents high in emotional perception compared to others.
The family pathology is defined as the maladaptive behavior present amongst the family members in their interaction with each other i.e. between spouses and between parents and children. (Moos R.H. & Moos B.J. 1986). Mcfarlane, A.H. Bellissimo, A Norman, (1995) resulted that social self efficacy and social support from family and peers were negatively associated with mood states and therefore acted as protective factors among adolescents. Roser, Rober. W. (2005) concluded the strong relationship between parental psychopathology and adolescents adjustment, psychological well-being, substance abuse and delinquent behaviour. Fuligni, Adnrew, J. Alvarez (2013) revealed that if we evaluate and treat family psychopathology, we can reduce the risk for youth suicidal states.
Self-concept may be defined simply as the total collection of attitudes, judgments and values which an individuals holds with respect to his behaviour, his ability, his biology and his worth as person. In short, how he perceives and evaluates himself. Researchers have suggested that lower overall self-concept negatively affects social behaviour. Positive self-perception is typically associated with overall adjustment.
* The main objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship among family pathology, self concept and mood states among adolescents.
* The other objective of the present investigation was to explore the role of mediated variables such as- academic- achievement, birth-order, working status of mother, and educational status of mother.
* Family Pathology and Self-Concept would be significantly associated with mood states among adolescents.
* It was also hypothesized that different mediated variables such as academic- achievement, birth order, working status of mother and
educational status of mother would be differently associated with mood states among adolescents.
Research Design : This investigation will be based on a causal model to explore the role of exogenous and endogenous variables. It is a survey type of research.
Exogenous Variables :In this category Family Pathology and Self-Concept have been taken.
Endogenous Variable :In this category mood states has been taken.
Mediator Variables :In this category academic- achievement, birth-order, working status of mother and educational status of mother have been taken.
Sample :For the purpose of the present investigation a correlational design was used. A sample of 200 adolescents and their parents (only mother) have been selected from western U.P. (Meerut, Baghpat, Baraut Shamli) with the help of stratified random sampling. The age range of adolescents was 16 to 18 years.
Mood State Scale :The eight state questionnaire (Form B) constructed and standardized by M.Kapoor and Mahesh Bhargava was administered to assess the mood states of the subjects. Eight state questionnaire was designed specifically for measuring eight important emotional state, mood eight state questionnaire contain 96 items, 12 of which measure each state, Eight state questionnaire measures 8 moos states viz, Anxiety, Stress, Depression, Regression, Fatigue Guilt. Extraversion and Arousal.
Self-Concept Scale :The self-concept questionnaire constructed by Saraswat (1997) was administered for the subjects to assess the level of self-concept. The self-concepts questionnaire consists of six dimension. There are 8 items on each dimension and in all there are 48 items. The total score ranges from 48 to 240. A high score on this inventory indicants a higher self-concept and vice-versa.
Family Pathology Scale : Family pathology scale constructed and standardized by Dr. V.V. Raghwan and Dr. Archna Dogra was used on the parent (only mother). The scale has 42 items to be respond by the subjects with 'most often', 'occasionally' and 'never'. The higher the scores indicate the higher the family pathology.
Academic Achievement :The averages of last three years percentages of adolescents have been obtained from school records.
Research Procedure : After selecting sample of 200 adolescents, their parents were contacted initially to collect information. They were either contacted at parental meeting or at their home. After establishing rapport the tools were administrated on the families. There were two scales mood states & self-concept scales to be filled up by children and one scale family pathology scale to be filled up by their parents (only mother).
RESULT AND DISCUSSION
The results are summarized in Table 1, 2, and 3.
The table 1 revealed that correlation between self-concept and mood states is -0.456 (**). It indicate a significant negative correlation. It means if self-concept is Positive mood states will decrease among adolescents or vice-versa. The correlation of family-pathology and mood states is 0.735 (**). The significant value has a high magnitude and positive direction. It seems the higher the family pathology the higher the mood states or vice-versa.
The correlation coefficient between academic achievement and mood-states is -0.667 (**). It indicate a significant high negative correlation. It means mood states will increase if the academic achievement is decrease or vice-versa. The correlation coefficient between birth-order and mood states is -.052. The value is not significant. The correlation coefficient between working status of mother and mood-states is -0.070. The value is also insignificant. The correlation between education status of mother and mood states is -0.039. It shows a non-significant negative relationship between education status of mother and mood states of their children.
Multiple Regression Analysis : Stepwise multiple regression analysis was done to identify the role of family pathology, academic achievement, self-concept, educational status of mother and working status of mother in the determination of mood states of adolescents when mood states was studied as dependent variable. After stepwise multiple regression analysis three factor i.e. family pathology, academic achievement and self-concept variables have been selected.
The equation revealed that in prediction mood status of adolescents only three independent variables i.e. Family pathology, Academic achievement and Self-concept were found to be significant predictors contributing 63.25% of the total variance.
Separate contribution of all these three Independent variables on dependent variable are also analysed. Thus the first independent variable family pathology is contributing 35.75% (r x [beta]= 0.735 x 0.48645) of the total 63.25% contribution. The t' value for family pathology is 8.675. Thus the results indicate if family pathology increases mood states will increase or vice-versa. These findings are consistent with the finding of earlier studies by Betual Aydin Fiiz Oztutuncu (2001) concluded that family pathology was found to be significantly related to the degree of negative thoughts and depressive mood states of the adolescents.
Nilzon, Kjell, R., Palmerus, Kerstin (2011). Investigated the sound impact of family pathology on adolescents anxiety, stress and depression. Levi, Gabriel, Sogos, Carla (2009) found that the presence of psychopathology in the parents and negative life events were significantly associated with anxiety and higher levels of depression among adolescents. Wood Ward, Lianne, J. Fergusson, David, M., (1999). Concluded that mothers with depressive symptoms report lower levels of marital satisfaction and higher levels of child's negative mood states.
The second significant variable Academic Achievement is contributing 21.55% (rxp= 0.667 x 0.32313) of the total contribution. The t' value for academic achievement is -5.830 (P=0000). It means if mood states decreases the academic achievement will increase or vice-versa.
The results obtained by Ainslie et.al. (1996) can be cited to support these results, the researchers investigated that family support and academic achievement were found to be strongly related to reported stress and arousal mood states among adolescents. In another study stage, Amy 1997, indicated that there was a significant relationship between depressive mood and academic achievement domain. Wong, Eugene, H., (2012) investigated that scholastic competence was a significant predictor of depression among adolescents. Vernon, Margaret-K (2011) concluded that academic achievement was related with stress and life stratification.
The third significant variable supposed to influence mood states comes out to be self-concept, which is contributing 5.89% (r x [beta] = 0.456x0.12929) in the total contribution. The t' value for self-concept is -2.669 (P=0083). In Anderman (2009) study results indicated that self-concept and academic performance was significantly associated with mood states among adolescents Asakawa Kiyoshi (2012) investigated that self-concept and academic activities were positively and strongly correlated with happiness and enjoyment among American adolescents. In another study Dumont, Michelle and Provost More, A., (1999) investigated that Positive self-concept is the prominent protective resources that youth can use against daily negative life events and that problem solving. Copying strategies are instrumental in helping adolescents to avoid to much stress and depression.
On the basis of contributions a hierarchy can be set up family pathology, academic achievement and self-concept other variables are not in the equation. Thus an equation can be set up in order of importance of influence of mood states of adolescents family pathology ([beta]=48645) academic achievement ([beta]=-.32313) and self-concept ([beta]=0.12929).
Conclusions : The following conclusions were drawn :
1. Parental psychopathology is as an important risk-factors for mood states thus it can be concluded family pathology promotes mood states and the family where its members are committed to each other. Provide supported, help to each other is a place for personal growth and diminishes the chances of negative mood states eg. stress, depression etc
2. The present investigation revealed that the problems of poor academic performance at school level has been a matter of serious concern. The findings point out that academic achievement has a strong and negative relationship with negative mood states meaning that negative mood states decreases the school performance of adolescents.
3. The higher magnitudes of positive self-concept go with diminished magnitudes of mood states. Thus the well-being of adolescents can be enhanced by enhancing their positive self-concept as well as by reducing their negative and poor self-concept.
4. Working status of mother has not found to be a significant predictor of different mood states among adolescents.
5. Educational status of mother has not been found to play a significant contribution for negative mood states among adolescents.
6. Birth-order was not found to play an important role in determining different mood states directly or indirectly.
Thus our research can give direction for further research. It help to develop an appropriate intervention plan for the youth.
Practical implication of the study :
After reporting the quantitative and qualitative findings of this study, we can pool together some of its practical implications.
* If we want to make an attempt for better utilization of this most productive age we will have to understand some of the basic psycho-social needs such as need to achieve, self-assertion, good family environment etc. So it seems essential that such an atmosphere should be provided, so that they may have a chance for the full florishment of their talents.
* If the psycho-social needs of the adolescents are not well satisfied there is every likelihood of the persons becoming a problem in the home and being a misfit in a society. In order to prevent such problems an attempt should be made to understand their psychological needs.
* Family is a delicate bouquet and needs to be nurtured in prudent manner; children are the budding personalities in this bouquet, seeking sagacious support. The obtained findings are important and promising. It is the time when parents change their roles according to the needs of the children and changing time.
* The findings of the present study indicate that it is essential to work together to develop family coping skills and strengthen family bonds. They should set priorities and goals as a family, and clarify family member's roles and responsibilities.
* Children spend more time with teachers and peers, so the teaches should develop a nature of minute observations.
* The role of social workers should be more active in starting programmes for parental training and awareness in the society should be increased.
* Clinicians can understand the roots of the stress and depression in a better fashion and will be able to develop an appropriate intervention plan.
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Received : May 15,2016
Revised : July 30,2016
Accepted : November 16, 2016
Neeraj Chaudhary (*)
(*) Assistant Professor, Department. of Psychology, D.J.College Baraut, Baghpat, India
Table 1: Intercorrelational Matrix Variables Birth-order Self-concept Family Academic Pathology Achievement Birth-Order 1.00 Self-concept 0.86 1.0 Family .143 (*) -.313 (**) 1.00 Pathology Academic .168 (*) .289 (**) - 1.00 Achievement .605 (*) (*) Mood States -.052 -.0456 (**) .735 (*) -.667 (**) (*) Working Status .061 .031 .041 .020 of Mother Education Status -.095 .174 (*) -.013 .063 of Mother Variables Mood States Working Status Educational of Mother Status of Mother Birth-Order Self-concept Family Pathology Academic Achievement Mood States 1.00 Working Status -.070 1.00 of Mother Education Status -.039 .210 (*) 1.00 of Mother (*) (**) Significant at .01 level., (*) Significant at .05 level Table 2: Stepwise Contribution of I.V. on D.V. Variables [R.sup.2] Multiple R Adjusted R Standard Square Error Family .540 .735 .538 7.66 Pathology Achievement .619 .786 .615 7.00 Self-Concept .632 .795 .626 6.89 Table 3: Variable in the Equation Variables B SEB Beta 't' Sig. T Family .23124 0.2665 .48645 8.675 .0000 Pathology A. Achievement -.45655 .07831 -.32313 5.830 .000 Self-Concept -.02484 9.30896 -..12929 2.669 .0083 Constant 14.65847 3.49418 4.195 .0000
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|Publication:||Indian Journal of Community Psychology|
|Date:||Mar 1, 2017|
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