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Predators of bark beetles (Coleoptera) in the Balikesir region of Turkey/Depredadores de escarabajos de la corteza (Coleoptera) en la region de Balikesir de Turquia.

Introduction

The bark beetles associated with coniferous forests are one of the most destructive groups among the xyloephagous species on trees. The feeding on food supply, abundance, reproduction and distribution of these beetles can result in the epidemic outbreaks and the destructions of forest area. The eradication by burning, the silvicultural methods or the natural enemies for the control of bark beetles can be used in infected areas. Predators are important natural enemies against bark beetles. Arthropod predators can use bark beetle pheromones as host-specific kairomones or volatiles and typically arrive before parasitoids to an infested tree (Aukema and Raffa 2004).

The most conspicuous coleopteran predators of bark beetles are species from Cleridae family that include some very important predatory species. The species from Corticeus genus associated with conifers are active bark beetle predators (Wegensteiner et al. 2015). Adult and larvae of Aulonium ruficorne (Oliv.), which is the most noticeable predator of Orthotomicus erosus (Woll.), can cause up to 90% mortality of young O. erosus adults and also feed on all immature stages (Podoler et al. 1990). Schroeder (1997) stated that Thanasimus formicarius (L.) could reduce the size of Tomicus piniperda (L.) broods up to 81%. Martin et al. (2013) emphasized that Temnochila caerulea (Oliv.) is a predator of Ips sexdentatus (Boern.).

Predatory organisms were recently used as an agent for biological control of Dentroctonus micans (Kug.), and for pathogenic organisms of Ips acuminatus (Gyll.) in Turkey (Eroglu 1995, Yaman et al. 2016). Also, the effects of ecological and silvicultural practices on the bark beetles were handled in Turkish fir ecosystems (Yildiz et al. 2007).

Scolytinae species damaged a forest area of 8730 ha between 2005 and 2015, and only 1105 ha in 2014 in the study site. This damage caused 17803 [m.sup.3] production losses in 2014. In Turkey, less information is known about the natural enemies of Scolytinae species in coniferous forests in the Balikesir Province. The aim of this research was to determine predator species of bark beetles in the coniferous forests in the Balikesir forests.

Material and methods

A survey was carried out to identify the predators and Scolytinae species of the Balikesir Province in northwestern Turkey. This province has coastlines of both Marmara and Aegean Sea and contains extensive forest areas. These species were collected from 6 sampling sites: Taskoy, Saribeyler, Karasu, Domuzharmani, Kocatas and Cataldag (Fig. 1). These sites varied in altitudes that display different forest characteristics (Table 1). Insect specimens were caught with log and pheromone funnel traps including vit-ortero lure (for Orthotomicus sp.), vit-ippsex lure (for Ips sp.) and vit-pitcur (for Pityokteines sp.) were used as pheromone preparations respectively 1, 2 and 4 sites; 3 and 5 sites; 6 site. These lures were bougth from the Verim Group. Both vit-ortero lures and vit-ippsex lures were used in sites 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, and only vit-pitcur lures in site 6. Also, we observed the weakened trees and visually searched the base and trunk of the tree. Five pheromone and two log traps for each site were installed and were spaced 40 m apart. The log traps (15 x 50 cm) consisted of P. brutia for sites 1, 2 and 4, P. nigra for sites 3 and 5 and A. nordmanniana ssp. bornmulleriana for site 6. These logs were held in the field along the entire time. Predator specimens were collected from galleries of Scolytinae species and pheromone traps. Collected specimens were labelled and deposited in the Museum of Department of Forest Entomology and Protection at Istanbul University-Cerrahpasa.

Results

As a result of this study, eight bark beetle predators belonging to six families were found (Fig. 2).

Clerus mutillarius Fabricius, 1775

It was collected from pheromone traps and galleries of Orthotomicus erosus (Woll) and Tomicus destruens (Woll.) between April and June in Taskoy and Saribeyler, between May and July in Domuzharmani in Pinus brutia forests, from pheromone traps and galleries of Ips sexdentatus (Boern.) between May and June in Karasu, on April in Kocatas, from galleries of Orthotomicus longicollis (Gyll.) on July in Kocatas in P. nigra forests, and from pheromone traps and galleries of Pityokteines curvidens (Germ.) between June and July in Cataldag in Abies nordmanniana subsp. bornmulleriana forests. Host of C. mutillarius included Ips sexdentatus (Boern.), Orthotomicus erosus (Woll.), Pityokteines curvidens (Germ.), P spinidens (Reitt.) and Tomicus destruens (Woll.) as found in earlier studies (Tosun 1975; Unal and Yuksel 2005; Sarikaya and Avci 2009).

Thanasimus formicarius (Linnaeus, 1758)

It was collected from pheromone traps and galleries of Orthotomicus erosus (Woll.) between April and June in Taskoy, between May and September in Saribeyler, between May and July in Domuzharmani, from galleries of Pityogenes bistridentatus (Eichh.) between June and July from galleries of Tomicus destruens (Woll.) on May from galleries of Pityogenes pennidens Reitt. between July and August in Domuzharmani in Pinus brutia forests, from pheromone traps and galleries of Ips sexdentatus (Boern.) between May and June in Karasu, on April in Kocatas in P. nigra forests, and from galleries of Pityokteines curvidens (Germ.) between July and August in Cataldag in Abies nordmanniana subsp. bornmulleriana forests.

Host of T. formicarius included Cryphalus piceae (Ratz.), Dendroctonus micans (Kug.), I. acuminatus (Gyll.), I. mannsfeldi (Wachtl), I. sexdentatus (Boern.), I. typographus (L.), Orthotomicus erosus (Woll.), O. tridentatus Eggers, Pityogenes bidentatus (Herbst), Pityokteines curvidens (Germ.), P spinidens (Reitt.), P vorontzowi (Jacob.), Pityophthorus pityographus (Ratz.), Tomicus destruens (Woll.) and T. minor (Hart.) as determined in other studies (Tosun 1975; Yuksel and Akbulut 2002; Yuksel and Alkan 2003; Serin et al. 2005; Sarikaya and Avci 2009).

Paromalus parallelepipedus (Herbst, 1792)

It was collected from pheromone traps of Orthotomicus erosus (Woll.) and galleries of Tomicus destruens (Woll.) on May 12.05.2014 in Taskoy, Saribeyler and Domuzharmani in Pinus brutia forests. Host of P parallelepipedus included Cryphalus piceae (Ratz.), Ips sexdentatus (Boern.), I. typographus (L.), Orthotomicus erosus (Woll.) and Tomicus destruens (Woll.) as found in earlier studies (Serin et al. 2005; Sarikaya and Avci 2009).

Platysoma elongatum (Thunberg, 1787)

It was collected from pheromone traps of Orthotomicus erosus (Woll.) between May and June in Taskoy, between May and July in Saribeyler, between April and September in Domuzharmani, and from galleries of Tomicus destruens (Woll.) on May in Domuzharmani in Pinus brutia forests. Host of P elongatum included Orthotomicus erosus (Woll.), O. tridentatus Eggers, Tomicus destruens (Woll.) and T. piniperda (L.) as determined in other studies (Tosun 1975; Sarikaya and Avci 2009).

Raphidia ophiopsis Linnaeus, 1758

It was collected from galleries of Orthotomicus erosus (Woll.) between April and May in Taskoy, between May and September in Saribeyler and Domuzharmani, from galleries of Tomicus destruens (Woll.) on May in Domuzharmani in Pinus brutia forests, from galleries of Ips sexdentatus (Boern.) on April in Kocatas, on May in Karasu, and from galleries of T. minor (Hart.) between April and May in Karasu in P. nigra forests. Host of R. ophiopsis included Cryphalus piceae (Ratz.), Dendroctonus micans (Kug., Ips sexdentatus (Boern.), I. typographus (L.), Orthotomicus erosus (Woll.), Pityogenes bidentatus (Herbst), Pityokteines curvidens (Germ.), Pityophthoruspityographus (Ratz.), Tomicus destruens (Woll.) and T. minor (Hart.) as found in earlier studies (Tosun 1975; Selmi 1998; Yuksel and Akbulut 2002; Yuksel and Alkan 2003; Serin et al. 2005; Sarikaya and Avci 2009).

Corticeus fraxini (Kugelann, 1794)

It was collected from pheromone traps and galleries of Orthotomicus erosus (Woll.) between April and June in Taskoy, on May and September in Saribeyler, between May and July in Domuzharmani, from galleries of Tomicus destruens (Woll.) on May, from galleries of Hylurgus ligniperda Fabr. on April in Domuzharmani in Pinus brutia forests, from pheromone traps and galleries of Ips sexdentatus (Boern.), Tomicus minor (Hart.) and T. piniperda (L.) between May and June in Karasu, on April in Kocatas, and from galleries of Hylurgus micklitzi Wachtl on May in Kocatas in P. nigra forests. Host of C. fraxini included Ips acuminatus (Gyll.), I. sexdentatus (Boern.), I. mannsfeldi (Wachtl), Orthotomicus erosus (Woll.), O. tridentatus Eggers, Tomicus destruens (Woll.), T minor (Hart.) and T piniperda (L.) as determined in other studies (Schimitschek 1944; Yuksel et al. 2000; Sarikaya and Avci 2009).

Temnochila caerulea (Olivier, 1790)

It was collected from pheromone traps and galleries of Orthotomicus erosus (Woll.) between April and June in Taskoy, between May and September in Saribeyler, between May and July in Domuzharmani, from galleries of Tomicus destruens (Woll.) on May in Domuzharmani in Pinus brutia forests, from pheromone traps and galleries of Ips sexdentatus (Boern.) between May and June in Karasu, on April in Kocatas in P nigra forests, and from galleries of Pityokteines curvidens (Germ.) and Pityokteines vorontzowi (Jacob.) between June and July in Cataldag in Abies nordmanniana subsp. bornmulleriana forests. Host of T. caerulea included Ips sexdentatus (Boern.), Orthotomicus erosus (Woll.), Pityokteines curvidens (Germ.), Tomicus destruens (Woll.) and T. minor (Hart.) as found in earlier studies (Tosun 1975; Sarikaya and Avci 2009).

Aulonium ruficorne (Olivier, 1790)

It was collected from pheromone traps and galleries of Orthotomicus erosus (Woll.) between April and June in Taskoy, between April and September in Saribeyler, between May and July in Domuzharmani in Pinus brutia forests, from pheromone traps and galleries of Ips sexdentatus (Boern.) between May and June in Karasu, on April in Kocatas in P nigra forests, and from pheromone traps of Pityokteines curvidens (Germ.) and P vorontzowi (Jacob.) between April and August in Cataldag in Abies nordmanniana subsp. bornmulleriana forests. Host of A. ruficorne included Ips acuminatus (Gyll.), I. sexdentatus (Boern.), Orthotomicus erosus (Woll.), O. tridentatus Eggers, Phloesinus aubei Perr., Pityogenes bidentatus (Herbst), P. calcaratus (Eichh.), Pityokteines curvidens (Germ.) and Tomicus destruens (Woll.) as determined in other studies (Tosun 1975; Yuksel and Akbulut 2002; Unal and Yuksel 2005; Sarikaya and Avci 2009).

Discussion

Eight predator species were identified this study. The four species including Aulonium ruficorne (Oliv.), Clerus mutillarius Fab., Temnochila caerulea (Oliv.) and Thanasimus formicarius (L.) were very abundant and others were in relatively small numbers in the site (Table 2). All of predators were largely concerned with Ips sp., Orthotomicus sp. and Tomicus sp (Table 3). Observations for predators of A. ruficorne (Oliv.) on P vorontzowi (Jacob.), C. mutillarius Fab. on O. longicollis (Gyll.), C. fraxini (Kug.) on H. ligniperda and H. micklitzi Wachtl, T. formicarius (L.) on P bistridentatus (Eichh.) and P pennidens Reitt. represent the first records in Turkey. Three bark beetles, H. angustatus (Herbst), H. linearis Erich. and P aubei Perr. were attracted by pheromone traps. Predator species were identified in all traps but not in their galleries. In another words, although predators and their hosts were found together in pheromone traps but they were not observed together in the galleries.

Conclusion

This study gives information about relationship between predators and their host predator complex to control bark beetle population in Balikesir forests of Turkey. This ecological relationship is very important to design control population growth of the bark beetle while reducing hazards on the forests.

DOI: 10.25100/socolen.v44i2.7326

Acknowledgements

We thank Dr. Ferhat Gokbulak and Michael Hucko for their valuable comments for earlier draft of the paper.

Literature cited

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Received: 10-Mar-2017 * Accepted: 12-Apr-2018

HACI HUSEYIN CEBECI (1) and MUSTAFA BAYDEMIR (2)

(1) Ph. D. Istanbul University-Cerrahpasa, Faculty of Forestry, Department of Forest Entomology and Protection, Istanbul, Turkey, hcebeci@istanbul.edu.tr. (2) M. Sc. Balikesir Forest Regional Directorate, Department of Controlling with Forest Pests, Balikesir, Turkey (During the study, he was a greduate research asistant). Corresponding author: Haci Huseyin Cebeci. Ph. D. Istanbul University-Cerrahpasa, Faculty of Forestry, Department of Forest Entomology and Protection, Istanbul, Turkey, hcebeci@istanbul.edu.tr

Caption: Figure 1. Location of the study sites in Balikesir forests of Turkey.

Caption: Figure 2. Predator species in the site. (a) Clerus mutillarius Fab. (Cleridae), (b) Thanasimus formicarius (L.) (Cleridae), (c) Paromalus parallelepipedus (Herb.) (Histeridae), (d) Platysoma elongatum (Thun.) (Histeridae), (e) Temnochila caerulea (Oliv.) (Trogossitidae), (f) Corticeus fraxini (Kug.) (Tenebrionidae), (g) Aulonium ruficorne (Oliv.) (Zopheridae), (h) Raphidia ophiopsis L. (Raphidiidae) and sampling cup for pheromone traps (i).
Table 1. Coordinates, altitudes and dominant tree species of sampling
sites in Balikesir Province, Turkey.

Site names (No)                 Coordinates                Altitud (m)

Taskoy (1)         27[degrees]53'57"N 39[degrees]27'58"E       225
Saribeyler (2)     27[degrees]34'21"N 39[degrees]25'45"E       396
Karasu (3)         27[degrees]13'57"N 39[degrees]21'00"E      1095
Domuzharmani (4)   27[degrees]35'59"N 39[degrees]42'07"E       589
Kocatas (5)        27[degrees]36'57"N 39[degrees]36'31"E       583
Cataldag (6)       28[degrees]19'21"N 39[degrees]51'10"E      1285

Site names (No)             Tree species

Taskoy (1)                  Pinus brutia
Saribeyler (2)              Pinus brutia
Karasu (3)                   Pinus nigra
Domuzharmani (4)            Pinus brutia
Kocatas (5)        Pinus nigra Abies nordmanniana
Cataldag (6)            subsp. bornmulleriana

Table 2. Distribution of predators according to sites, Balikesir
forests of Turkey.

Predators                                 Sites

                             Taskoy   Saribeyler   Karasu

Aulonium ruficorne             +          +          +
Clerus mutillarius             +          +          +
Corticeus fraxini              +          +          +
Paromalus parallelepipedus     +          +          -
Platysoma elongatum            +          +          -
Raphidia ophiopsis             +          +          +
Temnochila caerulea            +          +          +
Thanasimus formicarius         +          +          +

Predators                                   Sites

                             Domuzharmani   Kocatas   Cataldag

Aulonium ruficorne                +            +         +
Clerus mutillarius                +            +         +
Corticeus fraxini                 +            +         -
Paromalus parallelepipedus        +            -         -
Platysoma elongatum               +            -         -
Raphidia ophiopsis                +            +         -
Temnochila caerulea               +            +         +
Thanasimus formicarius            +            +         +

Table 3. Predation in galleries of bark beetle species in sites,
Balikesir forests of Turkey.

Bark beetle species                      Predators
in Balikesir region
                            Aulonium      Clerus      Corticeus
                            ruficorne   mutillarius    fraxini

Hylastes angustatus             -            -            -
Hylastes linearis               -            -            -
Ips sexdentatus                 +            +            +
Orthotomicus erosus             +            +            +
Orthotomicus longicollis        -            +            -
Pityogenes bistridentatus       -            -            -
Pityogenes pennidens            -            -            -
Pityokteines curvidens          +            +            -
Pityokteines vorontzowi         +            -            -
Phloeosinus aubei               -            -            -
Hylurgus ligniperda             -            -            +
Hylurgus micklitzi              -            -            +
Tomicus destruens               -            +            -
Tomicus minor                   -            -            +
Tomicus piniperda               -            -            +

Bark beetle species                            Predators
in Balikesir region
                               Paromalus       Platysoma   Raphidia
                            parallelepipedus   elongatum   ophiopsis

Hylastes angustatus                -               -           -
Hylastes linearis                  -               -           -
Ips sexdentatus                    -               -           +
Orthotomicus erosus                +               +           +
Orthotomicus longicollis           -               -           -
Pityogenes bistridentatus          -               -           -
Pityogenes pennidens               -               -           -
Pityokteines curvidens             -               -           -
Pityokteines vorontzowi            -               -           -
Phloeosinus aubei                  -               -           -
Hylurgus ligniperda                -               -           -
Hylurgus micklitzi                 -               -           -
Tomicus destruens                  +               +           +
Tomicus minor                      -               -           +
Tomicus piniperda                  -               -           -

Bark beetle species                 Predators
in Balikesir region
                            Temnochila   Thanasimus
                             caerulea    formicarius

Hylastes angustatus             -             -
Hylastes linearis               -             -
Ips sexdentatus                 +             +
Orthotomicus erosus             +             +
Orthotomicus longicollis        -             -
Pityogenes bistridentatus       -             +
Pityogenes pennidens            -             -
Pityokteines curvidens          +             +
Pityokteines vorontzowi         +             -
Phloeosinus aubei               -             -
Hylurgus ligniperda             -             -
Hylurgus micklitzi              -             -
Tomicus destruens               +             +
Tomicus minor                   -             -
Tomicus piniperda               -             -
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Title Annotation:Scientific note/Notas cientificas
Author:Cebeci, Haci Huseyin; Baydemir, Mustafa
Publication:Revista Colombiana de Entomologia
Date:Jul 1, 2018
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