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Pre-fifteenth-century scribes copying middle English in more than one manuscript.

One of the most impressive (and potentially significant) current manuscript research projects is that devoted to medieval scribes. This is housed at the University of York and headed by Linne R Mooney and Simon Horobin. (1) In the main dedicated to fifteenth-century copying, it seeks to isolate the work of scribes clearly professional because attested in multiple manuscripts. The researchers are particularly interested, as a variety of references below will indicate, in identifying hands responsible for the promulgation of what would become national Scripture, the writings of Chaucer and company. The Scribes Project is also engaged in undertaking further identifications of these copying individuals and their careers.

This note offers a provisional prequel to Mooney and Horobin's impressive efforts. I present an initial listing that will point to what precedes their project, pre-1400 scribes engaged in copying more than one book. However, my goals are limited: I seek to identify only those persons responsible for at least one English book, although they may be recorded elsewhere copying other languages.

This limitation is, of course, necessary, given the nature of English scribal culture for the greater part of the Middle Ages, the long stretch from circa 700 to the period I survey. Mooney and Horobin survey the first period in which English materials held a place remotely comparable to those in Latin and French (which still appear vastly more frequently in fifteenth-century books than does English). But the scribes I survey below represent a considerably broader range of engagements, even in those books they copy containing English. Here numbers 1, 7-10, and 12 in my listing would testify to the polylingual mix typical of medieval England. Including scribes not engaged with English, given the relative scarcity of such materials before 1400, would swell the number of individuals to be listed a very great deal.

This would particularly be the case for the period between 700 and 1200. During this era, books and bookmaking may be strongly, if not nearly exclusively, associated with monastic environments. In this situation, individuals might spend a generation copying volumes for their house and its library, and such repeated hands, including ones working before the Conquest (and a few copying Old English), have long been a center of studies. Among the scribes I list here, numbers 7 to 10 and 19 exemplify such book-production by members of regular orders. (Moreover, numbers 11, 13, 17, and 18 might be construed generically similar, since they may well have been cathedral canons.) Similarly, in the years after 1200, the growth of Oxbridge threw together men with a need for books and a capacity for copying them. Like the monastic situation, most such copying will not include English, but it would again extend any list of professional scribes a great deal. (2) Ultimately, a database of medieval English scribes will need to expand well beyond even the already extensive archive envisioned by Mooney and Horobin.

Yet even this skeletal listing of thirteenth- and fourteenth-century scribes does present at least one feature of interest. The Mooney-Horobin project is inspired by Ian Doyle and Malcolm Parkes's important showing of the interconnection of hands at work on important Chaucer and Gower manuscripts just after 1400. (3) Doyle and Parkes focus on one important conjunction, the development, in the hands of a very few individuals, of a recognizable "English canon," a set of masterworks that now stand at the head of modern conceptions of English literature. But repetitions of major texts, or those deemed particularly important, among professionals scarcely began in 1400, and it is informative to see that manuscripts communicating Chaucer and Gower. were engaged in replacing an earlier library of "literarily worthwhile" objects, themselves subject to repeated copying by the scribes I have listed below.

Here one can point to a range of texts. Four of the scribes in my list (numbers 3, 10, 16, and 19) engaged with Ancrene Riwle. This work seems always to have been perceived as a central spiritual classic (scribe 3's version is a particularly tendentious effort at copying the text for the laity, rendering it more explicitly for general use rather than simply that of enclosed women). As the selections published as A Tretyse of Loue should remind us, the Riwle was still considered useful reading in the age of printing. Perhaps a more surprising text to find the object of repeated copying, given its failure to attract modern attention, is The South English Legendary (among the work of numbers 2, 3, and 16). But until well into the fifteenth century, this provided the authoritative entre into holy lives (and perhaps especially those of English holy persons).

The preceding examples are, of course, thirteenth-century texts (s. xiii in. and xiii ex., respectively). With them might be joined the non-English, but extraordinarily influential--one suspects that it lurks in the background of a prominent Northern tradition of instructional verse texts in English-- Manuel des Peches of William of Waddington (selections copied by scribes numbers 9 and 12). But notions of canon did not remain static through the fourteenth century, and some of the later scribes in the list point toward more recent texts deemed worthy of repeated copying. Thus, Richard Rolle, who remained a mainstay of religious culture through the later Middle Ages (but was printed only exiguously), also appears prominently here (numbers 9, 16, and 17). Three of the scribes (numbers 4, 14, and 16), all at the very end of the period, copied William Langland's Piers Plowman, interestingly, each of them a different version. Langland thus would stand as a forerunner for (and probably a figure ousted from a central cultural position by) the circulation of that imaginative writing in English originally sketched out by Doyle and Parkes.

Finally, a number of regional texts have some prominence in the record I here assemble. Specifically London materials occur in the oeuvre of scribes numbers 1, 3, 5, 6, and 16. At the very end of the period I survey, four of the scribes, all of them provincial (numbers 15-18; the text generally bypassed London), testify to the great grey eminence of fifteenth-century studies, The Prick of Conscience. From modern efforts to ignore it, one would scarcely guess that this text, one of those imitators of Waddington to which I have alluded above (and again inspired by Anglo-Norman materials), survives in more than half again as many copies as The Canterbury Tales. But, like Rolle's "Form of Living" and Latin Emendatio vitae, the text may be more integral to medieval English intellectual and spiritual life than any more literary outpouring.

My list of scribes, to which I would be grateful for additions since I am sure I have overlooked a good deal, follows. Bold numbers following simple references to manuscripts are cross-references to the scribe entries in the list wherein the manuscript is cited; the entries themselves appear in alphabetical order connected with the earliest or most important pre-1400 manuscript written by each scribe. This list is limited in one respect: I adhere to the shapes of original manuscripts, not modern library bindings. As a consequence, in conceiving a scribe as appearing in more than one book, I have ignored dispersed fragments of the same original manuscript, although I note these as appropriate.

Aberystwyth, National Library of Wales, MS Peniarth 383D 4

1 Cambridge, Cambridge University Library, MS Gg.iv.32, fols. 2-5, 21-47, 51-76, 81-104: "Andrew Horn's scribe," a London professional and legal writer, 1310s and 1320s.

The book mainly presents Latin texts of use to a parish priest, with brief English and Anglo-Norman verse and prose instructional materials at fols. 21-24v.

The scribe also copied London, Corporation of London Records Office, MS Cust. 6, fols. ii, 1-84, 86-102, 173-86. (4)

Cambridge, Cambridge University Library, MS Ii.i.15 8

2 Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, MS 145: a west Berkshire/north Gloucestershire professional scribe, s. xiv in. (probably 1310s).

A copy of The South English Legendary. (5)

The scribe also copied Leicester, Wyggeston Hospital, MS 18 D 59, the wrapper (a deposit at the Archives Department, Leicester City Museum; a fragment from The South English Legendary). (6)

London, British Library, MS Egerton 2891 (The South English Legendary)

Nottingham, Nottingham University Library, MS Mi WLC/LM/38, another fragmentary leaf from The South English Legendary. (7)

3 Cambridge, Magdalene College, MS Pepys 2498: a London professional, s. xiv med./xiv3/4.

A large anthology of early London prose translations, with a heavily redacted version of Ancrene Riwle. (8)

The scribe also copied London, British Library, MS Harley 874 (the prose Apocalypse, an early London prose translation also in the preceding; a fragment of a South English Legendary text). (9)

Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Laud misc. 622 (South English Legendary selections, Titus and Vespasian, Alisaunder). (10)

Cambridge, Trinity College, MS B.1.45 10

4 Cambridge, Trinity College, MS B.15.17: "Early London Scribe B," s. xiv/xv. Piers Plowman B and Rolle's "Form of Living." (11)

Cambridge, Trinity College, MS R.3.8 17

5 Dublin, Trinity College, MS 69, fols. 1-64, 73-83: a South Coast professional scribe, s. xiv ex. (the manuscript includes an ownership inscription perhaps associable with Londoners who died shortly after 1400).

Mostly given over to early London prose translations (the prose Psalter and Apocalypse), and shorter London prose of s. xiv ex. (some items shared with Oxford, University College, MS 97). A second scribe, in similar language, succeeds on fol. 83v and copies The Prick of Conscience, southern recension.

The scribe also copied Princeton, NJ, Scheide Library, MS M.143 (the prose Psalter), a reduced facsimile at Sotheby's, 21 November 1978, lot 547 (50-52).

Durham, Durham Cathedral Muniments 9

Durham, Durham University Library, MS Mickleton and Spearman 27 17

6 Edinburgh, National Library of Scotland, MS Advocates 19.2.1: a London professional, c. 1330

A large anthology, especially rich in romances (including, among texts appearing elsewhere here, Alisaunder and the "Short Metrical Chronicle"). (12)

Hereford, Hereford Cathedral, MS O.i.iv 7

Leicester, Wyggeston Hospital, MS 18 D 59 2

London, British Library, MS Additional 22283 16

London, British Library, MS Additional 24059 9

London, British Library, MS Additional 35287 4

7 London, British Library, MS Additional 46919, about one-quarter of the ensemble, along with notes and marginalia passim: William Herebert OFM, prior of the Hereford convent, fl. s. xiv in.

A trilingual anthology, especially rich in works of Nicole Bozon, but also Walter of Bibbesworth's grammar and Malachi of Ireland's "De venenis." Composed of about a dozen booklets (and missing others once present, one with "The Proverbs of Hending" and other English verse). Most of these bear Herebert's notes, but the book also includes, in his hand, his translations of Latin hymns into English verse, some recipes, and scattered English phrases in his sermons. (13) Herebert also copied notes, marginalia, and annotations in Hereford, Hereford Cathedral, MS O.i.iv (Bernard of Clairvaux).

London, British Library, MS Cotton Nero A.ix + MS Egerton 3133 (materials relating to Franciscan history)

London, British Library, MS Royal 7 Aiv (Hildebert of Lavardin, letters) London, British Library, MSS 7 F.vii + viii (Roger Bacon, Opus maius) Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Rawlinson C.308 (Bede, De ratione temporum)

8 London, British Library, MS Arundel 57, fols. 13-96, with a table in the lower margin, fols. 2-4: Dan Michel of Northgate, monk of St Augustine's Abbey, Canterbury, fl. c. 1300-40.

Michel's Ayenbite of Inwyt and shorter texts. (14)

Michel also copied Cambridge, Cambridge University Library, MS Ii.i.15 (Latin science), flyleaves, notes, lombards, and supplied headings in rubric and crayon

London, British Library, MS Cotton Vespasian A.ii, fols. 2-10 (planetary tables, ascribed to Roger Bacon; originally the head ofthe next book but two)

London, British Library, MS Sloane 1754, fols. 1v-47, 205-37, and perhaps 174v-204 (Latin science, a few scattered English words), as well as a variety of notes and marginalia and some supplied headings

Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Bodley 464, fols. 58-206 (and notes elsewhere) (Latin science, probably copied shortly after 1300, not 1318). (15)

Oxford, Corpus Christi College, MS 221, flyleaves and fols. 2-66 (Latin moralized science). (16)

9 London, British Library, MS Arundel 507, fols. 16-81: Richard of Sedgebrook, monk of Durham (d. 1396 or 1397).

A trilingual commonplace book, mainly excerpts from Rolle and Rolleana, but also from Waddington's Manuel, an Anglo-Norman history of the cross, and excerpted Richard of St Victor, Benjamin minor. (17)

Sedgebrook also copied Durham, Durham Cathedral, extensive entries in various priory accounts, and an entry for his family members in the Liber Vitae

London, British Library, MS Additional 24059, fols. 1-14, 15v, 20-22v, 61-62v (Latin annals added to Durham historical materials)

London, College of Arms, MS Arundel 25, fols. 4v-31v (Latin lives of Cuthbert and Becket)

Although these last two books are datable (post-1381 and post-1384, respectively), neither has appeared in catalogues of such volumes.

10 London, British Library, MS Cotton Cleopatra C.vi, fol. 199 and numerous additions passim: an Augustinian canon (not necessarily, given that his language reflects the King's Lynn area, at Canonsleigh, Devon), s. xiii ex.

The scribe corrected, and added a few texts (lyric snatches, a sermon) around, a text of Ancrene Riwle. (18)

The scribe also copied Cambridge, Trinity College, MS B.1.45, fols. 24rv, 41v-42 (much the same texts as added in the previous, with an additional sermon), facsimile Dobson between 110 and 111.

11 London, British Library, MS Cotton Galba E.ix, fols. 4-48: a North Yorkshire scribe, s. xiv ex.

"Scribe 1," responsible for Ywain and Gawain and The Seven Sages. (19) The scribe also copied London, British Library, MS Cotton Tiberius E.vii, fols. 1-81 (Speculum Vitae), "scribe 1" of that manuscript.

London, British Library, MS Cotton Nero A.ix 7

London, British Library, MS Cotton Nero A.xiv 19

London, British Library, MS Cotton Tiberius E.vii 11

London, British Library, MS Cotton Vespasian A.ii 8

London, British Library, MS Egerton 2891 2

London, British Library, MS Egerton 3133 7

London, British Library, MS Harley 273 12

London, British Library, MS Harley 874 3

London, British Library, MS Harley 1205 17

12 London, British Library, MS Harley 2253, fols. 49-140: legal/professional scribe, Ludlow, c. 1314-49.

A trilingual anthology (English lyrics and political/historical poems, King Horn, "The Proverbs of Hending"), available in full facsimile, N. R Ker, ed., Facsimile of British Museum MS. Harley 2253, EETS, o.s. 255 (London, 1965). (20)

The scribe also copied London, British Library, MS Harley 273, fols. 181v-97 (portions of Waddington's Manuel and Le purgatoire de S. Patrice)

London, British Library, MS Royal 12 C.xii, passim (trilingual, including the English "Short Metrical Chronicle"). (21)

Shrewsbury, Shropshire Records and Research Centre, about forty legal documents (a few elsewhere)

13 London, British Library, MS Harley 4196, fols. 133-64: a North Yorkshire scribe, s. xiv ex.

"Scribe 3," responsible for the "sanctorale" of the "expanded" Northern Homily Cycle.

The scribe also copied London, British Library, MS Cotton Galba E.ix (number 11 above), fols. 50-75 (poems of Laurence Minot, verse "Gospel of Nicodemus," "The Book of Shrift" [an excerpt from Cursor Mundi]), "scribe 3" of that manuscript.

London, British Library, MSS Royal 7 A.iv, 7 F.vii + viii 7

London, British Library, MS Royal 12 C.xii 12

London, British Library, MS Sloane 1754 8

London, College of Arms, MS Arundel 25 9

London, Corporation of London Records Office, MS Cust. 6 1

14 London, University of London Library, MS S.L.V.88: "Early London Scribe D," s. xiv/xv.

Piers Plowman C; see number 4 above. (22)

Manchester, John Rylands University Library, MS Eng. 50 17 New Haven CT, Yale University Library, MS Osborn fa.45 4

Nottingham University Library, MS Mi WLC/LM/38 2

Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Bodley 464 8

15 Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Eng. poet. a.1, the contents table, fols. a-h and passim; "John," perhaps, following a note at British Library, MS Additional 22283, fol. 38, John Scriveyn, a Lichfield professional scribe, s. xiv ex. or s. xiv/xv.

There is a full facsimile, A. I. Doyle, ed., The Vernon Manuscript (Cambridge, 1987); it also includes many images from London, British Library, MS Additional 22283 (see the next).

The scribe also copied Oxford, Trinity College, MS 16B (The Prick of Conscience, Lichfield recension), where he is "scribe 1," alternating with another scribe.

Stratford-upon-Avon, The Shakespeare Birthplace Library, Lord Leigh's deposit, cartulary of Stoneleigh (a Cistercian abbey in Warwickshire)

Wells-next-the-sea (Norfolk), Holkham Hall, the earl of Leicester, MS 668 (The Prick of Conscience, Lichfield recension), like Trinity, as "scribe 1," in frequent alternation with another hand.

16 Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Eng. poet. a.1, the main hand; a north Worcestershire professional scribe, perhaps employed in Lichfield, s. xiv ex. (23)

The scribe also copied London, British Library, MS Additional 22283, fols. 62-115, 135-52, where he is "scribe 2/B." The first stint includes a run of texts shared with Oxford, University College, MS 97; the second, the same Rolle and some of the same Hilton the scribe copied in his other volume. (24)

Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Eng. poet. e.17 17 Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Laud misc. 622 3

17 Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Rawlinson A.389, fols. 1-20, 25v-31v, 85104v: a Lichfield professional scribe, s. xiv ex. or s. xiv/xv.

"Scribe 1," who copies Rolle, both Latin and English; and Richard Maidstone's penitential psalms. See Hanna, English Manuscripts, 171-74, with facsimile as plate 2.

The scribe also copied Cambridge, Trinity College, MS R.3.8 (Cursor Mundi, southern recension)

Durham, Durham University Library, MS Mickleton and Spearman 27 (Latin Statutes)

London, British Library, MS Harley 1205 (The Prick of Conscience, Lichfield recension)

Manchester, John Rylands University Library, MS Eng. 50 (The Prick of Conscience, Lichfield recension)

perhaps Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Eng. poet. e.17, fols. 9-12 (Maidstone, fragments)

Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Rawlinson C.117 8 Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Rawlinson C.308 7

18 Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Rawlinson poet. 175, fols. 55v-133: a North Yorkshire scribe, s. xiv ex.

"Scribe 2," who copied The Northern Passion, "The Book of Shrift" (an excerpt from CursorMundi), The Seven Sages, and other texts; his companion, responsible for the opening portions, with The Prick of Conscience, appears to be of shared training.

The scribe also copied London, British Library, MS Harley 4196 (number 13 above), fols. 206-58 (verse "Gospel of Nicodemus," The Prick of Conscience), "scribe 5" of that manuscript. Oxford, Corpus Christi College, MS 221 8

Oxford, Trinity College, MS 16B 15

Princeton NJ, Scheide Library, MS M.143 5

Shrewsbury, Shropshire Records and Research Centre 12

Stratford-upon-Avon, The Shakespeare Birthplace Library, Lord Leigh's deposit, cartulary of Stoneleigh 15

Wells-next-the-sea (Norfolk), Holkham Hall, the earl of Leicester, MS 668 15

19 Worcester, Worcester Cathedral Library, MS F.174: "the tremulous hand," a local monk, s. xiii2/4.

iElfric's grammar, verse fragments, including "The debate of the body and the soul." (25)

The scribe also provided Latin and Middle English glosses in more than twenty Worcester Cathedral Priory manuscripts (26).

He may also have copied London, British Library, MS Cotton Nero A.xiv (Ancrene Riwle). (27)

Oxford University

NOTES

(1.) The website for this Arts and Humanities Research Council project, examining all medieval and early modern manuscripts of works by Geoffrey Chaucer, John Gower, William Langland, John Trevisa and Thomas Hoccleve, is available as Late Medieval English Scribes at http://www.medievalscribes.com

(2.) For a few prominent examples of studies outlining production behaviours in a single house (and thus, scribes who copy more than one book), see R A. B. Mynors, Durham Cathedral Manuscripts to the End of the Twelfth Century (Oxford, 1939); Elaine M. Drage, 'Bishop Leofric and Exeter Cathedral Chapter (1052-1070): A Reassessment of the Manuscript Evidence' (unpublished Oxford University D.Phil. thesis, 1978 [Bodleian MS D.Phil. e.2650]); Rodney M. Thomson, Manuscripts from St Albans Abbey, 1066-1235, 2 vols (Woodbridge, 1982); Teresa Webber, Scribes and Scholars at Salisbury Cathedral, c. 1075-c. 1125 (Oxford, 1992); Jennifer H. Sheppard, The Buildwas Books: Book Production, Acquisition and Use at an English Cistercian Monastery, 1165-c. 1400, Oxford Bibliographical Society, 3rd ser., vol. 2 (1997). For an introduction to the University book-scene, with passing references to a few scribes writing in more than one book, see M. B. Parkes, 'The Provision of Books,' The History of the University of Oxford: ii Late Medieval Oxford, ed. J. J. Catto and Ralph Evans (Oxford: OUP, 1992), 407-83.

(3.) 'The Production of Copies of the Canterbury Tales and the Confessio Amantis in the Early Fifteenth Century', in Medieval Scribes, Manuscripts and Libraries: Essays Presented to N. R. Ker, ed. M. B. Parkes and Andrew G. Watson (London: Scolar Press, 1978), 163-210.

(4.) See P. R Robinson, Catalogue of Dated and Datable Manuscripts c. 888 1600 in London Libraries, 2 vols (London: British Library, 2003), 1:32-33, with facsimile, 2: plate 44 (no. 20).

(5.) See Charlotte D'Evelyn and Anna J. Mill, eds, The South English Legendary, 2 vols, Early English Text Society, o.s. 235 and 236 (London, 1956 [hereafter EETS]), with reduced facsimiles as frontispieces to both volumes.

(6.) For this and the next two items, see Manfred Gorlach, The Textual Tradition of the South English Legendary, Leeds Texts and Monographs n.s. 6 (Leeds: University of Leeds, 1974), 113, 92, and 117, respectively.

(7.) See Thorlac Turville-Petre and Dorothy Johnston, "Image and Text: Medieval Manuscripts at the University of Nottingham" (Nottingham: Nottingham University, 1996), item 6, with a reduced facsimile.

(8.) See A. Zettersten, ed., The English Text of the Ancrene Riwle, Edited from Magdalene College, Cambridge MS Pepys 2498, EETS, o.s. 274 (London, 1976), xvii-xviii, with facsimile as frontispiece.

(9.) See Elis Fridner, ed., An English Fourteenth Century Apocalypse Version ..., Lund Studies in English 29 (Lund: University ofLund, 1961), with reduced facsimile as frontispiece.

(10.) See G. V. Smithers, ed., KyngAlisaunder, EETS, o.s. 227 (London, 1952), with reduced facsimile as frontispiece.

(11.) The whole is available in CD-ROM facsimile as "The Piers Plowman Electronic Archive," 2, ed. Thorlac Turville-Petre and Hoyt N. Duggan (Ann Arbor MI, 2000). See further Simon Horobin and Linne R Mooney, "A Piers Plowman Manuscript by the Hengwrt/Ellesmere Scribe and its Implications for London Standard English," Studies in the Age of Chaucer 26 (2004), 65-112. I include this item and number 14 below because ofscholars' general sense that they are early surviving works oftheir copyists--in this case, Adam Pynkhurst, active from the 1380s; see Mooney, "Chaucer's Scribe," Speculum 81 (2006), 97-138. At least two other Piers Plowman manuscripts have been noted as resembling the scribal hand here: British Library, MS Additional 35287 (B Version); and "The Holloway fragment" (C Version; now New Haven CT, Yale University, Beinecke Library, Osborn fa45); and see further Estelle Stubbs, "A New Manuscript by the Hengwrt/Ellesmere Scribe? Aberystwyth, National Library ofWales, MS. Peniarth 383D," Journal of the Early Book Society 5 (2002), 161-68, with an indistinct facsimile (Chaucer's Boece). Study of both these and the scribe's remaining oeuvre belongs, however, to Mooney's project.

(12.) See the full facsimile, Derek Pearsall and I. C. Cunningham, eds, The Auchinleck Manuscript: National Library of Scotland Advocates' MS. 19.2.1 (London: Scolar Press, 1979). There this individual is identified as scribe 1, responsible for about 70% of the surviving volume, composed as twelve booklets. The difficulty of "scribe 6"/booklet 7 portions (fols. 268-77) is not altogether effectually addressed in Alison Wiggins, "Are Auchinleck Manuscript Scribes 1 and 6 the Same Scribe?...", Medium Mvum 73 (2004), 10-26. Given a variety of differences in production (not to mention a large initial at the head without parallel elsewhere in the book), this portion is possibly better taken as materials the scribe prepared for another manuscript.

(13.) See Stephen R Reimer, ed., The Works of William Herebert OFM, Studies and Texts 81 (Toronto: Pontifical Institute ofMediaeval Studies, 1987), 7-9, with a facsimile as frontispiece and further references to other reproductions, esp. the 1949 Robinson's sale catalogue.

(14.) See Pamela Gradon, ed., Dan Michel's Ayenbite of Inwyt, Volume II ..., EETS, o.s. 278 (London, 1979), 1-4. Facsimiles appear at C. E. Wright, English Vernacular Hands from the Twelfth to the Fifteenth Centuries, Oxford Palaeographical Handbooks (Oxford: OUP, 1960), plate 12; Andrew G. Watson, Catalogue of Dated and Datable Manuscripts c. 700-1600 in the Department of Manuscripts, the British Library, 2 vols (London: British Library, 1979), 1:88 and 2:plate 222 (no. 435).

(15.) See Watson, Catalogue of Dated and Datable Manuscripts c. 435-1600 in Oxford Libraries, 2 vols (Oxford: OUP, 1984), 1:16, with facsimile at 2:plate 159 (no. 90).

(16.) On Dan Michel's library, donated to his monastic house, see Bruce C. Barker-Benfield, St Augustine's Abbey, Canterbury, 3 vols, Corpus of British Medieval Library Catalogues 13 (London, 2008), particularly the summary, 3:1851-54, with notice of further brief examples of Michel's hand in a variety of contexts. On Michel's annotations in Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Rawlinson C.117, see Wilbur R Knorr, "Two Medieval Monks and Their Astronomy Books: MSS. Bodley 464 and Rawlinson C.117," Bodleian Library Record 14, iv (1993), 269-84, with facsimiles.

(17.) See Ralph Hanna, The English Manuscripts of Richard Rolle: A Descriptive Catalogue (Exeter: Exeter University Press, 2010), 85-89, with a facsimile as plate 3. For Sedgebrook, see A. J. Piper, "Biographical Register of Durham Cathedral Priory (1083-1539)," The Durham Liber Vitae, ed. David and Lynda Rollason, 3 vols (London: British Library, 2007), 3:271-72.

(18.) See E. J. Dobson, ed., The English Text of the Ancrene Riwle Edited from B.M. Cotton MS. Cleopatra C.vi, EETS, o.s. 267 (London, 1972), esp. xlviiiii, cxl-viii, with facsimile between 316 and 317.

(19.) See Albert B. Friedman and Norman T. Harrington, eds, Ywain and Gawain, EETS, o.s. 254 (London, 1964), with facsimile as frontispiece.

(20.) See Carter Revard, "Scribe and Provenance," in Studies in the Harley Manuscript, ed. Susanna Fein (Kalamazoo MI: Medieval Institute Publications, 2000), 21-109, with reduced facsimiles of all the legal documents.

(21.) See E. J. Hathaway et al., eds, Fouke le Fitz Waryn, Anglo-Norman Text Society 26-28 (Oxford: OUP, 1975), with detailed discussion of the book and its construction at xliv-liii, and facsimile as frontispiece.

(22.) For the foundational view that engagement with the poem should be associable with the early career of this prolific Chaucer- and Gower-scribe, see Charles A. Owen's report on Jeremy J. Smith's still unpublished dissertation, "Pre-1450 Manuscripts of the Canterbury Tales: Relationships and Significance," Chaucer Review 23 (1988), 1-29, at 25-26 n.5. But see further Simon Horobin and Daniel W. Mosser, "Scribe D's SW Midlands Roots: A Reconsideration," Neuphilologische Mitteilungen 106 (2005), 289-305.

(23.) See the previous; the book is an enormous religious anthology, including texts of The Northern Homily Cycle, Prick of Conscience, and Speculum Vitae, as well as works of Rolle and Hilton, copies of Ancrene Riwle, Piers Plowman A, and several texts from The South English Legendary.

(24.) For the first stint, see A. I. Doyle, "University College, Oxford, MS 97 and its relationship to the Simeon Manuscript (British Library Add. 22283)," So meny people longages and tonges, ed. Michael Benskin and M. L. Samuels (Edinburgh: Middle English Dialect Project, 1981), 265-82.

(25.) See Christine Franzen, The Tremulous Hand of Worcester ... (Oxford, 1991), with abundant facsimiles of various aspects of the oeuvre.

(26.) For a convenient listing, see N. R. Ker, Medieval Libraries of Great Britain: A List of Surviving Books, 2nd edn, Royal Historical Society Guides and Handbooks 3 (London: Royal Historical Society, 1964), 206 n.3.

(27.) See Franzen, "The Tremulous Hand of Worcester and the Nero Scribe of Ancrene Riwle," Medium Mvum 72 (2003), 13-31.
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Title Annotation:Nota Bene: Brief Notes on Manuscripts and Early Printed Books: Highlighting Little-known or Recently Uncovered Items or Related Issues
Author:Hanna, Ralph
Publication:The Journal of the Early Book Society for the Study of Manuscripts and Printing History
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:4EUUK
Date:Jan 1, 2011
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