Practice and research in career counseling and development--2002.
The purpose of the annual review is to organize the career development literature that was published within a given year conceptually and to present it in a manner that is applicable for career practitioners. Our review of the career counseling literature for 2002 included 165 empirical and conceptual articles from 17 career, counseling, development, and international journals. Specifically, we compiled articles that were published in the leading career journals, including The Career Development Quarterly, Journal of Career Assessment, Journal of Vocational Behavior, and Journal of Career Development. In addition, we included career-related articles that appeared in counseling, psychology, and student development journals such as The Counseling Psychologist, Journal of Counseling Psychology, Journal of Counseling & Development, Journal of College Student Development, Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, Journal of Employment Counseling, and Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development. Finally, the primary international journals in psychology, guidance, and counseling were included. These journals were the British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance, Australian Journal of Career Development, South African Journal of Psychology, Journal of Youth Studies, and Psychological Testing.
We restricted our review to articles that were relevant to traditional aspects of career development and practice. As such, we did not include articles pertaining to industrial-organizational psychology, management, or human resources. Exceptions to this included topics related to job satisfaction and career commitment. We included these related articles because career counselors can use these data when providing information or career counseling to individuals or groups. All citations in this review are from articles published in 2002 unless otherwise noted.
The final structure of this review is the result of several steps that occurred at each stage of the process, from selecting and accumulating articles to editing drafts of the review. The literature is organized into four broad sections: theory, assessment, career interventions and practice, and training and professional issues. We incorporated articles that focused on the career development of diverse groups (i.e., race, ethnicity, gender, and ability) in the United States into the respective sections. Because of the growing scholarship in the area of international career development and practice, we decided to address this literature in a separate section.
Career research continues to focus on theoretical advancements by examining traditional and modern career theories, and a considerable amount of the 2002 research was, indeed, on career theories. Theories continue to be scrutinized to examine their applicability to diverse populations. Career scholars have also suggested new theoretical approaches that seem to have greater relevance in working with diverse populations. The following sections highlight the career research that focused on career development theory.
Among the person-environment theories, Holland's typology theory received the most research attention. Holland's (1985) RIASEC model, which classifies people and work environments into Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional types, has significantly influenced career counseling. Last year was no exception, because several scholars explored various propositions of Holland's theory.
Congruence studies. Several authors examined the relationship between personality and interests. Borges and Savickas reviewed the literature on personality and medical students' selection of medical specialty using the Five-Factor Model (FFM; Costa & McCrae, 1992) of personality. Their results showed that it was not possible to classify medical speciality areas according to a unique personality pattern. Although personality patterns did not emerge as predictors of a medical specialty, other research suggests that personality is predictive of interests at a more general level. Larson and Borgen examined relations between measures of vocational interest and personality in a sample of gifted adolescents. Results indicated that extraversion was related to Holland's (1985) Enterprising and Social interests, agreeableness was related to Social interests, and openness was related to both Artistic and Investigative interests. These findings were consistent with the results of a meta-analysis conducted by Larson, Rottinghaus, and Borgen that examined the correlations of Holland's six interest types to the FFM model of personality. Results indicated strong correlations between Artistic-openness, Enterprising-extraversion, Social-extraversion, Investigative-openness, and Social-agreeableness. The effect sizes for these correlations were substantial for both men and women across all interest measures used to assess Holland type.
In other studies, the researchers analyzed the relation between personality-environment congruence and performance. Mallinckrodt and Gelso investigated the contributions of the research training environment and Holland's personality type to the research productivity of graduate students in counseling. Findings indicated that the Investigative personality type was related to high research productivity. Moreover, differential aspects of the training environment contributed to the research productivity of male and female graduate students. In another study, Fritzsche, McIntire, and Yost found that environment type moderated the relationship between personality and performance. That is, personality was a stronger predictor of academic performance when analyzed by the six RIASEC environments. Finally, Johnson and Stokes reported that the breadth of vocational interests in college was positively related to occupational classification stability 30 years later. These findings suggest that career counselors may want to encourage students to expand their career interests in college. Moreover, career counselors should consider the RIASEC environment or personality types as important factors in predicting academic or job performance and stability.
Work environment. A cluster of studies in 2002 looked at specific working conditions more closely and focused on the environmental characteristics in the person-environment equation. Organizational commitment was studied with frequency this past year. Behson investigated the effects of organizational context on several employee outcomes. He found that perceived organizational support, trust in management, and perceived interpersonal treatment contributed to job satisfaction and affective commitment to the organization. Another study conducted by Thompson and Van de Ven found that job tenure was not related to commitment to the organization; however, employees who experienced autonomy and influence over their work during times of organizational change exhibited higher organizational commitment. In addition, Goulet and Singh reported that job involvement, organizational commitment, and job satisfaction contributed to career commitment. Furthermore, Meyer, Stanley, Herscovitch, and Topolnytsky examined the correlates of three forms of organizational commitment: affective, continuance, and normative. All three were negatively related to withdrawal cognition (i.e., thoughts about searching for other jobs or quitting the current job) and turnover of employees. Affective organizational commitment had the strongest relationships with outcomes that were relevant to the organization and employee, such as attendance, performance, and low stress. Finally, Conway and Briner compared the work attitudes of full-time and part-time employees and found that they differed on a number of dimensions. Specifically, part-time workers reported higher levels of well-being and job satisfaction and lower levels of intention to quit, affective commitment to the job, and commitment to continue in the job. It is interesting that controlling for organizations that fulfilled their promises to employees reduced differences between the two groups. Results indicated that kept promises on the part of the organization contributed to job satisfaction and continuance commitment but not to affective commitment.
These studies suggest that career counselors should encourage organizations to provide a supportive work environment that is conducive to employees' career development, because this may positively influence employees' attitudes about and commitment to work. Moreover, factors that may contribute to an employee's low career commitment, such as fearing job loss, can be addressed in organizational meetings in an attempt to avoid a low level of commitment by the employee. Finally, one of the strongest determinants of a smooth transition is when employees believe that they can have an impact on the environment to which they are adapting. Thus, organizations should allow their employees' voices to be heard and should involve them in the changes that occur.
Cultural issues. Although a majority of studies on person-environment theory used student populations, other researchers applied person-environment theory to diverse racial and ethnic groups. Tang focused on the application of Holland's theory to White American, Chinese American, and Chinese college students. The study revealed that parents influenced the career choices of Chinese and Chinese American students and that different patterns of occupational choices existed among all three groups. In another study that focused on primarily Native American adults who were employed in organizations, S. C. Clark found that employees' sense of community and sense of control at work mediated the relationships between ethnicity, support of the supervisors, intrinsic values placed on work, work flexibility and work/family conflict. Finally, Degges-White and Shoffner used the Theory of Work Adjustment as their framework for identifying potential career challenges for adult lesbian women. The authors highlighted that lesbian women continue to remain invisible in the society and must struggle with how their sexual orientation identity may affect their work and limit their choices. These investigations suggest that career counselors should attend to the cultural values of their clients as well as to the organizational climate when assisting culturally diverse clients.
Super's (1990) life-span theory and its related constructs garnered much attention in 2002. Savickas encouraged researchers to conduct investigations on career development. He suggested that researchers who examine careers reconsider the meaning of career in career development, adopt longitudinal research designs, and focus on the process of development.
Career maturity and vocational identity. The concepts of career maturity and vocational identity were aspects of Super's (1990) theory on which researchers focused in 2002. Savickas, Briddick, and Watkins reported that career maturity related to social adjustment, general psychosocial competence, self-realization, and ego integration. Hargrove, Creagh, and Burgess found that orientation toward achievement in the family of origin predicted vocational identity. Career counselors may want to highlight personality and family variables because these may influence career outcomes. Moreover, exploring a client's perceptions of family relationships and values may be warranted, particularly if a client is having difficulty attaining career milestones.
Role salience. An important aspect of developmental theories is the salience that an individual attributes to various life roles. In his conceptual article, Hartung indicated that individuals might benefit from finding ways to integrate both work and play in their lives. He explained that a work-play framework that focuses on the adaptive, self-enhancing potential of play in work and human development may contribute to an enhanced conceptualization of careers.
Several researchers examined the relative importance of work and family roles. Cinamon and Rich reported that incompatible pressures from work and family domains have predictably different influences on diverse groups of people, depending on the importance they attribute to life roles. Hartung, Lewis, May, and Niles found that participation in roles at home, commitment to those home roles, and the degree to which life roles allow values to be realized were all positively related to the adaptability and cohesion of the family. Work salience and vocational identity were not related to family variables; however, adaptability and cohesion were related to salience for home and family roles. In another study, Peake and Harris reported that participants who were planning to be married scored higher on knowledge and certainty about work-family combinations than did students who were not in the process of planning for marriage. Participants' attitudes toward multiple-role planning partially mediated the influence of plans for marriage on multiple-role planning. Finally, Behson investigated the effects of work-family context on job satisfaction and affective commitment. Work-family context was found to predict work-family conflict, but it did not contribute to job satisfaction and affective commitment.
The results of these studies suggest that career counselors should help clients to clarify the importance that they attach to various work and family roles and to reflect on the meanings and implications of their beliefs. Career counselors can help their clients understand what nonwork roles mean to them as they plan their careers and can help them coordinate multiple life roles to meet social and cultural expectations. Moreover, career practitioners should consider the family of origin as a crucial factor in the level of importance an individual may give to various life roles related to the home.
Career transitions. The following articles addressed contextual issues during developmental career transitions. Solberg, Howard, Blustein, and Close applied a developmental and contextual approach in developing a school-to-work-to-life model of career development and described two career intervention programs for urban youth that were based on this framework. These programs included interventions to promote success in life as well as work and focused on affecting youths through systemic changes. A study by Blustein et al. focused on the role of social class in the career development of a group of young women who were employed in working-class jobs. Results suggested that young women from higher social classes perceived work to be related to their sense of personal satisfaction and meaning, whereas young women from lower social classes viewed work primarily as a means for economic survival. Young women from higher social classes applied their interests and goals to their work more than did their lower social class counterparts. Social class was also linked to how the young women perceived their educational opportunities and external resources. In another study addressing work-bound adolescents, Phillips, Blustein, Jobin-Davis, and Whote used qualitative techniques to explore the psychosocial antecedents of adaptive transitions after high school and to characterize the transition from high school to work. Results indicated that developing an orientation to the adult world and having the active support of adults prepared students for an effective transition after high school.
These studies challenge career counselors to move from the traditional practice of intervening solely on the individual level to focusing on other levels of the system in order to promote change and to understand adolescents' transition from school to work. Specifically, the findings suggest that school counselors should encourage work-based learning activities, facilitate an adult world orientation, and pay attention to support from adults when helping students prepare for the transition to work. Results of these studies highlight the importance of career practitioners attending to the complex nature of the meaning of work in career counseling for youths who come from diverse backgrounds and who have a range of career goals.
Social Cognitive and Social Learning Theories
Self-efficacy. In Social Cognitive Career Theory's (SCCT; Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) theoretical framework, self-efficacy is postulated to directly influence the development of career interests. Using a longitudinal design, Nauta, Kahn, Angell, and Cantarelli reported that the relationship between self-efficacy and interests is bidirectional, with both influencing the other. Rottinghaus, Lindley, Green, and Borgen found that self-efficacy, personality, interests, and the learning environment subscale of the Strong Interest Inventory (SII; Harmon, Hansen, Borgen, & Hammer, 1994) predicted educational aspirations among college students. DeWitz and Walsh reported that college self-efficacy contributed to college students' satisfaction but that social self-efficacy and general self-efficacy were not predictive of satisfaction.
These findings suggest that career practitioners can assess self-efficacy, interests, and personality jointly to better understand clients' career development. Career counselors may consider interventions to increase students' self-efficacy regarding college, particularly among students who report dissatisfaction with college or among students who might be at risk for dropping out. Finally, career counselors might consider interventions to increase self-efficacy and interests in educational and career domains, because both serve as predictors and outcomes to one another.
The subject areas that have been examined most often using social cognitive variables are mathematics and science. Fouad, Smith, and Zao tested the relationships among self-efficacy, outcome expectations, interests, and goals in the academic domains of art, social science, and English and determined that the theoretical model was consistent across subject areas. Fouad et al. indicated that some path coefficients may be different across domains and suggested that interventions for careers in some domains may be unique to that academic domain.
Environmental variables. The following three noteworthy studies used qualitative approaches to explore the roles of supports and barriers in career development. Olenchak and Hebert examined the academic achievement of two male college students, a Vietnamese American and an African American, who were the first in their families to attend college. Family and educational background, cultural influences, university peer relationships, and the university academic experience emerged as factors related to these students' academic success. In another study, Lent et al. (2002) explored college students' perceived career supports and barriers. Contextual barriers that were identified included financial concerns and negative family influences. Personal barriers included personal problems not related to ability and ability considerations. Receiving support or encouragement from various social sources was commonly identified as a contextual support, and personal strengths and goal setting were identified as personal support variables. Jackson and Nutini presented a conceptual model for assessing resources and barriers to learning with culturally diverse youths on the basis of the following themes suggested by the data: contextual barriers and resources and psychological barriers and resources. Finally, Schultheiss, Palma, Predragovich, and Glasscock assessed perceptions of how sibling relationships influenced college students' career exploration and career decision making. Overall, emotional support, social integration, confidence in abilities and encouragement to make decisions, and support by providing additional career information were areas identified as the ways that students' most important sibling was influential in their career development. Sibling relationships were most important when students were making career decisions and transitions.
Numerous studies examined the role that contextual or environmental variables play in the career development process of adolescents. Using an ethnically diverse sample of middle school students, Turner and Lapan found that parental support and career self-efficacy were related across all six Holland themes, but parental support was not predictive of career interests. In addition, Flores and O'Brien examined the influence of contextual and social cognitive variables on Mexican American adolescent women's career goals. Acculturation and self-efficacy for nontraditional careers for women were the strongest predictors of career choice prestige and career choice traditionality; feminist attitudes and parental support were the strongest predictors of high career aspirations. Contrary to SCCT, nontraditional career interests did not contribute to any of the outcome variables, and the contextual variables did not predict nontraditional career self-efficacy.
In two separate studies, Trusty investigated the relationship of various contextual factors to high school students' educational goals. In one study, Trusty (a) found that parental expectations, social class, involvement in high school, parental involvement in school, and high school behavior predicted African American adolescents' educational expectations. In the second study, Trusty (b) reported that social class did not affect choice of mathematics or science majors for either men or women. The relationship between course-taking and the selection of mathematics or science majors was stronger for women than for men. Math aptitude in eighth grade indirectly influenced the choice of science or mathematics majors among women, whereas taking high school physics influenced the selection of science or mathematics majors among men.
Guidance counselors who work with adolescents may use the results from these studies to examine the influences in these students' lives that can help them to develop their long-term career and educational goals. For example, encouraging students to obtain strong foundations in mathematics and science and to seek advanced courses in high school is important if guidance counselors want to increase the number of students entering mathematics and science careers. This may be especially critical for students from underrepresented groups, including women and members of diverse cultural groups. Moreover, the results implied that parents can significantly affect young adolescents' career development, and school counselors should be encouraged to work with parents to promote their child's career self-efficacy. In summary, career counselors should consider the contextual and cultural factors that are related to educational and career outcomes of adolescents.
Environmental influences on college students' academic success were also studied in 2002. The racial composition of students attending a college was one environmental factor that was believed to influence the academic achievement of culturally diverse students. Flowers reported that attending a historically Black university had positive effects on understanding the arts and humanities, personal and social development, understanding science and technology, and writing skills. Constantine and Watt also examined the role of college environment on African American women's sense of cultural congruity and life satisfaction. Their results suggested that attendance at a historically Black institution was related to African American women's greater cultural congruity and life satisfaction than was attendance at a predominantly White institution. Career counselors and college personnel might keep in mind the role institutional climate plays in African American students' experience of their cultural selves and their sense of well-being. In addition, information about women's identity and cultural congruity may be useful in understanding their college experiences.
Several studies reported correlates to academic success in college. Hoffman found that involvement in cocurricular activities contributed to students' success in college. Among students of color, involvement in leadership activities predicted satisfaction with college, and living in residence halls was a negative predictor of satisfaction with college. In addition, Edwards and McKelfresh reported that living in a Learning Community predicted academic success among male students and persistence in college for racially and ethnically diverse students. Finally, R.K. Clark, Walker, and Keith found that students who met with the instructor during office hours differed from the control group in the gains they made in levels of affective learning. These studies lend support to the importance of involvement in activities outside of the classroom, in Learning Communities, and of meeting with instructors on student academic performance, particularly among groups that may be marginalized in this setting. Guidance and career counselors should take these findings into consideration when working with students who are in college or who are planning to attend college.
Zheng, Saunders, Shelley, and Whalen reported that gender (female), ethnicity (White), and higher parental education contributed to students' college grades. Moreover, students' self-perceptions regarding abilities influenced academic success. Somers, Cofer, and VanderPutten reported that students who aspired to postsecondary education as eighth graders were more likely to have enrolled in postsecondary training than were their counterparts who did not aspire to postsecondary education. Parental aspirations for their child and the educational levels of the parents, particularly among fathers, were positively related to attending postsecondary training. In addition, students who discussed plans of what they intended to do after high school graduation with a counselor were more likely to continue their educational training. These findings highlight the importance of relationships with influential adults, especially parents, on the educational aspirations of children.
Overall, these findings provide support for theories that have integrated contextual factors, such as sibling support, parental support, and university composition, and that show how these variables contribute to young adults' career decision making and development. Career counselors should assess a range of environmental variables when working with clients who are trying to accomplish educational or career goals. It is important for career counselors to assess the role that family members, particularly parents and siblings, play in serving as role models, giving information, and providing support and advice. Inquiring about clients' perceived supports for and barriers to attaining their goals should also be an area of exploration in career counseling.
Dysfunctional career thoughts. Lustig and Strauser reported that individuals with a stronger sense of coherence in the areas of comprehensibility, manageability, and meaningfulness reported lower levels of dysfunctional career thoughts and found no gender or ethnic differences for the variables. Lack of coherence predicted dysfunctional career thoughts. Lustig and Strauser advised career counselors to consider interventions that increase an individual's sense of coherence because of the possibility that increased sense of coherence would reduce dysfunctional career thoughts. Possible ways to intervene would be to provide structure to both the counseling session and the career development process.
Several studies explored the relationship between dysfunctional career thoughts and other variables that have an impact on the lives of culturally diverse individuals. Dipeolu, Reardon, Sampson, and Burkhead concluded that college students with learning disabilities faced career issues that were similar to the career issues of students who did not have disabilities. The results of the investigation suggested that college students with learning disabilities might have more dysfunctional career thoughts related to external conflict, but in general they possessed fewer dysfunctional career thoughts, less career decision-making confusion, and less commitment anxiety than did students in the normative sample. In another study, Keim, Strauser, and Ketz examined differences in career thoughts among a racially diverse group of women from three low socioeconomic status groups. The results of the study indicated that women who were not currently seeking employment were less likely to have dysfunctional career thoughts than were women with disabilities who received job placement services from agencies and women who were working on obtaining a high school equivalency degree.
Career Decision-Making Theory
Another salient theory in 2002 was career decision-making theory. Hartung and Blustein reviewed Parson's contributions to the counseling profession, focusing on his social advocacy work and his rational decision-making approach. They proposed that due to the changing nature of society and the profession, career decision-making models that integrate both rational and intuitive, or emotional-based, approaches are necessary.
Gaffner and Hazler found that there were no associations between career indecisiveness and each of the four Myers-Briggs dimensions. The level of career indecisiveness was positively related to career readiness, the amount of occupational information received, and decision-making difficulty. In a study with high school students from a sample across the United States, Baker found that the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery Career Exploration Program increased knowledge about career exploration and lowered career indecision. Baker advocated for the promotion and use of this career intervention program with high school students. In addition, Mortimer, Zimmer-Gembeck, and Holmes conducted a qualitative study that described social factors that influence adolescents' vocational decision making. Some themes that emerged were unfulfilled expectations, postponement of decisions, turning points that crystallized decisions, and resources and obstacles. In a final study that focused on women in blue-collar jobs, Weinstein, Healy, and Ender found that career indecision and perceived control predicted career choice anxiety.
Several possible implications for career counselors emerged from these studies. Interventions for clients who present with career indecisiveness should be determined on the basis of the factors related to their indecision. These studies suggest that career clients need to have helpful resources on the occupations available to them and hands-on experiences to learn about occupations. Moreover, because indecisive students may need interventions that are more structured, supportive, and intensive, career counselors might consider developing systematic methods to provide vocational information to adolescents.
New Advancements in Career Counseling Theory and Assessment
In addition to examining the multicultural validity of specific career theories and career variables that have been previously explored in the career literature, a number of new theoretical approaches have been suggested to address the need for culturally competent career counseling. D. Brown focused on the role of work and cultural values in occupational choices, satisfaction, and success of culturally diverse individuals. D. Brown proposed that a new theory with cultural values as a cornerstone can better serve and enable the understanding of diverse individuals and groups. The author emphasized that career counselors must focus on their clients' cultural values and recognize that these values will differ both within and across cultural groups.
Cook, Heppner, and O'Brien proposed the Ecological Model of Career Development that addressed the dynamic interaction between an individual and the environment. These authors asserted that equal opportunities continue to elude women and members of minority groups. Thus, career counselors must become aware of not only the microsystem, or individual levels of women's career development, but also the macrosystemic levels that include structural and societal contexts in which women work. Cook et al. took a unique approach to presenting the assumptions, conceptualizations, and interventions from the ecological perspective. Betz assessed the ecological model as potentially useful in improving career counseling for women and encouraged more attention to evaluating the model's effectiveness.
The new theoretical approaches to career counseling with culturally diverse populations highlight the significance of cultural variables as well as the person-environment interaction in working with diverse clients. These approaches emphasize the complex dynamic nature of the interaction between individuals' cultural selves and their career choices, development, and satisfaction. In addition, the theories call for career counselors and researchers to give renewed attention to cultural competence in vocational psychology.
Career Theory Summary
In conclusion, research on vocational theory in 2002 has implications for the practice of career counseling. Specifically, several variables were identified as relevant to career development. Some of these salient variables were personality, interests, self-efficacy, social class, family, environmental context, and important roles in life. Career counselors should explore these areas to determine their importance in the educational and career decision making of their clients. Moreover, in addition to working with clients in individual counseling, career counselors might consider intervening at other levels of the system (e.g., with parents, teachers, employers) to effectively promote the career development process of larger groups of individuals. Finally, there were significant developments in incorporating multiculturalism into existing career theories and in developing new theoretical approaches. Career, personal, and environmental variables and their relevance in the career processes of culturally diverse groups were explored. This was particularly true for studies that investigated the tenets of social cognitive and social learning theories, because many of these studies included diverse samples. The results from these studies can be used to better understand the factors that may influence the career decisions of culturally diverse clients.
New advances were also made in 2002 in research about career assessment. McMahon and Patton described the importance of integrating both qualitative and quantitative assessment in the context of the changing world of work. They also proposed a guideline for using qualitative assessment and an overview of different qualitative assessment approaches.
A major area of research on career assessment focused on instruments related to person-environment theories. Again, measures that corresponded to Holland's (1985) model received a great deal of attention. Gottfredson provided an overview of the Self-Directed Search (SDS) and described how it can serve as an effective tool to assess interests, self-beliefs, and aspirations. He concluded that Holland's theory can serve as an organizational structure that extracts ideas from both social-cognitive theory and goal theory, despite the fact that Holland's theory was developed independently of these two theories. Miller used the SDS to assess the stability of a client's three-letter Holland code over a 10-year period. The results supported the long-term stability of the Holland code.
Some assessment research focused on the applicability of interest measures to diverse populations. Using the SII, Fouad examined vocational interests with diverse racial and ethnic groups in the United States. Fouad reported that there was a large effect size for differences in vocational interests between women and men across all racial and ethnic groups, a medium effect size for differences between professionals and students, and a small effect size for differences among racial and ethnic groups. The author recommended that career counselors who use the SII should continue to recognize gender, as well as racial and ethnic group, disparities. Age and professional experience can be additional individual factors that may affect individual vocational interests. Fouad also called for career counselors to challenge assumptions that diverse racial and ethnic clients have a different structure of vocational interests than do Whites. Instead, Fouad encouraged career counselors to look beyond individual differences and to examine the collectivistic cultural norms that may influence the development of vocational interests in clients from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds.
In addition to the assessment of interests, other studies addressed the measurement of skills. Campbell summarized the history and development of the Campbell Interest and Skill Survey (CISS) and provided his insights on the future study of the measurement of skills. Specifically, he asserted that skills can be measured as early as high school, are related to occupational choice, and can be measured exactly as they have been measured for many years. Lindley and Borgen reported that male college students scored higher than did their female counterparts on the Realistic, Investigative, Enterprising, and Conventional scales of the Skills Confidence Inventory (SCI) and that women scored higher than did men on the Social scale. Betz and Gwilliam explored the validity of three measures that assess self-efficacy among White and African American college students in relationship to Holland's themes. They concluded that the SCI, the Self-Efficacy Questionnaire, and the Self-Efficacy Rating Scale were reliable for research but that not all of them were reliable for counseling. Racial differences emerged in the areas of school subjects and activities. Moreover, results suggested that African American students have slightly more confidence than do White students on activities and school subjects that represent Holland's Enterprising, Artistic, and Social themes.
Some scholars used existing career models as a base on which to develop new career assessments. Tracey presented an overview of the development of the Personal Globe Inventory. This inventory measures interests, activity preferences, activity competency beliefs, and occupational preferences. Initial findings supported adequate reliability and validity across samples that differed by gender, educational level, and ethnicity. Prediger described how the World of Work Map might be useful in assessing the work-related abilities, interests, and values of individuals who are in the beginning stages of career planning or who are making a career transition. Salter developed the Salter Environmental Type Assessment and provided preliminary psychometric support for the scale. Finally, Miller, Woehr, and Hudspeth introduced the Multidimensional Work Ethic Profile to assess components of work ethics and provided evidence of psychometric validity for the scale.
Several authors promoted the use of multiple measures in career assessment. Chartrand, Borgen, Betz, and Donnay contended that using both the SII and SCI might be useful because of the measures' ability to more fully describe an individual's interests and self-efficacy across Holland's six domains when used together. In a study incorporating several person-environment inventories, Savickas, Taber, and Spokane explored whether the CISS, the Kuder Occupational Interest Survey, the SDS, the SII, and the ACT Interest Inventory measured the same constructs and yielded corresponding scores. The authors found that all of the scales correlated moderately and demonstrated convergent and discriminant validity. The authors determined that in spite of the inventories' differences, they were equally effective in assessing interests. They further asserted that a client should complete more than one interest inventory because doing so may provide a broader and richer picture of the client. Lastly, Burkard, Boticki, and Madson reviewed five instruments used to measure discrimination in the workplace, prejudice, and attitudes toward diversity. They suggested that multiple methods be used to gain a clearer sense of diversity in the workplace.
Finally, Tracey and Darcy found that students who categorized their interests according to Holland's model were more certain about their careers and exhibited less career indecision than were students who did not use this model. The authors suggested that career counselors consider presenting information in ways that correspond with how clients organize information.
In a few studies, researchers examined the psychometric properties of measures that are used to assess constructs in developmental career theories. Harrington and Harrington explored the importance of abilities in vocational assessment and described the usefulness of the Ability Explorer, a new ability measure. In another study, Mumford, Connelly, Helton, Van Doorn, and Osburn compared direct (i.e., endorsing value statements) and indirect (i.e., making choices that reflect values) approaches to assessment. They found that both approaches predicted performance across three tasks; however, indirect measures yielded better prediction and better discrimination of cross-task performance differences than did direct measures. Measures of indirect values may provide a more comprehensive and accurate assessment of values; however, a career counselor's approach to assessing values may depend on the anticipated outcomes of assessment. Finally, Busacca and Taber examined the validity of the Career Maturity Inventory--Revised. They found that women manifested more career mature responses than did men and that there were differences across grade level for women but not men on the Career Maturity Inventory--Revised. Furthermore they found high internal consistency reliabilities on the subscales.
Career Decision-Making Assessment
K. R. Kelly and Lee extended the work on career indecision by proposing a definition of career decision problems and validating the domain of career decision. Three commonly used career decision scales were analyzed together to determine the common factors of career decision: lack of information, need for information, trait indecision, disagreement with others, identity diffusion, and choice anxiety. These factors were clustered into three domains consisting of Information Deficits/Identity Diffusion, Decision Process Inhibitors, and Choice Inhibitors. Overall, all six career decision factors contributed to Certainty subscale scores on the Career Decision Scale. Career counselors can assess these domains of career indecision, and effective interventions to improve individuals' career decision making can be determined on the basis of the domain that is most troublesome.
Chung provided additional psychometric support for the Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Short Form (CDMSE-SF) with college students. He reported that the CDMSE-SF had high internal consistency and had similar coefficient alphas that had been found with other samples. Moreover, the CDMSE-SF correlated positively with career commitment. No gender differences were found on CDMSE-SF scores. Black students scored higher on career decision-making self-efficacy and career commitment than did White students. Career counselors might consider using the CDMSE-SF with college students. In addition, career counselors working with students who report lower levels of career commitment can intervene by providing activities that are aimed toward increasing students' decision-making self-efficacy.
Career Assessment Summary
Research on career assessment in 2002 provided reliability and validity evidence for various measures. These studies have implications for how career assessments are administered and interpreted. First, the scores on the SDS were found to have long-term predictive validity. Thus, counselors can feel confident planning career interventions and experiences according to a student's Holland code that has been derived from the SDS. Second, additional psychometric support was provided for various self-report measures used to assess interests and confidence across Holland's categories, career maturity, and career decision making. Finally, career counselors were encouraged to continue considering whether the assessment instruments were sufficiently sensitive to gender and racial and ethnic differences and to use multiple assessment measures and multiple methods for gathering information.
Career Counseling Interventions and Practice: Individual and Group Levels
Career interventions and practice were the focal point of many of the studies in 2002. Theoretical and empirical writing focused on the reconceptualization of career practice theories, specific approaches, and modalities for training career counselors. The writings in this area covered a broad array of career issues and helped expand the field in new and diverse directions. Theory was used to design career interventions, research was used to validate these interventions, and career programs were developed for counseling practice in a variety of contexts.
Innovative Career Interventions
Several articles presented specific interventions that career counselors might consider using. Some studies focused on specific career interventions involving the development of skills for both the counselor and client. W. E. Kelly discussed time efficiency as a specific intervention in working with clients, stating that career counselors must be aware of time, the elements that fill time, and the development of positive work habits around time. Laker presented a Career Wheel that helps clients identify beliefs and assumptions about certain careers and then gather information on these careers through interviews. Buckley et al. also looked at the expectations of clients by exploring job previews and expectation-lowering procedures and concluded that confronting expectations may be an important factor in a job transition.
Other studies stressed the importance of taking into account a client's cognitive characteristics such as self-knowledge and decision-making style. Tinsley, Tinsley, and Rushing found that among women who were undecided about a career, those who were introverted gained more self-knowledge and occupational knowledge from a structured intervention than did women who were external perceivers. In addition, the participants' information-processing and decision-making styles affected their level of vocational self-concept crystallization and their need for career information. Parker also examined cognitive elements of career exploration with an "intelligent career model" that emphasized aspects of the subjective-objective experience of career. The author applied this model using an Intelligent Career Card Sort. These two studies suggest that understanding individuals' decision-making and information-processing styles, as well as their self-knowledge, is important in the career counseling process.
Several other studies examined career interventions from various theoretical frameworks and perspectives. Some looked at career counseling interventions from a holistic perspective. Pelsma and Arnett discussed how to support clients as they implemented change in their lives and also suggested strategies, including using self-statements and redirecting thought patterns, for assisting clients with change. Scott also emphasized the benefits of a holistic, integrative model by presenting case examples that highlighted the personal and emotional themes that were implicit in the career concerns of clients. Using a unique theoretical framework, Inkson and Amundson applied Jungian theory to career counseling and identified 10 archetypal metaphors (e.g., journey, seasons) used in career counseling. These metaphors can assist clients in conceptualizing their change and growth. Chen explored the use of poststructuralist theory in vocational psychology, indicating that narrative inquiry is one of the key methodologies used in forming a constructivist psychology of career. The author emphasized clients' subjective experience and viewed career issues as part of life narratives. Overall, the development of these innovative and diverse career interventions provide fertile ground for exploration in career counseling research and training.
Process and Outcome Studies
Kim and his colleagues conducted two quasi-intervention analog design studies on the process and outcomes of career counseling with Asian American college students. In one of the studies, Kim and Atkinson found that clients rated their sessions with the White American counselors as more positive than they did their sessions with the Asian American counselors. However, clients with higher adherence to Asian values rated Asian American counselors as more empathic, whereas clients with lower adherence to Asian values rated their White counselors as more empathic. Contrary to expectations, the second study by Kim, Li, and Liang did not support the notion that Asian American clients with high adherence to Asian values give more positive ratings to counselors who focus on immediate problem resolution rather than on attainment of insight. In career counseling relationships that focused on immediate problem resolution, Asian American clients reported having a stronger working alliance with counselors who focused on the immediate resolution of problems versus counselors who focused on the attainment of insight. However, clients who adhered to Asian values rated their counselor higher on cross-cultural counseling skills when the counselor focused on attainment of insight.
These studies point to the complexity of the career counseling process with Asian American clients and also highlight the need to move beyond matching by race to considering more substantive sociocultural variables. The client's perception of the counselor as culturally sensitive may lead him or her to engage in career counseling in a more meaningful way. In addition, career counselors must also recognize the significance of empathy and perceptions of the working alliance in working with Asian American clients.
A number of articles addressed issues that directly pertain to career counseling services. Many examined issues that inform the delivery and process of career counseling with clients and groups of individuals who represent multiple reference group identities.
Various studies looked at high school populations and intervention programs. Perna examined programs that served at-risk adolescents (e.g., low-income students, diverse racial and ethnic groups, and potential first-generation college students). Only a quarter of the programs examined by Perna focused on all of the critical components that predict college enrollment, such as beginning services by at least eighth grade, promoting rigorous course work, and involving parents. Alston, Bell, and Hampton focused on precollege students with learning disabilities. Both parents and teachers of these students believed that other teachers, parents, and counselors did not encourage students with learning disabilities to seek entry into science and engineering careers. Lindahl, Long, and Arnett focused on the effectiveness of a high school intervention program that was developed to help students identify educational and career options. The authors found that the program's workshop format was effective in facilitating the goals of the program and that collaboration with high schools and local colleges might be helpful in reaching those goals. Overall, these studies demonstrated that communication between parents, teachers, and employers is vital in efforts to provide the necessary career services to diverse high school students. In addition, professionals need to focus on enhancing existing interventions and developing new ones.
Some studies directly addressed the experiences of minority graduate students. Hathaway, Nagda, and Gregerman found that ethnically and racially diverse students who participated in research activities during their undergraduate years were more likely to pursue graduate and professional education. Focusing specifically on Latina and Latino doctoral students, Gonzales, Marin, Figueroa, Moreno, and Navia examined students' experiences in doctoral education. The authors urged universities to examine and confront the often "restrictive and conservative" environments for Latina and Latino students, particularly how the market culture, elitism, and the faculty-reward structure limit potential areas of academic growth for students. These two studies emphasized the importance of providing students from diverse backgrounds with information that might promote their perseverance in attaining postgraduate degrees. Such studies also demonstrate the need to inform culturally diverse graduate students about academically supportive environments and for universities to intentionally develop supportive academic environments for students.
Several researchers also examined groups of individuals from diverse backgrounds who were not part of the student population. Chae provided an overview of issues, including emotional distress, interpersonal conflicts, gender role stereotyping, changing workplace trends, lower expectations and remuneration for women, and discrimination and prejudice, that might arise for women who are reentering the workplace. Women may also find that reentry to work facilitates their aspirations by fostering their self-worth through the development of new networks. Rostosky and Riggle reported that partners of same-sex couples were more likely to be open about their sexual orientation at work when nondiscriminatory workplace policies existed and when both partners had less internalized homophobia. These studies suggest that both individual and institutional factors may affect a woman's or a gay male or lesbian couple's sense of comfort and opportunity for professional development.
Career Centers and Programs
One place for integrating career research, training, and practice is career counseling centers. Several articles explored programs and projects offered by career centers in colleges and universities. Shivy and Koehly found that students used three attributes to distinguish between career services: duration, personal versus impersonal assistance, and on- or off-site assistance. Surprisingly, participants preferred direct interaction with employers (e.g., internships and career fairs) to individual career counseling. A program called Career Navigator, developed by Jurgens for freshmen and sophomores who were undecided about their career path, reduced students' career indecision. After examining a community career services program at a university career center, McKinnon stressed the importance of providing holistic and integrative career counseling, meeting adult needs such as increased evening hours, and creating a bridge between the university and community. Lapan, Osana, Tucker, and Kosciulek investigated the influence of the School to Work Opportunities Act of 1994 on career counseling practice and concluded that it will be increasingly more important for career professionals to form sustained collaborative relationships with schools and employers in the community. Finally, Braithwaite provided a description of a community-university partnership program, Way with Words, that was designed to improve literacy. The program emphasized civic responsibility as an aspect of career development for both undergraduates and graduate students.
Overall, career counseling services in academic and community settings are a vital part of the field. Literature concerning career counseling centers provides empirical evidence and specific examples that can help career centers better serve their student and community clients.
Integration of Technology and Career Services
Increased attention was also given to the use of technology in career counseling. Technology has entered every facet of social services and practice, and career counseling is no exception. Internet programs, CD-ROM programs, and a multitude of other technological advances have influenced career services, research, and practice in ever-increasing ways. Several authors focused broadly on the technological innovations in career counseling practice.
Although technological advances are often a positive development, such advances have ethical implications for individuals. Gore, Leuwerke, and Krumboltz identified the potential effects of technology: a search for community and belonging, degradation of spirit and motivation, multiple blurred roles, isolation, and depression. Sampson focused on the ethical implications for career counselors when using Internet-based guidance. He recommended that to incorporate Internet-based career counseling, career practitioners should be adequately supervised, have clear and direct policies and standards, balance client needs with developing technology, receive sufficient training, inform consumers about their choices of quality services, and engage in rigorous evaluation of services. Watts emphasized the positive aspects of technology in career services, explaining that technologies can be viewed as a supplement to traditional career services or as an alternative tool. Furthermore, the cost-effectiveness of technological services, increased accessibility, and increased interactivity are appealing to users. Savard, Gingras, and Turcotte also discussed the costs and benefits of implementing more computer technology in career services and suggested the integration of human and technological resources to tailor the services to meet individual needs. Finally, Jones, Harbach, Coker, and Staples found that video and face-to-face modalities of interpreting vocational assessments were equally effective and were rated higher than the text chat method.
The articles on the use of technology highlighted the importance of embracing the novelty of breakthroughs in human communication while maintaining constant attention to the existing career counseling knowledge and ethical standards. A repeated call for more empirical and conceptual writing in this area was made, and we envision that subsequent years will yield a growing number of technology-focused career counseling studies.
Career Counseling Training and Professional Issues
The training of career counselors is one of the most significant ways of ensuring the vitality of vocational counseling. Several studies were published in 2002 that have implications for training future counselors in the career field. Some studies focused directly on training in counseling competencies, whereas others provided information that may be vital to understanding clients' career development processes.
Innovative Applications to Training
Approaches to career counseling training that were explored in 2002 included several theory-driven models, such as short-term psychodynamic, integrative, ecological, and postmodern. A range of training applications provided a rich source for career development professionals who are training the next generation of career counselors.
Nevo and Wiseman provided suggestions regarding the incorporation of psychodynamic principles into short-term career counseling. The authors conceptualized the working alliance as positive transference, viewing career and personal issues as central themes and termination as a corrective experience. The authors used an eight-session case study to illustrate some of the challenges involved in the practical application of this approach. Postmodern approaches to career practice were also explored in 2002. Severy suggested that training programs can combat the stereotype that career counseling is boring by incorporating theories, such as postmodernism, that emphasize career practice as complex and dynamic. Furthermore, McMahon, Adams, and Lim used two perspectives, constructivist and traditional positivist, to understand what happened before the transition process in career counseling.
A number of articles addressed integrative models of career counseling training. C. Brown found that practitioners across training levels indicated that there was a gap between research and practice. Similarly, a group of articles in The Counseling Psychologist addressed how research, theory, and practice can inform training. Robitschek and DeBell proposed an integration of vocational psychology into counseling psychology training and practice as a way to revitalize the vocational field. Different stakeholders in counseling psychology can help to integrate the career-personal paradigm into training and practice. In her article applying this paradigm shift to career practice, DeBell emphasized points of the career counseling process in which clients may begin to address career concerns that include self-discovery, role change, implementation, transitions, and information processing. Other authors also focused on the actual application of an integrative career counseling framework, addressing solutions to complications such as boundary issues (Amundson) and finding ways to integrate multicultural competencies within this paradigm (Evans & Larrabee). Swanson also described steps that programs can take to analyze their training procedures and discussed how instructors across a range of didactic and practicum courses can encourage students to examine the importance of work in people's lives. Finally, according to Krieshok and Plesma, case studies promote a deeper understanding of the complex issues that clients present and serve as aids in facilitating training regarding the career development of groups of diverse individuals. Overall, these articles provide instructors in career counseling programs with a new way to apply an integrative approach to the training of career counselors.
The career counseling literature in 2002 may also provide professionals with information that they can use to enrich their teaching. A look at career counseling history often serves as a reminder of the theoretical and contextual roots of the practice of career counseling. Specific new approaches to working with clients can add to the repertoire of techniques for addressing the needs of diverse client populations. Lastly, existing and new theories and interventions may provide important frameworks and tools for training new professionals and challenge practitioners toward using a more integrated, contextually based career counseling approach.
Multicultural Issues in Training
A significant emphasis in current career counseling training is the development of multicultural competencies among career counselors. Ten essentials for training in multicultural career counseling were elucidated by Flores and Heppner. Their article discussed the current demographic shifts in the United States, the implications for racially and ethnically diverse individuals of these shifts in the world of work, and current models for career counseling with culturally diverse clients. Specific issues pertaining to career assessment and the barriers to career development were described. An integrative approach that incorporates vocational counseling, general counseling, and multicultural competencies may be optimal for training multiculturally competent career counselors.
As discussed earlier in the new approaches to career theory, Cook et al. proposed the Ecological Model of Career Development. A special section of The Career Development Quarterly ("Special Section") presented case studies in which the ecological model was applied to career issues of women of diverse backgrounds. The cases included a gifted woman (Hook & Ashton), an African American woman graduate student (Spanierman), a woman in a dual-career partnership who was experiencing sexual harassment (Perrone), a Mexican American adolescent (Flores, Byars, & Torres), a welfare-to-work client (McDonald), and a Chinese American lesbian woman (Davidson & Huenefeld). These case studies provided insight into issues related to race, gender, and class and may be beneficial in developing students' multicultural competencies.
Career Counseling Training and Professional Issues Summary
The literature that focused on the training of career counselors mirrors the current developments in the career field, with increasing emphasis on the social-emotional dimensions that are influential in the career development process. One of the most significant shifts in the career counseling fields is the integration of multicultural counseling competencies into career training.
International Issues in Career Counseling
One of the recent dynamic changes in career counseling is the internationalization of the field. An increasing number of articles published in scholarly journals contained information about career services in other countries or included research samples made up of participants from countries other than the United States. The year 2002 provided an example of the increasing flow of career information about international populations and global perspectives on career development.
Theoretically Based Empirical Studies
International career literature reflected increased scholarly interest in the career development of individuals across the life span, especially increased interest in the factors that influence a person's career development, performance, and overall satisfaction with work. These studies presented career-related information about individuals who ranged in age from high school adolescents to adults.
Holland's (1985) theory. Holland's theory received particular attention in this body of literature. A study of South African youth by du Toit and de Bruin found that there was an unsatisfactory fit between youths' interests and Holland's circular order model. For college students from Belgium, De Fruyt demonstrated that person-environment congruence significantly predicted both job satisfaction and skill development and that personality contributed to the prediction of intrinsic career outcomes. Sagiv conducted a study in Jerusalem that provided evidence that certain Holland codes were related to values. In a study focusing on Singaporean college students, Chew, Halim, and Matsui found that men reported higher levels of self-efficacy for the Enterprising and Realistic domains than did women, whereas women indicated higher self-efficacy scores in the Artistic, Investigative, and Social domains than did men. These studies provided conflicting evidence regarding the cross-cultural validity of Holland's theory. Counselors need to be aware of other factors, such as abilities, personal or social issues, and national and international job markets, that may influence the career decisions among international populations.
Youth populations. A number of 2002 studies may broaden career counselors' knowledge of the variables that affect the educational achievement and aspirations of adolescents and young adults from different countries.
Parents were viewed as instrumental in the career development of young adults in Germany, Canada, and England. Several studies found that parental social class, parental aspirations, and parents' educational level were all predictive of students' aspirations, as well as of their educational and occupational attainment (Garg, Kauppi, Lewko, & Urajnik; Schnabel, Alfeld, Eccles, Koller, & Baumert; Schoon & Parsons).
Other predictors of adolescent educational and career attainment were also explored. Schoon and Parsons reported that adolescents' personal aspirations, in addition to the labor market and economic conditions, strongly predicted later occupational attainment. In addition, Creed, Patton, and Bartrum found that high school adolescents from Australia with higher levels of optimism about life had higher levels of career planning and exploration, greater confidence in career decision making, and more career-related goals. Similarly, Schnabel et al. highlighted that achievement test scores and grades were influential factors in the educational achievement of German youths. Finally, Garg et al. noted that factors such as school grades, school and course perceptions, and extracurricular reading influenced educational aspirations in Canadian youth. Authors of two international studies also explored the role of career maturity, finding relationships between this variable and work-related skills, role modeling, work commitment, family involvement, and social class (Flouri & Buchanan; Patton & Creed). Career counselors should consider all these variables that may contribute to the educational and occupational success of adolescents, because these variables seem to be universal to the career development of young people in the United States and in other Western countries.
International studies also focused on one of the most critical times in an individual's career development--the transition from high school to either college or the workforce. A study of Finnish students by Nurmi, Salmela-Aro, and Koivisto highlighted that adolescents who assessed their goals in terms of high achievement made a successful transition from vocational school to work. Hui examined Hong Kong secondary school teachers' perceptions of a schoolwide approach to guidance that involved students' development as a "whole person"; the remedial, developmental and preventive aspects of guidance work; and the involvement of counselors and other members of the school community. Similarly, Leung, Wong, Lee, and Lam stressed the importance of facilitating the career development of youths in Hong Kong, especially in the context of an economic depression and high unemployment rates.
It seems clear that certain variables (e.g., socioeconomic status, parental influences, or gender) influence career development in many countries, although the specific effects of these and other variables may differ across settings. Counselors need to learn about significant processes and trends that characterize career development in the populations from which their clients come.
Adult populations. Several international studies focused on career variables in adults' career development. A study of Israeli military officers by Tziner, Meir, and Segal found that personality-job congruence facilitated work performance. In a study that used a German sample, Wiese, Freund, and Baltes revealed that strategies of proactive life management (i.e., selection, optimization, and compensation) predicted global and specific subjective well-being. Albion and Fogarty reported that although adults and adolescents in Australia experienced similar decision-making difficulties, adult participants reported fewer difficulties in making decisions overall.
Another career variable that was addressed in the international literature was work-related stress and burnout among adults. A study of Canadian female clerical workers by Morris and Long found that dispositional optimism and the meaning an individual gives to a stressful event were important to the women's ability to improve their reactions to occupational stress. Among Finnish adults, individuals who experienced a crisis involving a loss of vocational identity reported more suppressed anger, depression, and trait anxiety than did employees who were not experiencing a crisis (Hutri & Lindeman). Brotheridge and Grandey examined the effects of emotional labor on burnout in a Canadian sample. Although individuals in people-related jobs did not experience more burnout relative to employees in other occupations, the findings indicated that the expression of inauthentic emotions was related positively to emotional exhaustion and depersonalization and that the expression of emotions in ways that met display rules was related positively to personal accomplishment and burnout. Moreover, hiding or faking emotional expressions at work related to emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, whereas regulating emotions on the basis of expectations of the work role related to personal accomplishment.
In summary, the international literature in vocational psychology has numerous implications for career counselors across cultures. Practitioners should be aware of the factors that contribute to career indecision, burnout, and work performance. In addition, gender differences continue to be a significant predictor of how women and men in other cultures choose careers and relate to the world of work. To better serve their clients, career scholars and counselors should be aware of the cultural similarities, and also of the points of diversion, between cultures.
Several studies with international participants examined existing career assessment measures. Creed, Patton, and Watson used both an Australian and a South African high school sample to examine the psychometric properties the CDMSE-SF and found that the factor structure of the CDMSE-SF seems to vary depending on culture. Albion and Fogarty provided a revised model of the Career Decision-Making Difficulties Questionnaire with an Australian adolescent and adult sample. Finally, Barak and Cohen found that among Israeli high school students, an online version of the SDS exhibited high reliability and content validity, and students were overall more satisfied with this mode of administration than with the paper-and-pencil version.
Other researchers developed new career assessments targeting Asian international populations. A study by Wang and Heppner used a Taiwanese sample to develop a multidimensional parental expectation scale, the Living Up to Parental Expectation Inventory. The scale displayed strong reliability and validity estimates and identified three underlying factors for the scale: Personal Maturity, Academic Achievement, and Dating Concerns. In another study, Tien and Kao developed the Adult Career Cognitive Scale for college students and working adults in Taiwan. The scale assesses the areas of cognitive complexity, career self-efficacy, career barriers, and involvement with work. The scale demonstrated good internal reliability and validity, and norms were developed for Taiwanese adults. Finally, Mey developed inventories to measure personality, interests, competencies, and values as part of a career planning program in Malaysia. Satisfactory internal reliabilities for each scale were reported, and no gender or level-of-education differences were found on the scales.
The international career assessment literature provides important information about the use of existing career assessment instruments and the creation of new culture-specific measures in cross-cultural contexts. Assessments that are based on norms from U.S. samples should be used cautiously with clients or students of diverse nationalities and cultural backgrounds. Furthermore, newly developed international instruments may also be useful in cross-cultural settings in the United States.
Career Interventions and Use of Technology With International Students
In 2002, a single study by Yang, Wong, Hwang, and Heppner addressed career interventions with international students. The authors identified an existing need to create services that reflect the requests of international students in the United States. The study described the development of individual and online career services for international students at a university career center. This article may help career practitioners to recognize the importance of cultural values in understanding the needs of international students.
Several articles described international advancement in using technology in career counseling. McIlveen, Gibson, Fallon, and Ross evaluated an Internet version of a career fair at an Australian university, and Watts and Dent described the career information and guidance telephone services that have been launched in the United Kingdom. In Croatia, Sverko, Akik, Babarovic, Brcina, and Sverko provided a description of an Internet-based system and evaluated participants' satisfaction with the system. These studies illustrate the growing use of technology in providing career services in countries outside the United States.
Development of Career Counseling in Different Countries
Numerous authors examined the development of career guidance and cutting-edge career counseling issues in various countries. Changing historical, cultural, and socioeconomic contexts posed challenges in the application of career theory and practice in South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, the Pacific Islands, and East Asia.
Watson and Stead discussed a lack of career theory that is applicable to indigenous groups in South Africa. Practitioners and researchers from this country adopted Western career theories and interventions without a more holistic consideration of South African cultural, economic, and political realities. Career researchers and practitioners were encouraged to consider theory that would be reflective of South African culture.
A number of studies focused on the practice of career counseling in Australia and New Zealand. Because training opportunities and formal professional standards for career counselors in Australia and New Zealand are lacking, Patton urged the training of more career counselors to serve the increasing demand for career guidance services. Patton and McMahon also emphasized the necessity to refocus the educational and career guidance provisions on the basis of the understanding within the Australian context of career development as a lifelong event. Also, Smith stressed the changes in Australian industry and the need for vocational education and training in secondary schools.
Several articles also summarized career-related research in Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific Islands. In Australia and New Zealand, several reviews (Inkson, Furbish, & Parker; Prideaux & Creed) high-lighted the following trends in the respective career literatures: the diverse and thriving career research in both countries; the various research methodologies that were used; the need to expand career decision-making research; the preference for Holland's model among researchers; the need to design, implement, and evaluate career education programs; the salient gender differences in career development; the necessity of merging theory and practice; and the need for more culturally sensitive research approach, particularly related to indigenous ethnic minorities in Australia and New Zealand. Athanasou and Torrance proposed factors such as individual educational level, socio-economic status, gender and ethnicity, and interests and values to explain the educational and vocational achievements of Pacific Islanders.
Career theories and practice for East Asian countries have received increased attention. Scholars have identified the development of the profession of career counseling and factors that affect the career development of individuals in Japan (Tatsuno), Taiwan (Chang), Malaysia (Pope, Musa, Singaravelu, Bringaze, & Russell), Singapore (Tan), the Philippines (Salazar-Clemena), and Hong Kong (Leung; Zhang, Hu, & Pope). Regarding career counseling issues in Asian contexts generally, Leong advised against a simplistic importation of Western models of career counseling without making accommodations to take into account the culture of the specific Asian country. Career counselors should identify the cultural biases that limit the cultural validity of Western theories, select culturally specific concepts from the targeted culture to make the theory more culturally appropriate, and test the validity of the culturally accommodated theory by conducting more research.
International Issues in Career Counseling Summary
In conclusion, the international literature demonstrated that career counselors in many countries face the challenges of incorporating different cultural values in career counseling. Although many similarities in the development of the career counseling profession across different countries were identified, the unique cultural and socioeconomic contexts should be considered when career professionals develop career theories and techniques. Practitioners and researchers should give more attention to the potential consequences of using historically Western career theories and models in other cultures. In addition, career counselors in many countries are struggling to establish their professional identity, and sharing their experiences with career counseling professionals in other countries may help them better serve individuals within the context of their unique cultures.
Summary and Conclusion
In the process of writing this review, we noticed several trends in the literature. First, we were struck with the number of articles devoted to international career development issues. This was evident both in the topics discussed as well as in the use of samples from other countries in empirical studies. Almost 26% (n = 43) of the articles reviewed in 2002 pertained to international concerns; more than half of the international articles (65%; n = 28) were published in American journals. For years, international scholars have looked to the United States for direction on developing career counseling as a profession in their countries. It is refreshing to see that career counseling professionals in the United States are also using the scholarship produced in other countries to inform and strengthen their work. We suggest that U.S. and international practitioners and researchers establish a greater number of collegial working relationships. The creation of international collaborations will help to generate theory-driven interventions as well as the use of research to address cutting-edge career issues in different countries. In addition, different research methodologies (e.g., observational and case study approaches, longitudinal studies) should be used to generate meaningful and valuable information for career counseling professionals around the world.
Second, the "big three" foundational career theoretical approaches (i.e., person-environment, developmental, and social cognitive) continue to attract the attention of a range of scholars. Some of the empirical research studies were grounded in a theoretical framework and tested various theoretical tenets. Still, several of the empirical articles we reviewed were atheoretical in nature but tested theoretical constructs in relation to other career or personal variables. Holland's (1985) typology theory, Super's (1990) developmental theory, and Lent et al.'s (1994) social cognitive theory were the most used theories in research.
Furthermore, the most recent reviews (e.g., Arbona, 2000; Luzzo & MacGregor, 2001; Whiston & Brecheisen, 2002) have noted a trend of increased multicultural career development research. The research published in 2002 continues to attend to the career development of women and people from diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds, including African Americans, Latinas and Latinos, and Asian Americans. Approximately 25% of the career studies published in 2002 addressed the career development issues of diverse groups in the United States, and most of the studies focused on gender, racial, or ethnic diversity. These studies emphasized the impact of the cultural and contextual issues on career development. We encourage researchers to continue investigating the career development of diverse racial or ethnic groups and women, because career counselors still know comparatively less about these groups than they do about Whites and men.
Another trend that we noticed in the 2002 career literature was the focus on career counseling training. The training issues spanned the range from integrative perspective in career counseling to postmodern applications in career counseling. The former addressed holistic approaches to career counseling, whereas the latter focused on a variety of techniques for use in practice. The use of case studies as a tool in training was either advocated or applied in several studies.
Some trends that we noted are related to omissions in the literature. We noticed the continued lack of scholarship regarding the process and outcome of career counseling practice. Career scholars might consider adding to this domain of career counseling and development by investigating the effectiveness of particular interventions or various individual variables that may enhance the process and contribute to positive outcomes. Moreover, most of the research on career counseling applications focused on interventions at the individual level. Career counselors could have a wider impact on individuals in society by facilitating and evaluating programs that are developed to target larger audiences. Practitioners and researchers might consider collaborating on developing these programs jointly and evaluating the effectiveness of the programs that are geared toward groups of people. In addition, few studies examined career assessment instruments in general, particularly with non-White individuals. More research is needed to validate career assessments with culturally, racially, and ethnically diverse populations. Finally, more research is still needed to understand the career development process of other diverse groups that received little or no mention in the career literature. Specifically, research that explores the career development of gay men and lesbians, individuals with disabilities, individuals from different social class backgrounds, Native Americans, and individuals who are not attending college is warranted.
To conclude, we commend the contributing scholars who have added to the growth of the field through their research in 2002. These articles inform career counseling practice and contribute to efforts to better understand career counseling clients and to provide effective career services. We encourage both new and veteran vocational theorists, vocational practitioners, and vocational researchers to contribute to the future development of the career counseling profession through the professional literature. Articles that examine effective techniques in career counseling and the career development process across the life span and with culturally, ethnically, and racially diverse groups of people will help to continue advancing the field in the United States and internationally.
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Lisa Y. Flores, Anne B. Scott, Yu-Wei Wang, Oksana Yakushko, Charlotte M. McCloskey, Katherine G. Spencer, and Stephanie A. Logan, Department of Educational, School, and Counseling Psychology, University of Missouri-Columbia. Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Lisa Y. Flores, 16 Hill Hall, Department of Educational, School, and Counseling Psychology, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211 (e-mail: email@example.com).
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|Title Annotation:||Annual Review|
|Author:||Logan, Stephanie A.|
|Publication:||Career Development Quarterly|
|Date:||Dec 1, 2003|
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