Practice and research in career counseling and development--2001. (Annual Review).
Historically the annual reviews of literature published in The Career Development Quarterly have served to inform and inspire both researchers and practitioners. Although it is probably grandiose for us to consider following in our predecessors' footsteps in terms of inspiration, we have attempted to summarize the career literature published in 2001 in a manner that contributes to knowledge. As Swanson and Parcover (1998) have indicated, the challenge is to allow the literature to speak for itself, yet organize it in a manner that facilitates understanding across diverse topics. Similar to what has been done in previous reviews (Arbona, 2000; Luzzo & MacGregor, 2001), we did not enter into the review process with any preconceived notions of how to organize the literature; rather, we allowed a structure to emerge as we reviewed the literature. As we progressed, research trends and themes began to emerge; however, this process was not completed in a vacuum because previous knowledge of the career literature mos t likely influenced our review.
In defining the term career development, Herr contended that inherent in the current usage of the term are two conceptual categories: one that explains the development of career behaviors across the life span and the other category that guides the practitioner in using interventions to facilitate certain career behaviors. Our review, in many ways, mirrors Herr's definition, because the first section is devoted to career behaviors across the life span. We have titled this section Career Development, with the focus being a discussion of the career literature published in 2001 pertinent to the career development of children, adolescents, college students, adults, and older adults.
An annual review of career literature would not be complete without a discussion of career theories because these theories provide the foundations for both explaining career behaviors and intervening with clients related to career issues. Therefore, the second section of this review is devoted to theoretical articles published in 2001.
The third section of this article specifically addresses career interventions and includes both empirical and conceptual contributions. Although career assessments could be considered an intervention, we concurred with previous reviewers and allotted the fourth section of the review to a discussion of assessment instruments and topics. The fifth section of our review, however, is somewhat novel and addresses professional issues pertinent to the field of career counseling. This section examines publications in 2001 that provided analysis of the history, perspectives on current practices, and insight into the future of the profession.
To ensure the inclusion of studies with diverse and international populations, we combined both a hand search of specific journals and extensive searches using the PsycINFO and ERIC databases. First, we compiled a list of nine journals that typically publish career literature (i.e., The Career Development Quarterly, The Counseling Psychologist, Journal of Career Assessment, Journal of Career Development, Journal of Counseling & Development, Journal of Counseling Psychology, Journal of Employment Counseling, Journal of Vocational Behavior, and International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance) and reviewed every article published in 2001 to determine if it should be included in this review. Next, using both PsycINFO and ERIC we conducted many electronic searches, using first the term career or vocational and, second, the terms development, counseling, intervention, guidance, choice, selection, and decision making. A variety of other terms (e.g., lob search, occupational choice) were also used to id entify pertinent articles. In this review, we included information from 258 articles, chapters, or books, and, unless otherwise noted, all citations refer to materials with a 2001 publication date.
Like many of our predecessors (Arbona, 2000; Luzzo & MacGregor, 2001), we were forced into making some restrictions on the scope of this review to make the task manageable. In much the same way that Luzzo and MacGregor had done, we limited our review to articles, chapters, and books that are relevant to career counselors and vocational psychologists. Hence, we eliminated publications that were primarily related to industrial/organizational psychology, human resources, organizational management, or business practices. Unlike Luzzo and MacGregor, we did include studies that involved the career development of individuals in specific occupations. Including such studies made it possible to chart research trends across occupations.
We highlighted information in each section of this review that is related to gender and multicultural applications in order to provide a contextrich summary of the literature (Blustein, 1987; Fouad & Brown, 2000). Furthermore, we believe that multicultural knowledge should be considered in a global context and, therefore, we actively sought to identify and discuss studies that involved international populations. This attention to international topics is reflected in specific discussions of international findings and trends in each section. We hope that by emphasizing contextual factors in our discussion of career-relevant topics, readers will have a better understanding of the complexities and nuances of the career counseling and development literature published in 2001.
Many prominent individuals in our field (Super, Savickas, & Super, 1996; Vondracek, Lerner, & Schulenberg, 1986) have advocated for the view that career development is a process that spans an individual's life. We adopted this philosophy, and the first section of this review traces the career development literature published in 2001 that deals with the life stages of childhood through older adulthood. In the discussion of each age group, we attempted to emphasize pertinent information related to gender, ethnicity, and nationality. Thus, each age group is organized according to studies using U.S. and international samples and further organized according to other contextual factors such as gender, ethnicity, and sexual orientation.
Career Development: Children
Only a handful of studies addressed the career development of children in the United States. Tracey reviewed the literature on the structure of children's interests and questioned whether models that have been shown to represent the structure of individuals older than 14 are applicable for younger children. Children's views of interests seem to be influenced by gender typing of activities and the consideration of whether the activities occur in or out of school. Tracey argued that it is important to understand how interests and perceptions of competence change from simple, concrete structures in childhood to more abstract ones in adolescence. He called for more longitudinal research that focused on ideographic changes in children's interests.
Oakland, Stafford, Horton, and Glutting found a relationship between the temperament and the vocational interests of children as young as 8 to 10 years old; however, the relationship becomes defined as children age. They also found gender and racial/ethnic differences in terms of the relationship between temperament and vocational interests. Concerning gender differences, Wigfield, Battle, Keller, and Eccles summarized findings related to differences between male and female children's career aspirations and preliminary career choices. Research findings tended to indicate that young children have fairly inflexible beliefs about male and female occupations; however, as girls age, the strength of the stereotypes that they hold lessens. They found that girls tended to consider a wider range of possible career outcomes than did boys. Nevertheless, even with these expanded beliefs, girls tended to aspire to careers that have traditionally been attractive to women.
Only two studies addressed the career development of children outside the United States. Pulkkinen provided evidence, based on a longitudinal study of Finnish children, that children's behavioral patterns were predictive of career orientation. Her research indicated that constructive behaviors, social activity, and control of emotions predicted high career orientation. There were, however, gender differences concerning low career orientation. For girls, low control of emotion, anxiety, passivity, and poor academic performance related to low career orientation, whereas for boys, aggressive behavior and poor academic performance were predictive of a low orientation.
In another study involving an international population, Bandura, Barbaranelli, Caprara, and Pastorelli examined the sociocognitive origins of Italian children's emerging beliefs about their occupational efficacies and career aspirations. They found that boys had higher self-efficacy in careers such as science and technology, whereas girls were more efficacious in areas such as education, health, and social services. It is interesting that the authors' model found that socioeconomic status had no direct effect on children's perceived self-efficacy, academic aspirations, occupational efficacy, or occupational choice. They found that the impact of socioeconomic status was mediated entirely through parental beliefs about their own efficacy to promote academic achievement and parental aspirations.
Conclusions on Children
Compared with other areas, there were very few studies published in 2001 regarding the career development of younger children. There were, however, some important findings regarding children. Tracey's study posed some relevant questions about children's interests and whether commonly used models that were developed with adolescents and adults accurately represent the structure of younger children's interests. Bandura et al.'s findings are also compelling and indicate that parental aspirations and efficacy in promoting academic achievement moderate the effects of socioeconomic status. Furthermore, their findings further contribute to the self-efficacy literature and provide important implications for clinicians assisting younger children in their career development.
Career Development: Adolescents
Numerous studies regarding the career development of American adolescents were published during 2001. Several of these studies addressed the interplay of career and educational issues among this population. Ma and Wang found that educational outcomes (e.g., mathematics proficiency) were directly linked to career aspirations, whereas peer environment, motivation, and instructional quality were indirectly linked to career aspirations through educational outcomes. In other words, positive peer support, high motivation, and good instruction can help students succeed at their schoolwork, which then builds their confidence and results in their developing more ambitious career aspirations. Wang and Stayer also found educational outcomes to be strongly linked to adolescents' career aspirations. Contrary to the findings in Ma and Wang's investigation, peer environment, motivation, and instructional quality did not emerge as significant variables, while instructional quantity and home environment were related to career aspirations. The results of both studies suggested that adolescents' academic abilities, attitudes toward school, and attitudes toward their own academic capabilities significantly influenced their career aspirations.
Gender. Correll examined how high school students' perception of their mathematical competence influenced differences between boys and girls in their continuing toward a career in science, math, or engineering. She found that self-assessment of math competency influenced career-relevant decisions even when differences in ability were controlled. Interestingly, she found that the boys in this sample were not significantly better at math than the girls were; they just thought they were. In addition, we found three articles published in 2001 that examined the career development of female adolescents. Two articles (Meinster & Rose; Tang & Cook) emphasized the importance of considering career development and relational issues in tandem with this population. Meinster and Rose explored the influence of romantic relationships and educational aspirations on the vocational interests of adolescent girls attending all-female schools. Contrary to their hypotheses, Meinster and Rose found that neither romantic relationship s nor educational aspirations by themselves were related to changes in interest patterns from the beginning to the end of high school. Instead, the entire sample of girls developed interests in female-dominated professions over time; however, there were some differences depending on level of aspirations. Meinster and Rose also found that aspiration level was related to investment in the work role, with girls with high aspirations expressing more investment in work roles than in family roles, whereas women with low aspirations expressed equal investment in the two roles. Tang and Cook suggested that attending to middle school girls' intrapersonal, social, and career development needs through individual and group interventions and schoolwide programs is important. They contended that girls at this age often experience depression, uncertainty, low self-esteem, and low self-efficacy expectations, all of which can hinder girls' career development. To enhance career development, the authors suggested affirming girl s' uniqueness, fostering positive social relationships, increasing exploration of diverse careers, and nurturing a sense of optimism.
Ethnicity. Tracey and Hopkins investigated the correspondence of interests and abilities with occupational choice and the role of gender and ethnicity in this phenomenon. Both interests and abilities were found to be highly correlated with occupational choice; however, interests had a much higher correspondence than ability self-estimates. In addition, although gender failed to moderate these relationships, ethnicity moderated the relationships between occupational choice and the variables of interests and ability self-estimates.
Bullington and Arbona, focusing on the applicability of Super's career development theory, investigated factors that affected the academic and career development of a group of ethnic minority adolescents. In interviewing Mexican American adolescents, they found evidence of age-appropriate tasks and attitudes, such as planfulness, exploration, realism, commitment to the worker role, and awareness of connections between current behaviors and future goals. Ethnic and family factors emerged as salient factors in these students' career development, especially the factors of family support, guidance, and expectations.
Schnorr and Ware examined the association between career beliefs and career maturity among ethnically diverse and academically at-risk adolescents. The results suggested that beliefs regarding overcoming obstacles and peer equality were strongly associated with career development attitudes, whereas beliefs regarding what seems necessary for happiness and occupation/college variation were associated with career development knowledge and skills. In addition, career maturity was positively associated with the length of time the students had been participating in an integrated career and academic program. Also examining the effectiveness of a program, Linnehan investigated the effects of a work-based mentoring program on the academic performance and behavior of African American high school students. The mentoring program aimed to merge work and school activities, to help students achieve academically, and to help students develop life skills. The results suggested that participation in the mentoring program for m ore than half the academic year was positively associated with grade point average and school attendance. The results of these two studies indicate that ethnic minority adolescents benefit from career development interventions.
Disabilities. In exploring the career maturity of high school students with special needs, Ochs and Roessler found some pertinent results that should be considered in providing career services to these students. First, the group of students with disabilities reported significantly lower levels of career decision-making self-efficacy, career outcome expectancies, career exploration intentions, and vocational identity than did their general-education peers. On the other hand, the students with disabilities possessed positive expectations about career exploration and life outcomes, were moderately confident about their ability to make career decisions, and had positive intentions to participate in career-related behaviors. Rogan, Luecking, and Held suggested specific strategies to better address the career development needs of this population of students, especially students with mild cognitive limitations. To facilitate employment after leaving school, they recommended integrating academic and vocational learni ng, providing numerous opportunities for work-based experiences, and supporting students throughout the process. The authors then discussed how three initiatives (i.e., school-to-work opportunities, tech prep, and career academies) can include the required ingredients and address the needs of this population.
Gifted adolescents. Whereas the previous two articles addressed the vocational needs of adolescents with disabilities, Shoffner and Newsome focused on another group of students with special educational needs--those who are gifted. They examined the role of career exploration and commitment, life-role salience, and age on identity development among gifted female adolescents. They found that vocational exploration and commitment contributed the most (37%) to the identity development of this population, and commitment to the role of work and participation in studying were also important. The authors emphasized the need to provide early and varied opportunities for gifted female adolescents to explore their own interests and abilities, the world of work, and various educational paths.
A number of studies published in 2001 involved Canadian adolescents. Young et al. conceptualized and investigated a family career development project for Canadian adolescents and their families. Twenty parent--adolescent pairs participated in a formal career development project for 6 months. After analyzing several sources of data, the researchers identified five dimensions (i.e., joint goals, communication, goals-steps congruence, moderate parental agenda, and focus on adolescent individuation) that facilitated the family career development project and resulted in the pairs' substantially realizing their project goals. In addition, the researchers concluded that the career development projects were embedded in the larger relational context that included relationship, parenting, identity, and cultural projects. Overall, the results indicated that career development activities of adolescents were jointly constructed, were embedded in a complex hierarchy of family factors, and had distinct properties that facil itated their realization. Chisholm and Edmunds examined the impact of community economic problems by assessing career decision-making self-efficacy of adolescents living in Canadian communities that had recently suffered major plant closings and adolescents living in communities with no such closings. They, however, did not find differences in the career decision-making self-efficacy scores of the two groups.
K.-H. Lee conducted a cross-cultural comparison of career maturity between secondary students in Korea and the United States. K.-H. Lee found that the American students were significantly more career mature than the Korean students, both in terms of overall maturity scores and in their scores on the Goal-Orientation, Confidence, and Independence subscales of the Career Attitude Maturity Inventory. The Korean students scored higher on the Preparation subscale, indicating a greater level of planning and preparing for a future career. Patton and Creed also investigated the construct of career maturity. Specifically, they explored career maturity and career indecision among adolescents in a large cross-sectional Australian sample. The only consistent finding was that career maturity increased with age; however, other findings suggested that career indecision might be curvilinearly related to age and that females showed greater career maturity and career indecision than males did across all ages. P. J. Santos expl ored generalized indecision patterns among Portuguese secondary students. He found that the variables of self-esteem and vocational identity were negatively related to indecision, whereas locus of control, trait anxiety, and conflictual independence were positively correlated with indecision. Moreover, when all of these variables were entered into a regression equation, trait anxiety accounted for more than 50% of the variance.
Dhesi investigated the expectations associated with different post-school choices of students in India who had not yet entered university. The major finding was that the majority of students expected significant improvements in income, career prospects, social prestige, and marriage prospects regardless of the path they intended to pursue after completing school. Schoon was interested in factors associated with adolescents' decisions to pursue careers in the sciences. Using a sample of adolescents from the United Kingdom, she examined the factors associated with the formulation of career aspirations at age 16 and the realization of career aspirations at age 33. Career aspirations in adolescence were significantly related to gender, parental education, aptitudes, test scores in mathematics, and school environment. Occupational attainment at age 33 was significantly related to career aspirations at age 16, but other factors, such as self-efficacy and gender, were also related to level of occupational attainment . Colley addressed the current definitions and uses of mentoring with young people, especially in the United Kingdom. She argued that mentoring programs have often been influenced by Homer's Odyssey, in which the mentoring was a process based on power, politics, and sexual domination. She further cautioned that formal mentoring programs frequently reproduced harmful power and gender differentials, and she encouraged the development of communities in which young people feel welcome to seek informal mentoring help from a variety of adults. In addition, she argued for continued exploration through research of the process and outcomes of mentoring.
In a unique study, Christmas-Best and Schmitt-Rodermund examined the gender-typicality of adolescents' career choices in the former East and West Germany at two different times after reunification. Overall, the results revealed (a) more change in the East German sample compared with the West German sample; (b) increasing gender neutrality and atypicality regarding career choices among male adolescents; and (c) a time lag among the East German adolescents, whereby the trends found in the former West Germany did not emerge until 2 years later for adolescents in the former East Germany.
In a study that primarily examined gender and age differences in career decision-making difficulties, Gati and Saka (a) found support for the structure of the Career Decision-Making Difficulties Questionnaire with a sample of Israeli adolescents. Concerning gender differences, they found that boys reported more overall difficulty than did girls and reported more difficulty regarding external conflicts and dysfunctional beliefs. There were also differences between decided and undecided students, the most significant of which was that students who were undecided had significantly fewer difficulties in career decision making. In addition, the degree of difficulty involving external conflicts decreased with age, indicating that significant others, such as parents, became less salient to the career development process over time.
Using a Canadian sample, Davey explored why so few women choose careers in engineering by categorizing the reasons for selecting an occupation into five categories: interest, altruism, lifestyle, working conditions, and other. The results indicate that boys are more likely to cite interests and lifestyle reasons, whereas girls cite altruism more frequently. Davey concluded that girls' tendency to choose careers for altruistic reasons might contribute to the dearth of women in science and engineering.
Conclusions on Adolescents
After examining studies that were conducted with adolescents both in the United States and globally, we found that there was a significant interest in investigating gender differences in 2001. Research results indicated that girls had higher career maturity, fewer problems with career decision making, and less confidence in their mathematical ability and were more altruistic than adolescent boys. Also, the studies in this area indicated group differences in terms of career maturity, with some groups (e.g., those with disabilities, Koreans, boys) having lower career maturity scores. In addition, a number of the studies indicated that adolescent career aspirations play an important role in the educational and career development of individuals.
Career Development: College Students
A number of studies were published in 2001 concerning the career development of U.S. college students. Bowers, Dickman, and Fuqua explored the relationships between psychosocial development, career development, and employment status of graduating college seniors. The results suggested that individuals with higher levels of psychosocial development were engaging in more career development activities and were, in turn, receiving more job offers than were individuals who were less psychosocially mature. The variable most predictive of employment offers was involvement in general job search activities.
Scott and Church tested the separation and attachment theory in relation to the career choice process of college students from intact and divorced families. They found conflictual independence from parents and attachment to parents, as well as financial pressure, to be positively associated with career commitment, especially among college students with recently divorced parents. In addition, they found that students from intact families exhibited more career decidedness than did students from divorced families.
Gender. Consistent with studies conducted with adolescents, many of the studies involving college students also investigated the effect of gender on career development issues. Morgan, Isaac, and Sansone explored gender differences in the career choices of college students. Women reported more interpersonal work goals, more interest and perceived competence in education and social service careers, and more perceived opportunity for involvement with others in jobs than did men, whereas men reported more extrinsic reward goals as well as more interest and perceived competence in math/science careers than did women. Overall, work goals and perceived competence predicted interests, whereas interests positively predicted likelihood of career choice. Whereas the previous study found gender to be significant, H.-Y. Lee and Hughey did not find gender differences in the association between family-of-origin factors and the career maturity of college students. Attachment to parents was found to be positively related to t he overall career maturity for both men and women. Moreover, the family variables of attachment, conflictual independence, and functional dependence were positively related to career exploration, whereas no family variables were related to career planning. Tenenbaum, Crosby, and Gliner found nominal gender differences regarding mentoring relationships in graduate school. The only gender differences they found were that female advisers provided more socioemotional support than did male advisers and that male graduate students published more with their advisers than did female students.
Ethnicity. Only two studies during 2001 examined ethnic differences in the career development of college students. Delvecchio, McEwen, and McEwen examined racial differences in college students' perceptions of and preferences for several business careers. African American students tended to rate the appeal, starting salary, and required education level of the various business careers higher than did their Caucasian counterparts; however, Caucasians rated autonomy as being more important to them than did African American students. Interestingly, these results were consistent even when factors such as age, academic standing, grade point average, and parental education were considered. Although age did not emerge as a significant variable in Delvecchio et al.'s study, age was found by Teng, Morgan, and Anderson to be influential in the career preparation activities of ethnic minority community college students. They found that Black students and older students were less likely to attend career-related lectures t han were their counterparts. Teng et al. also investigated ethnic differences regarding career goals and found that security, opportunities for performance, good starting income, freedom to make decisions, and an important and interesting job were more important to Black students, whereas having training benefits was more important to White students.
Ethnicity and gender. A number of studies examined the joint impact of ethnic and gender factors on the career development of college-age students. Luzzo and McWhirter found that both ethnicity and gender affected college students' perceptions regarding career barriers, educational barriers, and career self-efficacy. Ethnic minority students perceived greater career and educational barriers than did their European American counterparts and reported less self-efficacy regarding their abilities to cope with these career barriers. Concerning gender, women perceived significantly greater career barriers than men did. Ethnic minorities perceived barriers related to finances and child care, whereas ethnic minorities and women both expected to receive negative comments and discrimination because of their ethnicity/gender. Perrone, Sedlacek, and Alexander also explored ethnic and gender differences regarding perceived career barriers and examined career choice goals and perceived career facilitators. They found both ethnic and gender differences in career choice goals and perceived career barriers but only ethnic differences in relation to perceived abilities in career facilitation. Regarding the latter finding, African Americans experienced the least career facilitation, because they indicated low academic resilience and low likelihood to exhibit help-seeking behaviors.
Mau and Kopischke used a national sample to determine if there were race or gender differences regarding job search methods and outcomes. Their study revealed significant ethnic and gender differences in the job search methods used, but this did not seem to affect employment because there were no differences in rates of initial employment. However, when salaries and underemployment were considered, both women and minority college graduates lagged behind their White counterparts. Mobley also found earning differences between male and female community college students but did not find differences based on ethnicity. In addition, Mobley found that characteristics of community colleges have an impact on students' wages and use of training.
Hardin, Leong, and Osipow found significant ethnic differences in college student career development, but they did not find gender differences. Their results indicated that Asian American students reported career attitudes that were less mature than the attitudes of their European American counterparts. This difference, however, may be related to degree of acculturation. Asian Americans who were highly acculturated and Asian Americans who had lower interdependent self-construals (a sign of Western acculturation) did not differ from European Americans in career choice attitudes. The results from the Hardin et al. study indicated that as Asian Americans became more acculturated, they tended to lose their traditional collectivistic orientation and to demonstrate career choice attitudes that were more mature. In contrast to Hardin et al., Kornspan and Etzel found that gender and age contributed to differences in career maturity scores but that race did not. This might be because the sample was composed of only tw o racial groups (i.e., African American and Caucasian) and was exclusively student athletes. In addition to gender and age, two psychological variables (i.e., career locus of control and career decision-making self-efficacy) significantly predicted career maturity.
Sexual orientation. Surprisingly, only one study during 2001 (Nauta, Saucier, & Woodard) addressed the career issues of gay male, lesbian, and bisexual male and female (GLB) college students. Contrary to the researchers' hypothesis, GLB students reported significantly more career role models than did their heterosexual peers. The GLB students, however, reported less support and guidance in making career decisions than did heterosexual students. On the basis of these findings, the authors urged college personnel to provide GLB students with an emotionally supportive environment and to help them find appropriate role models.
Other populations. Two studies were found that explored the career development of specific populations. Sajjadi, Rejskind, and Shore explored the role of multipotentiality in the career decision-making processes of gifted college-age students. Contrary to the results reported in the existing literature, multipotentiality did not seem to be problematic for their sample. Glover-Graf and Janikowski examined the career-choice process of students enrolled in rehabilitation education programs. A large portion of the participants indicated that one of the reasons they were entering the rehabilitation field was because they had a disability or had a friend or family member with a disability. Because many students in rehabilitation education programs have personal experiences with disabilities, directors of such programs need to promote self-awareness, monitor countertransference issues, and assist students with disabilities in coping with rehabilitation issues.
College career centers. Davidson, Heppner, and Johnston coordinated a series of articles in the Journal of Career Development related to transforming career centers for the new millennium. In this issue, F. K. Lee and Johnston proposed a holistic approach to career counseling that incorporates Holland's personal career theory. They further contended that practitioners should consider chance and uncertainty in career planning and should assist clients in developing effective interpersonal skills. Skovholt, Grier, and Hanson presented a framework for career counselors to avoid burnout and prolong professional longevity and personal sustenance. On the basis of a thorough review of the decision-making research, Krieshok recommended less emphasis on decidedness and more emphasis on teaching clients the skills and attitudes that would assist them in adapting to the changing world of work. These skills and attitudes would center on a planned happenstance view in which clients are encouraged to be watchful and ready for opportunities. Hammond (a) provided a cogent argument for why a needs assessment is critical to a career center and then outlined the three basic steps: (a) planning the project, (b) designing the needs assessment, and (c) using the results. Winer discussed the challenges of providing career services in a university setting and addressed problems and possible solutions to serve the needs of college students. K. L. Miller and McDaniels examined the impact of technology on various constituencies. They also described new directions for providing services using technologies and the training and credentials that are needed to provide these services. Also referring to technology, Davidson discussed many of the advantages of career services through the World Wide Web. Furthermore, she explored topics such as appropriate services for a Web site, the upholding of ethical responsibilities, whether high tech can be high touch, and what is known about the outcome of Web services.
Compared with other life stages, in which there were a number of studies with international populations, we located only one study involving college students outside of the United States. Song examined the career aspirations of female college students in Korea and found that both internal and external factors influenced the career aspirations of these women. Overall, the results indicated that the degree of career orientation among this population was positively related to their own nontraditional gender role attitudes and a close, continuous, and satisfactory relationship with their mothers.
Conclusions on College Students
The results from numerous studies with college students can provide practitioners with insights into providing more effective services to this population. A significant finding is that counselors can facilitate career development by assisting clients with psychosocial development. Although a number of studies examined family issues related to college students' career development, the results are difficult to decipher, and more research is needed in this area. In addition, there were a number of notable contributions related to transforming college career centers. Our review also reflects a substantial consideration of issues related to gender and ethnicity that provides important implications for practice. Luzzo and McWhirter and Perrone et al. urged counselors to integrate interventions for analyzing and coping with barriers into their career counseling. Other findings reflected the importance of considering acculturation and self-construal in career counseling. This review also indicates that salary and wag e discrepancies were still occurring and that steps needed to be taken to address the disparity. Another disturbing trend we identified concerns the lack of studies related to GLB students and to college students from international institutions.
Career Development Adults
Numerous publications during 2001 addressed the career development of adults. The specific topics ranged from the role of intrapersonal factors in career development to management of work stress. In addition, similar to the findings reported in other sections, the findings pertinent to group differences based on gender, ethnicity, and sexual orientation are highlighted.
Intrapersonal factors. Several studies examined the impact of intrapersonal factors such as self-efficacy and personality on adult work behaviors and career development. The results almost exclusively suggested that intrapersonal factors play an important role in job choice and career success. Seibert and Kraimer examined the influence of the "big five" personality characteristics on career success. Four of the five personality characteristics were significantly related to various aspects of career success. For example, extraversion) extroversion was positively related to salary level, promotions, and career satisfaction. On the other hand, neuroticism and agreeableness were negatively related to career satisfaction. Third, openness to experience was negatively related to salary level, but only among individuals in people-oriented occupations. Seibert, Kraimer, and Grant also examined the link between personality and career success. They were, however, specifically interested in the proactive personality type. The resuits of their 2-year longitudinal study indicated that proactive personality was positively related to innovation, political knowledge, and career initiative, which, in turn, were related to career progression and career satisfaction. An interesting finding of this study was that voice (i.e., speaking up and getting involved in discussions) was negatively related to career progression.
In studies regarding specific occupations, the relationship between personality and career variables is more varied. Borges and Osmon explored the effects of personality differences on medical specialties chosen by doctors. The results showed that several personality factors distinguished between general surgeons, anesthesiologists, and family practice physicians. Hardigan, Cohen, and Carvajal explored the relationship between scores on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), job satisfaction, and place of work (e.g., retail pharmacy, hospital pharmacy, other). No significant main effects for place of work or job satisfaction emerged; however, there was a personality by gender interaction effect indicating intuitive women preferred "other" types of pharmacy practice.
In a discussion on the role of work in midlife, Sterns and Huyck proposed a developmental-contextual model in which biological, psychological, maturational, and sociocultural aspects all influence patterns of behavior. They identified a number of themes of midlife in their discussion. In addition, they provided suggestions to assist individuals regarding work during midlife and concluded with an overview of the characteristics of the new midlife worker.
Gender. A book dedicated to Samuel H. Osipow, edited by Leong and Barak, provided scholarly discussions of various contemporary models in vocational psychology. In this volume, Fitzgerald and Harmon contended that the study of women's career development is arguably the most vibrant and productive area in the career field. Citing changes that have occurred since 1975 and the publication of Osipow's edited book, Emerging Woman: Career Analysis and Outcomes, the authors argued that U.S. society has become less gendered. They did, however, assert that there were still facets of life in the United States that were influenced by gender stereotypes, particularly regarding caring for children and the elderly. Only one study in 2001 explored the difference between the genders regarding job search methods and earnings, whereas the remaining studies all focused exclusively on the experiences of women. Huffman and Torres explored gender differences in job search methods (i.e., formal vs. informal) and whether these methods affected earnings. Consistent with the results that have been found in studies with adolescents, these researchers found differences between men and women in job search strategies, and they found that women, on average, earned less than men did. Their results also indicated that when worker characteristics were removed from the equation, job search methods accounted for little of the gender gap in earnings.
Two articles examined factors that affect women's job satisfaction and level of stress. In a conceptual piece, Auster proposed that women's midcareer satisfaction was affected by individual, career, organizational, and job characteristics, as well as stress factors. Auster cited research to support each dimension in her discussion of the model. Cron was interested in how parenting and other family variables affect women's job satisfaction. Cron found that marital satisfaction predicted job satisfaction for individuals in the early family-life cycle, whereas adaptability (i.e., the ability of the marital system to change) predicted job satisfaction for women in the later family-life cycle. In addition, their results showed that job satisfaction tended to increase as women progressed through the family-life cycles.
Four studies examined factors surrounding women's decisions to enter, leave, or remain in the full-time workforce. Cheek and Jones examined the association between the identity styles and employment histories of women who were currently unemployed and receiving public assistance. Differences were found between women who had diffuse/avoidant identity styles (i.e., decision making characterized by procrastination and avoidance) and women who had either informational or normative identity styles (i.e., active searching and evaluation of information and relying upon the opinions of others). First, the diffuse/avoidant participants reported receiving public assistance for more than 3 years, whereas the other participants had been receiving assistance for just over a year. Second, the diffuse/avoidant participants reported changing jobs more frequently than did the other participants during the previous year. MacDermid, Lee, Buck, and Williams examined issues associated with women's decisions to pursue alternative work arrangements, such as part-time employment. They found that many of these women were remarkably successful in reduced-load work arrangements. The women experiencing the most success in such arrangements were those who had already adopted the protean career model; that is, they had internal, personal definitions of success and were more focused on the content and process of their jobs rather than on external symbols such as promotions, raises, and job titles.
Alon, Donahoe, and Tienda examined the effects of early work experience on women's decisions to stay in the workforce. They concluded that the amount, timing, and volatility of early work experiences affected young women's labor force attachment. In addition, they found that numerous personal background factors (e.g., race, family income, mother's education and employment) influenced women's attachment to the labor force. Whereas Alon et al.'s study examined the factors that influenced young women to remain in or leave the workforce, August and Quintero examined factors that influenced older women's decisions regarding retirement. Through the use of a qualitative interview approach, they described contextual factors that exert influences and provided suggestions for assisting older workers.
Ethnicity. In 2001, a book edited by Walsh, Bingham, Brown, and Ward, titled Career Counseling for African Americans, was published. This book is a significant contribution and addresses a wide spectrum of topics related to career counseling with African Americans. Brown and Pinterits provided an overview of the basic issues in career counseling with African Americans. They also discussed process and assessment issues to consider in career counseling. In another chapter, R. P. Bingham and Ward critiqued major theories in terms of their applicability to African American clients and theories with a cultural focus. Rather than only discussing the difficulties associated with multicultural counseling, they explained how practitioners could use the culturally appropriate career counseling model. Also in this same book, Hargrow and Hendricks examined career counseling and nontraditional careers for African Americans. They discussed African American historical career choices and the factors that may influence the se lection of nontraditional occupations (e.g., racial discrimination, personal experiences). They further explored the issues of African Americans who work in nontraditional careers and suggested methods for counseling these individuals. In expanding the definition of the glass-ceiling effect to include racial and ethnic minorities, Phelps and Constantine addressed the issues of African American professionals and difficulties with advancement. Although the literature is sparse regarding hitting the glass ceiling for African Americans, these authors presented both organizational interventions and career counseling suggestions that provided insights into intervening at both levels.
We identified two studies that investigated the career development process of specific ethnic groups in the United States. First, Juntunen et al. conducted qualitative interviews with 18 Northern Plains American Indians to explore the meaning of career and related concepts. From the interviews, five themes were identified: the meaning of career, definitions of success, supportive factors, obstacles, and living in two worlds. Some important differences were also noted between individuals with secondary education and individuals with postsecondary education. Individuals with secondary education identified education as a primary supportive factor, lack of family support as a primary obstacle, and a struggle living in two distinct cultures. Individuals with postsecondary education, however, identified family support and sobriety as supportive factors and discrimination, alienation, and restrictions of the reservation as the primary obstacles. They also reported being able to move between the two worlds or being a ble to create a holistic third world. The second study (Leong) was conducted with Asian American workers and investigated the role of acculturation in their career development. Leong found that acculturation was positively related to job satisfaction, whereas supervisors' performance ratings were negatively related to occupational stress and strain.
Ethnicity and gender. In the book, Career Counseling for African Americans (Walsh et al.), two chapters addressed issues related to African American women's career development. Byars argued that there is a context of discrimination and oppression that is shared by all African American women and that career counseling interventions should be selected with an understanding of this context. She further recommended social cognitive interventions as a model for understanding and addressing these issues. Finally, she presented some specific career counseling strategies for enhancing the career development of African American women. In discussing both voluntary and involuntary career transitions, Constantine and Parker advocated the use of social constructionist principles in assisting African American women in the process of career change. The authors cogently argued that social constructivism emphasizes the importance of culture, language, and socialization, which directly corresponds to the needs of African Ameri can women in transition.
Pearson and Bieschke conducted qualitative interviews with professional African American women in the midpoint of their careers to explore the influence of their families on their career development. The most salient family variables related to career development were family emphasis on education, nuclear and extended family relationships, family social resources, and family economic resources. In addition, the participants indicated that their families had androgynous or flexible gender roles, had instilled in them a strong work ethic, and had them work regardless of circumstances. Gomez et al. also found that family factors influenced career development; however, this study was with Latinas. Using qualitative interviews to investigate the career paths of these individuals, the researchers concluded that a number of factors contributed to the success of these women. The factors that influenced the success of these Latinas were divided into four categories: (a) self; (b) culture, family, and personal backgrou nd; (c) immediate context; and (d) sociopolitical conditions.
Sexual orientation. Similar to what we found regarding college students, we located only one article that addressed issues of GLB clients. Chung proposed two conceptual models: one for work discrimination and the second for discrimination-coping strategies for GLB clients. Concerning work discrimination, Chung proposed a three-dimensional model that incorporated (a) whether the discrimination was formal versus informal, (b) whether it was potential versus encountered, and (c) whether the discrimination was perceived versus real. The analysis of work discrimination influences decisions about coping strategies, as does the issue regarding whether the client is making a new vocational choice or adjusting to a current work environment. A counselor can then assist clients in coping with potential employment discrimination by using strategies such as self-employment, job tracking, and risk taking as well as assisting them in coping with work adjustment by using strategies concerning the broad areas of identity mana gement and discrimination management.
Disabilities. Schroedel and Geyer studied the career mobility and advancement of college graduates who were either deaf or hard-of-hearing. Fifteen years after graduating from college, many of these adults with disabilities had made career advancements and were satisfied with their career, prospects for promotions, and relations with supervisors. Tschopp, Bishop, and Mulvihill, using an ecological model, explored the barriers to employment of individuals with psychiatric disabilities. Furthermore, they provided suggestions for specific interventions to maximize these clients' career development. Shahnasarian (a) proposed the paradigm of career rehabilitation for the twenty-first century, which incorporated the perspectives of vocational rehabilitation and career development. Shahnasarian (a) identified four common vocational handicaps that are comorbid with the disabling conditions. Consequently, counselors are encouraged to facilitate comprehensive career development and address these secondary vocational ha ndicaps.
Relational issues and work. Numerous empirical and conceptual pieces addressed the intersection of relational dimensions and work or career issues. Plum (b) underscored the importance of considering relational dimensions in understanding career development and described the interconnection between relational dimensions and career development. Using Josselson's (1992) model of relational dimensions, he explained how each of the seven primary ways of connecting often contributed to an individual's career development. For example, he discussed how the concept of attachment between parent and child influenced later career exploration, decision making, and job satisfaction. In the case of another dimension, he provided examples of how the need for eye-to-eye validation began in infancy and continued throughout adulthood and that eye-to-eye validation could confirm a career decision. The other five dimensions that Flum (b) discussed were idealization and identification, mutuality, "embeddedness," holding, and tendi ng. This article provided illuminating examples of how interpersonal modes are intertwined with work and career factors.
Of particular importance in this area was a major contribution in The Counseling Psychologist that focused on the interface between relationships and work. Blustein (b) began this contribution by noting that although the previous research in this area has important implications, it is to a degree limited and circumscribed. He persuasively argued for a new line of inquiry that develops a common set of assumptions about the nature and nuances of the interconnections between work and relationships. The three accompanying articles in this major contribution responded to Blustein's (b) call because they involved less traditional forms of inquiry and added significantly to our knowledge of the interactive qualities of relationships and work. In the first study, Phillips, Christopher-Sisk, and Gravino asked young adults about the involvement of others in their career decision-making process during the transition from school to work. The authors identified three ways that other individuals appeared in the decision-ma king process of these young adults. First, 98% of the participants indicated that others wanted to have an effect on their decision making and attempted to do so in a variety of ways. Second, 86% of the participants believed they had actively involved others in their decision-making process by using nine methods, for example collaboration, information seeking, and advice seeking. In addition, 28% of the participants seemed to actively or passively push others away from their career decision-making process. These narratives suggest that the role others play in an individual's career decision-making process is significant, complex, predominantly positive, and appreciated. Also using qualitative methods, Schultheiss, Kress, Manzi, and Glasscock interviewed a diverse group of young adults to assess participants' experiences of their relationships as well as perceived influences of their relationships on their career exploration and decision-making processes. They found that relational influences on career develop ment were multidimensional. One of the most prominent relational factors was support, and this support was multidimensional (e.g., emotional, social, esteem, information, and tangible support). This support dimension was also particularly important during difficult or stressful periods. Participants were influenced by a host of additional relational factors, such as parental personality, mother's emphasis on education, and disruptions in their relationships with their fathers, which further substantiated the conclusion that relational influences on career development were multidimensional.
Using a unique methodology, Blustein et al. analyzed case material from The Career Development Quarterly to investigate the intersection between work and interpersonal issues. Their analysis of 19 cases revealed no common findings other than the expression of interest by discussants for further information about the relationships of the clients in the cases. Less common themes in the cases, however, indicated that relational support facilitated career development, relational conflicts both motivated and inhibited career development, family roles were reenacted in career decision making and work settings, and economic factors interacted with social factors to influence career development. Consistent with Schultheiss et al.'s study, this study also reflected that the relational influences on career development were multidimensional. Two prominent researchers responded to the three articles on the work/relational interface. Flum (a) suggested the need for continued emphasis on shifting the focus of practice and research in career development from individualism to collectivism. Flum (a) and Richardson both reinforced the need for additional qualitative investigations. In addition, Richardson argued for increased attention to the exploration of work/relationship issues from a cross-cultural perspective and for increased emphasis on personal, nonmarket work.
Mentoring. Mentorship involves a relationship between the mentor and the person being mentored and, hence, could be considered within the relational context of work. We, however, have elected to highlight this relational area separately. Seven articles in 2001 addressed the issue of mentoring in the workplace, five of which empirically investigated the influence of mentoring on various work behaviors and career outcomes. In a study on the impact of mentoring on work satisfaction, Murphy and Ensher found that instrumental/vocational support from mentors was positively related to job satisfaction and perceived career success. Although this finding indicated that mentoring significantly influenced job outcomes, other results from this study suggested that self-management strategies could also promote positive career outcomes. The authors concluded that self-management strategies seemed to be useful in the absence of certain types of mentoring support. Knouse proposed that individuals who have difficulty obtainin g mentoring, such as women and ethnic minorities, should use the Internet to seek mentoring. Knouse discussed several of the advantages and disadvantages of virtual mentoring.
In a study examining the effect of protege gender on mentoring practices, Scandura and Williams found that male employees received more mentoring than did women when the protege initiated the mentorship. Female employees, however, received more benefits from the relationship if the mentor initiated the mentoring or when both the protege and mentor initiated the relationship. They also found that employees benefited more from same-sex relationships more than they did from cross-gender mentoring and from informal mentoring programs. In a conceptual piece, Blake-Beard further explored the differences in informal mentoring and formal programs and elaborated on the implications for women participating in these programs. In addition, Blake-Beard discussed strategies to enhance the effects of formal mentoring programs for women.
Nielson, Carlson, and Lankau investigated the influence of mentoring on employees' work/family conflicts and found that mentors influenced the degree to which individuals with work and family responsibilities handled both roles. They found that having a mentor decreased work/family conflict, especially when the mentor was supportive of the protege's desire to balance work and family. In addition, work/family conflict was reduced when the mentor provided good role modeling on balancing the demands of work and family. Mentors, however, were better at decreasing the family's interference with work than the reverse (i.e., work's interference with the family).
Two studies examined the effect of mentoring on career outcomes specifically with lawyers. In a longitudinal study, Higgins and Thomas explored whether individuals benefited more from a primary mentor or from a set or constellation of relationships. They concluded that the primary mentoring relationship was positively associated with short-term career outcomes; however, the constellation of relationships seemed to have more impact on long-term career outcomes. Wallace also found that mentoring had a positive effect on the career and emotional outcomes of lawyers. More specifically, she found that female lawyers with mentors, compared with female lawyers without mentors, reported significantly higher earnings, perceived more opportunities for promotions, reported greater career satisfaction, and indicated their expectations were met to a greater degree. These effects, however, differed slightly based on the gender of the mentor. Women lawyers with male mentors earned more than women lawyers mentored by female mentors, but women lawyers mentored by women reported greater career satisfaction and more intent to continue practicing law than did those mentored by men.
A topic related to mentoring is employees' relationships with their supervisors. Schirmer and Lopez examined whether employees' attachment styles and orientations and perceptions of supervisor support were related to measures of work strain. As expected, both attachment measures and supervisor support were related to work strain. In addition, their findings suggested that individuals with an anxious attachment style were more likely to report and react negatively to perceptions of low supervisor support. Similarly, individuals with avoidant attachment styles were also more likely to report perceptions of low support but were less likely to respond to the lack of support.
Work and family balance. In 2001, a number of articles focused on the association between work and family responsibilities. Two studies specifically examined the family functioning of individuals trying to balance family and work responsibilities. Clark found that employees who reported high flexibility in performing their jobs had higher levels of family functioning and job satisfaction than did employees with less flexibility. Surprisingly, for employees with multiple children, the amount of support received in supervision was negatively associated with family functioning and home satisfaction. On the other hand, supportive supervision was positively associated with employee citizenship behaviors. Barber also studied the impact of attitudes toward work and family on childbearing behaviors and concluded that individuals who had positive attitudes toward careers and luxury goods were less likely to have children prior to marriage than were individuals without such attitudes.
Related to dual-career marriages, Perrone and Worthington tested a model of factors that influence marital quality. Factors found to positively influence marital quality among individuals in a dual-career marriage were love, sexual satisfaction, communication, satisfaction with the dual-career lifestyle, combined income, and social support. Furthermore, perceived job--family role strain was predicted by the conflicts between objective demands of the job and family roles; however, the relationship between role strain and marital quality was mediated by coping behaviors. Gilbert and Bingham raised some important issues concerning the specific difficulties facing African American dual-career couples. They not only discussed pertinent research, but they also infused information from their interviews of 10 dual-career African American couples into this chapter. Moreover, they provided a model for counselors working with this population.
In two studies, the authors examined the perceptions employees have regarding the work/family benefits of their organizations. Parker and Allen investigated the factors that affect employees' perceptions regarding the fairness of work/family benefits. They found that younger workers, racial minorities, women, individuals who had used flexible work arrangements, and individuals in jobs requiring a greater degree of task interdependence had more favorable perceptions of their organization's work/family benefits than did other employees. Allen concluded that employees' perceptions of the overall supportiveness for families of their organizations affected a host of work and family variables. In general, she found that perceptions of family supportiveness were very influential on employees' reactions to family-friendly benefit policies and other dependent variables such as family conflict, affective communication, and job satisfaction.
Work stress. Several studies published during 2001 addressed the issue of work-related stress. Judge and Larsen reviewed the research related to dispositional influence on job satisfaction. Regarding job satisfaction, they argued that two personality traits (i.e., neuroticism and extroversion) and two dimensions of affect (i.e., positive and negative) were the best predictors. They provided evidence that individuals characterized by negative affect were more likely to report job dissatisfaction, whereas individuals with positive affect were more likely to report job satisfaction. They further argued that negative affect and positive affect are the most proximal influences on job satisfaction. In a meta-analysis of personality traits and job satisfaction, Judge and Bono found that neuroticism displayed the weakest correlation with job satisfaction. Although Judge and associates (Judge & Bono; Judge & Larsen) found that personal characteristics influenced job satisfaction, Ito and Brotheridge found that career dimensions influenced emotional exhaustion. They found that career control explained variance in emotional exhaustion over and above that which was explained by more traditional job context factors (e.g., peer cohesion, supervisory support, autonomy). Career control reflects the degree to which individuals believe they can predict and influence the direction of their careers. Lauver and Kristof-Brown found that perceptions of person--environment fit needed to be expanded to include distinctions between person--job fit and person--organization fit. They found that both person--job fit and person--organization fit predicted job satisfaction; however, person--organization fit was a better predictor of intention to quit. All four of these studies concluded with calls for additional research related to the interaction among individual and work factors that contribute to lessening work strain and increasing job satisfaction.
Hobson, Delunas, and Kesic presented the results of a national survey of stressful life events. They identified five overlapping themes in the top 20 most stressful events: death and dying, health care, crime and the criminal justice system, financial/economic issues, and family-related concerns. Hobson et al. argued that corporate work-life initiatives have been very productive and that both individuals and organizations should strive for work-life balance. Currently, in the field of career development there are often discussions of work stress and occupational mental health; however, Spokane and Ferrara traced much of the development of research and practice related to occupational stress to Osipow's scholarly writings and instrument development. Spokane and Ferrara provided a detailed overview of the Occupational Stress Inventory (OSI), which includes measures of occupational stress, strain, and coping. They also indicated that a fourth revision of the OSI is currently underway.
Feldman and Turnley found that adjunct faculty reported both advantages and disadvantages to the job; however, adjunct faculty in late career were more positive about these positions than were adjunct faculty early in their career. Harris, Moritzen, Robitschek, Imhoff, and Lynch found some interesting gender differences concerning the influence of social support and interest--occupation congruence on job satisfaction for men and women. Social support was a significant predictor of job satisfaction for women but not for men. On the other hand, congruence was a significant predictor for men but not for women. These authors also explored whether social support and interest--occupation congruence affected job tenure and found that neither of the variables was a significant predictor for either men or women. Work stress also seems to be an issue for counselors who are working with unemployed clients, because Goddard, Patton, and Greed found significant levels of psychological distress in Australian personnel who w ere working with the unemployed.
Changing occupations. Three studies have examined the characteristics and needs of adults who are changing occupations or jobs. Jepsen and Choudhuri explored factors associated with career changes among adults raised in rural areas. Data regarding career choices were collected at five points in time (i.e., 1, 7, 13, 19, and 25 years after high school graduation). A chronological occupational career pattern (OCP) for each participant was developed using Holland's one-letter codes at each followup. Interestingly, more than one third of the participants had experienced stable OCPs; that is, they entered one type of occupation after graduating from high school and had remained in that type of occupation for 25 years. These researchers also identified two changing occupational patterns: first, the exploratory changers, who switched occupational types during the first 7 years after high school and then remained in that type for the rest of the 25-year period, and, second, the advancing changers, who started in a di fferent occupation but then "advanced" to Enterprising careers sometime during the 25 years. Surprisingly, more women than men experienced changing OCPs. The authors also found that OCP stability was negatively associated with overall career satisfaction and current job satisfaction. Whereas Jepsen and Choudhuri examined the factors associated with changes in occupational type, Ostroff and Clark were interested in the factors associated with employees' willingness to accept inrraorganizational job changes in a company. Not surprisingly, they found that employees were more willing to accept promotions than lateral changes, positions that did not require a change in career discipline over positions that did, and positions that did not involve relocation. Other findings indicated that different sets of factors corresponded to different types of jobs.
Whereas the previous two studies examined the factors associated with changing jobs, E. B. Lent discussed the counseling needs of individuals trying to find jobs. She argued for the use of a person-centered approach with job seekers who were receiving public assistance to minimize the "cross-class" difficulties between job seekers and employment counselors. Specific strategies to be used in the person-centered approach with this population included genuineness, empathy, easy-to-read written materials, informal assessment, collaboration, and careful documentation of clients' issues. E. B. Lent also stressed the importance of being aware of one's own biases and the variety of obstacles faced by job seekers. E. B. Lent asserted that the purposeful use of the person-centered approach could improve the success of job search programs for individuals moving from welfare to work. Packer suggested that a Career Transcript (CT) system could also assist individuals in gaining employment. A CT contains a record of an ind ividual's lifelong learning in a format that represents authentic performance rather than an academic grade. He described a system in which the CT is a part of a learning portfolio that is stored online, but the individual selects who can view the content (e.g., potential employers).
Three of the studies with international samples addressed psychological factors as they related to work issues of adults. Ronka, Kinnunen, and Pulkkinen found that career instability and social functioning were interrelated in nearly 300 adults from Finland. Significant difficulties in social functioning at age 27 increased the risk for career instability between ages 27 and 36; moreover, career instability then increased the risk for more social problems at age 36. Boudreau, Boswell, and Judge compared the effects of the "big five" personality traits on the intrinsic and extrinsic career success of executives in the United States and Europe. For both samples, extroversion was positively related to intrinsic career success, neuroticism and conscientiousness were negatively related to intrinsic success, and agreeableness was negatively related to extrinsic success. For the U.S. sample only, neuroticism was negatively related to extrinsic success. On the other hand, for the European sample, extroversion was pos itively related to extrinsic success. For both samples, factors other than personality, such as evenings and hours worked, educational degree, and job tenure, predicted career success. In a case study of two English solicitors, Drummond and Chell explored Becker's theory that suggests individuals can become entrapped in an occupation by extraneous investments made during the course of employment. They found support for this theoretical proposition and for individuals' structuring of reality to remain in an occupation in which they felt trapped.
In investigating unemployed adults in Israel, Kulik (b) found some notable variations in attitudes and behaviors. Job search intensity, psychological stress, and work centrality were highest among individuals who had been unemployed for 2 to 3 months and then gradually declined. Middle-aged participants spent more time per week looking for jobs, were more sensitive to the negative health consequences of unemployment, and mentioned fewer advantages of unemployment than did their younger counterparts. Also, women and widowed and divorced participants reported a greater decline in health as a result of unemployment.
Consistent with the research involving adolescents from various countries, many of the studies of adults outside of the United States have focused on issues related to gender. Of the eight articles found, two involved comparing men and women from Israel and the United Kingdom. Kulik (a) assessed gender differences in job search intensity and attitudes toward unemployment among young, unemployed Israeli adults. Although there were no significant gender differences in job search intensity or strategies, there were several other differences between men and women. First, regarding why the participants rejected potential jobs, women cited adverse job conditions, family considerations, and masculine gender-typed employment significantly more often than did men, whereas men cited feminine gender-typed occupation more often than did women. Second, women reported that their commitment to work was based significantly less on financial considerations than did men. Finally, men perceived unemployment as being significant ly more of a stigma than did women. In the second study, Kidd and Smewing explored gender differences in the association between supervisor support and career and organizational commitment. Both men and women reported more commitment to the organization if they saw their supervisor as engaging in feedback and goal-setting behaviors. Furthermore, individuals who reported that their supervisors trusted them and gave them authority to do the job also had high commitment. There was, however, one significant gender difference. For women, the significant association between supervisor support and organizational commitment was positive and linear, whereas for men, this association was curvilinear, indicating that supervisor support positively influenced organizational commitment when support was low or high but negatively influenced organizational commitment when support was moderate.
The remaining six articles that used international adult samples all involved exploring women's workplace issues. Yewchuk, Aeysto, and Schlosser surveyed several hundred successful women in Canada and Finland in an attempt to identify elements that facilitated or prevented their achievements. Eminent women from both countries indicated that their own qualities and personal convictions were the primary reasons for their success. They also cited other positive influences on their career development, such as encouragement from family members, encouragement from other role models, and favorable societal/environmental factors (e.g., available scholarships and child care), that had had positive influences on career development. Conversely, both groups indicated that the five most detrimental factors were stereotypical attitudes of others, being female, having children, availability of child care, and parental socioeconomic status. Fielden, Davidson, Gale, and Davey explored barriers experienced by women in the Unit ed Kingdom who tried to enter male-dominated careers, such as construction. Their findings revealed several barriers: (a) the image and reputation of the construction industry, (b) the typical terms and conditions of employment, (c) lack of training for women, (d) age criteria, (e) recruitment through male networks, (f) negative attitudes toward women, and (g) other prejudices (e.g., ethnicity). They used a focus group to identify a number of practical suggestions for encouraging women in the construction industry. Also related to women's career development in the United Kingdom, Bimrose criticized many early career theories because they were developed mostly by men for men and hence were inadequate at describing the complex career development process of women. Bimrose highlighted three more recent theories that focus on the career behavior and needs of women (i.e., L. Gottfredson, 1981; Hackett & Betz, 1981; feminist career counseling).
Three of the articles addressed issues related to stress, job satisfaction, and job renewal. Honda-Howard and Homma surveyed nearly 200 female Japanese employees in an attempt to understand the relationship between job satisfaction and turnover. Their results suggested that turnover is mainly affected by work/family conflict. Portello and Long developed and tested a complex, integrative model of workplace stress experienced by women managers in Canada. Their results suggested that several factors affect the coping strategy used by women when handling interpersonal conflict. Disengagement coping was used when the conflicts were appraised as threats to self-interest or as very upsetting and when the women perceived little control over the stressor. On the other hand, engagement coping was used when the conflicts were appraised as threats to social relationships and when the women felt they had greater control over the stressor. Using the life story approach, Oplatka investigated the self-renewal process of fema le school principals in Israel who made transitions in midcareer. The process of renewal included coping with a lack of self-fulfillment, setting new goals, refraining their managerial perspectives, replenishing their energy, reinforcing their innovative behaviors, and looking for new challenges.
Conclusions on Adults
The literature published in 2001 on adults' career development, once again, reflects the multidimensional and multifaceted nature of adult career development. Our review shows that personality factors have an influence on career variables in adulthood. Consistent with the findings at other life stages, the findings about career development of adults show that there are many gender differences both in the United States and internationally. A number of noteworthy publications were published during 2001 that addressed career counseling with racial and ethnic minorities. Regarding ethnic minority clients, results from this review underscore the importance of helping clients process their experience of navigating two cultures while helping them with career-related concerns. Furthermore, our review indicates that the interaction between gender and race should be considered in providing career counseling to clients. Researchers consistently found that in examining the interactions among relationships and career deve lopment, the relational influences on career development were multidimensional. Our review also indicated that mentoring tended to have a positive impact on employees. In addition, some adults seemed to face struggles related to work and family balance and issues related to work stress. Finally, compared with previous years, we found a number of publications related to adult career issues internationally.
Career Development: Older Adults
We were only able to identify one article related to the career development of older adults. Maurer discussed the role of self-efficacy in the career development of older workers. He described how declines in self-efficacy regarding developing and learning new skills could discourage older workers from participating in training and development activities, which were necessary for their continued livelihood. Furthermore, the association between self-efficacy and participation in training was independent of the perceived benefits of participation. Maurer also discussed some methods for enhancing the career development self-efficacy of older workers.
Career Development Section: Conclusions
In reviewing the career literature across the life span, several pertinent themes seemed to emerge. Across all age groups, there was substantial interest in exploring issues related to gender. The inquiry of career development in a multicultural context, however, was not as substantial. This lack of research was particularly evident for GLB populations--we found only two articles across all age groups on this topic. Another area in which the research was surprisingly scant was with older workers and the needs of this population. Given the increasing number of older workers, this dearth of literature seems particularly disturbing. On a positive note, many of the studies in 2001 involved adult samples, and there seems to be less reliance on college-age samples. Furthermore, the research in this area involved a multitude of research methodologies and designs. We particularly noticed the increased number of studies involving qualitative methods.
Career and Vocational Theories
The life, career, and contributions of Donald E. Super were the focus of numerous articles during 2001. According to Van Esbroeck (b), Super was one of the leading scholars in educational and vocational guidance and strongly influenced practice internationally. Super's eminence is reflected in the inaugural issue of the International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance (IJEVG; Marques, b), which was devoted to his contributions (Marques, Herr, Jenschke, & Van Esbroeck). A number of articles in this issue addressed the overall contribution of Super to the field. Savickas (a) discussed how Super expanded traditional vocational psychology by studying how people develop careers and work roles throughout their lives and, thus, formulating the "life-span, life-space" model. Furthermore, Savickas (a) highlighted Super's distinction between career choice content and process as well as his elaboration on the career concepts of salience, maturation, stages, patterns, themes, and satisfaction. Patton and Lok an examined the evolution of career maturity and contended that because of the changing nature of work, the construct of career maturity may change in name or form, but its importance and underlying principles will remain. W. C. Bingham discussed the importance of Super's Life Career Rainbow in delineating a person's career experience and his Archway of Career Determinants, which coalesces the complex interchange of factors that influence career development. W. C. Bingham encouraged additional research but maintained that the combination of these two constructs aids counselors in understanding the broad range of factors that influence a client throughout the life span.
Other articles in the first edition of the IJEVG addressed Super's influence internationally. Repetto discussed some of the limitations of the construct of career maturity but illustrated that the Career Development Inventory-School Form could be used to evaluate a career program for adolescents in Spain. In discussing Super's contribution to career guidance in Japan, Watanabe-Muraoka, Senzaki, and Herr cited Super's influence as being the impetus for shifting the focus of the school career guidance system in Japanese secondary schools from a job-matching model to a developmental career model. They further argued that Super has also influenced counseling with adults in Japan. Watts (c) contended that Super has also had a major influence in the United Kingdom, particularly regarding abandoning a talent-matching model and moving to a developmental model in career education.
Other authors in the special edition of the IJEVG devoted to Super explored the integration of theory, research, assessment, and counseling. Marques (a) highlighted several projects that illustrated these interactions, such as the Career Pattern Study, his work for UNESCO regarding career guidance in schools, the Work Importance Study regarding role salience and values, and the Career Development Assessment and Counseling (C-DAC) model. Sverko further elaborated on the contribution of Super's Work Importance Study, a multinational study launched in 1979 that addressed values and role salience. Niles (b) illustrated how the C-DAC model is an extension of Super's theory into counseling practice. C-DAC, which is an assessment-based intervention model, allows counselors to attend to both content and process variables relevant to their clients' career development. According to Niles (b), "the C-DAC model blends career assessment and career counselling to provide opportunities for people to clarify, articulate, and implement their life-role self-concepts" (p. 138).
Leong and Serafica reviewed the research on career maturity of ethnic minority adolescents and concluded that Super's theory lacked cultural validity for racial and ethnic minorities. They also discussed Leong's integrative cross-cultural model of counseling and psychotherapy and applied it to Super's developmental theory, in which culture-specific variables are incorporated into the model.
According to Furnham, Holland's ideas have perhaps stimulated more research than any other vocational guidance concept, and the year 2001 was no exception. In reviewing research on congruence, Furnham contended that Holland's theory has received critical acclaim and careful scrutiny. He, however, raised some significant questions about the importance of congruence because it is not the sole predictor of satisfaction, and he also raised questions related to the cross-cultural portability of Holland's ideas. Furthermore, advances in personality psychology have challenged Holland's sixfold typology.
Congruence continues to be explored, because we found four studies in 2001 that addressed person--environment (P--E) fit or congruence. Srsic and Walsh investigated the association between P--E fit and career self-efficacy among female undergraduates. They examined three groups of women: women in majors that were congruent with their personality, women in majors that were incongruent with their personality, and women who were undecided about their major. They found that congruency made no difference and that undecided students had lower career self-efficacy. Smart and Thompson tested one of Holland's newer assessments, the Environmental Identity Scale (EIS). The EIS is a 22-item instrument that attempts to delineate between environments that have a strong and clear identity compared with environments that have a weak and diffuse identity. Their results indicated that the scale has adequate reliability and discriminant validity. They, however, did not find differences between faculty in environments with a cle arer identity and faculty in diffuse environments. Ton and Hansen extended the investigation of the P--E fit beyond the workplace to marital roles. Their study indicated that the P--E framework is helpful in predicting satisfaction and motivation in both work and marital roles. Meir and Segal-Halevi examined the association between environmental congruence, group importance, satisfaction, and somatic complaints among Israeli paratroopers. They found that congruence was only related to satisfaction with military roles. Furthermore, their overall results suggested that group importance had a stronger effect on role satisfaction than environmental congruence.
We found three studies that corresponded to Furnham's concern about the appropriateness of Holland's theory with diverse populations. Toporek and Pope-Davis compared Holland's construct of vocational identity for African American and White American college students. The group invariance results indicated that the Vocational Identity Scale of My Vocational Situation should not be considered equivalent between men and women and across socioracial groups. Soh and Leong explored both the structural validity and the conceptual equivalence of Holland's RIASEC (Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, Conventional) theory for White American and Chinese college students. The results indicated similar structural and criterion-related validity across the samples. Convergent validity was shown for the Social and Enterprising types in the U.S. sample and for the Investigative and Enterprising types in the Singapore sample. Equivalence of meaning across the samples was found for the Social, Enterprising, and possibly the Investigative types. On the basis of their findings, the authors encouraged additional efforts to validate various aspects of Holland's theory cross-culturally. Murray and Hall explored gender differences in undergraduate vocational and cocurricular interests using Holland's RIASEC scheme. Regarding vocational interests, women reported more interest in Social and Enterprising areas, whereas men reported more interest in Realistic areas. In the cocurricular area, women were more interested in Artistic and Social activities, whereas men were more interested in Realistic and Investigative activities.
Frank Parsons's continuing legacy to career development interventions was highlighted in a special section of The Career Development Quarterly (Niles, a) containing three articles. Zytowski (a) examined the historical context of Parsons's work, including influences on his personal and professional development, and traced the profession's early development. On the other hand, O'Brien detailed ways in which Parsons's influence is evident today in the field of vocational psychology. She emphasized that Parsons's commitment to social change still resonates in the field, and she provided lessons for career counselors that emanated from the life and work of Parsons. DeBell suggested that Parsons's emphasis on collecting information about the world of work is still a critical factor in effective vocational decision making, despite numerous changes in the world of work since Parsons's time. In working with clients today, she stressed the need to help them prepare for the unpredictable nature of the twenty-first centu ry world of work.
Social Cognitive Career Theory
Similar to the year 2000, a number of researchers in 2001 investigated the validity of social cognitive career theory. R. W. Lent et al. tested the applicability of the social cognitive theory to the educational choices of college students. Their results indicate that contextual barriers and supports indirectly affect educational choices through their impact on the development of self-efficacy and their impact on an individual's willingness to translate interests into educational choices. Anderson and Betz developed an instrument to measure the four sources of social self-efficacy expectations postulated by Bandura: past performance, emotional arousal, social persuasion, and vicarious learning. The overall scale was found to be internally consistent, and the scale related as hypothesized to relevant measures and constructs such as social confidence, social self-efficacy, social anxiety, and shyness. In addition, the results regarding the empirical distinctions between the four sources of social self-efficacy were consistent with previous research on the sources of mathematics self-efficacy. Diegelman and Subich examined the function of self-efficacy and outcome expectations in college students' interest in and intent to pursue a degree in psychology. Both self-efficacy and outcome expectations for the psychology degree related positively to expressed interest in and intent to pursue that degree. In addition, an intervention aimed at raising the students' outcome expectations did, in fact, raise their outcome expectations and accounted for a significant amount of the variance in pre- to posttest intent to pursue a psychology degree. Gianakos examined self-reliance and work preference as theoretical factors in career decision-making self-efficacy and found that each of these factors contributed to career decision-making self-efficacy. Finally, Helwig discussed the findings of a 10-year longitudinal study regarding the occupational aspirations and expectations of children and adolescents. He found support for both c ognitive career theory and L. Gottfredson's theory of career development.
Self-efficacy theory falls in the realm of both social cognitive career theory (R. W. Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994) and social learning career theory (Krumboltz, Mitchell, & Jones, 1976). N. E. Betz (a) contributed to the understanding of self-efficacy by reviewing the research related to various aspects of career self-efficacy. Her thorough analysis provided both support for the importance of career self-efficacy theory and of the contribution of Osipow to the research in this area.
Other Theoretical Perspectives
In an important contribution, Savickas (d) advocated for a comprehensive theory of career development and elaborated on why the unification of career development theories would benefit from redefining career maturity. He further argued that with the departure from using the term career maturity, researchers must identify new constructs and use an adaptation of McAdams's framework for analyzing personality theory to analyze vocational theories. He concluded with four propositions to provide an initial framework for investigating a comprehensive theory that explains both the structure and mechanisms of career development. Viewing the interconnections among different theories can be enhanced by reading Feller, Honaker, and Zagzebski's interviews with John Holland on the RIASEC typology, with JoAnn Harris-Bowlsbey on the developmental perspective, and with John Krumboltz on his social learning theory. Not only are different theoretical perspectives explored, but also the personal career journey of each of these s ignificant contributors is captured. The respondents addressed their personal views of their own work, the counseling field, the world of work, and the future outlook of all three.
Subich and Simonson reviewed some historically influential theories of career counseling, such as Crites's model and Yost and Corbishley's career counseling process, and then explored emergent theories of career counseling. Their overview of the evolution of career counseling theories demonstrated that more recent theories describe a nonlinear counseling process in which the importance of environmental-social-emotional factors is emphasized and diagnosis is deemphasized.
Beale designed an entertaining exercise to assess school counselors' knowledge of emerging theories in career development. Not only does this exercise acquaint individuals with a variety of theories, but it also incorporates information on corresponding career assessments. Among the important emerging theories that the exercise addresses is the social cognitive career theory. In discussing his concerns about trait-and-factor approaches, Liptak proposed the leisure theory of career development (LTCD). The LTCD suggests that career counselors need to focus on clients' leisure-time activities rather than on their work experiences, because leisure is directly related both to clients' lives and careers and because people across the life span are engaged in leisure activities. Leong, Hartung, Goh, and Gaylor examined the role of birth order in career personality types, occupational interests, and work values. Significant results were found for all three dependent variables in a sample of medical students, whereas s ignificant differences were noted only for occupational interests for college students. Thus, these results support the Adlerian theoretical assertion that birth order significantly influences vocational behavior.
Career and Vocational Theories Section: Conclusions
Our review of the literature published in 2001 related to theoretical perspectives indicates that Super and Holland continue to have a substantial influence on both research and practice in the field of career development and counseling. In addition, social cognitive career theory continues to garner interest and to provide a framework for examining issues related to career choice and development. The articles related to Parsons reflect that even after almost 100 years his vision continues to have an influence on our field. There are also some trends in the literature related to career theories that are worth noting. First, a significant proportion of the publications were conceptual and historical and were not empirical investigations, indicating the need for a renewed focus on theoretically based inquiry. A number of researchers particularly emphasized the need for additional efforts to validate various aspects of the theories cross-culturally. In addition, although numerous career theories are typically di scussed in most textbooks of career development, the majority of the research in 2001 focused on only three theoretical models (i.e., Super's, Holland's, and social cognitive career theory). This focus on a small number of theories may just be an anomaly of a single year, or it may indicate a trend within the field.
Ever since Parsons (1909) first suggested an approach to career counseling, there has been professional interest in providing career counseling or interventions. There were three general categories of studies published during 2001 regarding career interventions. The first type regards investigating methods for providing career interventions to clients in the United States and abroad. Unfortunately, the majority of the articles were descriptions of career interventions rather than empirical investigations of career interventions. The second type of article involves discussions of new and innovative career interventions, and the third and final type concerns supervising and evaluating career interventions.
Career Interventions: Providing Effective Interventions
In a significant contribution to the field, Multon, Heppner, Gysbers, Zook, and Ellis-Kalton examined psychological adjustment as an outcome variable of holistic career counseling. Their results indicate that many career counseling clients enter counseling with high levels of distress, and, for many of these clients, their levels of distress lessen during the course of the career counseling. Using hierarchical linear modeling, these researchers also examined the relationship between the working alliance and the reduction in the client's psychological distress. The authors, however, found only a weak relationship between the process factor of the working alliance and the outcome measure of psychological distress. In another interesting study, Lewis compared the process and outcomes of career and personal counseling. She found that before entering counseling, career counseling clients had lower motivation for remaining in counseling than did personal counseling clients; however, there were no differences betwee n personal and career counseling in terms of process, as measured by the working alliance, or on outcome measures. Her results support the notion that career and personal counseling are very similar enterprises.
Using a national sample of college students, Mau and Fernandes explored which students use career counseling services and the extent to which these students were satisfied with those services. Regarding the usage of career counseling services, there were no differences between men and women. African Americans and Asian Americans were more likely to use these services than were White students; however, Hispanic students were least likely to seek career counseling. In addition, the more traditional-aged college students used the career services more than older students did. Regarding satisfaction with career counseling, there were no racial or age differences, but there were gender differences. Female clients reported more satisfaction with the university career counseling services than did male clients. In another study that evaluated clients' satisfaction level with career counseling, Healy found that male and female adults did not differ in their level of satisfaction with the career counseling services they received. The majority of clients (78%) reported satisfaction with the services, and 85% indicated that they had followed through on counseling-initiated actions. It was interesting that there were not differences in terms of satisfaction between participants who completed a more comprehensive program versus a briefer program or between participants who completed one of the programs versus participants who terminated the career counseling prematurely.
Only one study (Reed, Reardon, Lenz, & Leierer) was found that evaluated the benefits of a university career development course. This course was based on cognitive information-processing theory, and students showed a significant decrease in their negative career thoughts. The decreases in negative thoughts were particularly noteworthy in students who had the highest level of negative thoughts at the beginning of the class. Concerning different approaches to outplacement programs (e.g., more focus on self-awareness vs. action-oriented services), Gowan and Nassar-McMillan did not find that the approaches had differing effects on reemployment.
In a study with a nontraditional sample, Coursol, Lewis, and Garrity compared the expectations about career counseling of survivors of trauma and individuals who had no experience of trauma. The researchers found that survivors of trauma were more motivated and open to career counseling but expected the counselor to be less empathic. Hagner, McGahie, and Cloutier described a program designed to provide career services to individuals with severe disabilities. All 40 of the participants achieved paid employment, many of them in positions with benefits and in lobs paying more than minimum wage.
Three studies were found that examined the effectiveness of career interventions for individuals with a psychopathology or substance abuse difficulties. The first study (Ronningstam & Anick) involved a psychotherapy group with a focus on career issues for individuals whose careers were disrupted as a result of personality disorders and/or affective disorders. The groups focused on fluctuation in self-esteem, particularly as it related to the interruptions in the participants' careers. The majority of the participants attended more than eight sessions, and the researchers observed increases in affective/emotional functioning and participation in vocational/educational activities. In the second study, Mueser, Becker, and Wolfe found that individuals with severe mental illness benefited most from a program in which clients were assigned an employment specialist who provided individualized placement and support (IPS) to clients once they had secured employment compared with services that were available at a local psychiatric rehabilitation center or with standard vocational rehabilitation services. Furthermore, individuals who were in the IPS program reported more satisfaction and had longer job tenure when they were placed in occupations consistent with their job preferences. Sung described a residential treatment program for drug-addicted felons that included education/vocational training and occupational counseling and placement. Included in Sung's description of the program was preliminary outcome data supporting the effectiveness of this comprehensive approach.
In a noteworthy contribution, an entire issue of the IJEVG (Van Esbroeck, a) was devoted to evaluating international approaches and programs related to career education and guidance. This series of articles provided an over-view of international approaches to career development and reviewed substantial research related to the effectiveness of career education and guidance interventions internationally. Guichard described the evolution of career education in Europe and indicated that career education did not actually develop in Europe until the last quarter of the twentieth century. In a description of major influences on career education and the counselor's role, he argued that the intent of career education programs is typically ill defined and that most programs have fragile theoretical foundations. Guichard concluded with presenting factors that should be considered in the future of career education. In focusing on the evaluation of group interventions, Huteau summarized the results of 11 evaluation studie s conducted primarily in France, Belgium, and Switzerland. He found variation in effects of vocational education interventions, but the interventions were generally positive. Nevertheless, he did identify interventions that can have an undesirable effect and proposed ways for improving their effectiveness. In the third article in this edition of the IJEVG, Watts (a) described career education practices in the United Kingdom and other European countries. Currently, the United Kingdom's career education is a part of the integrated personal, social, and health program and includes at least 1 week of direct work experience in the final year of compulsory schooling. In France, where the approach is rather different, specialist guidance counselors conduct group sessions on vocational development both during and after school. Watts (a) argued that more research is needed to compare various national approaches to career education and guidance.
In a study that has implications outside of Great Britain, Millar and Brotherton examined the differences in perceptions of an initial guidance interview between career advisers and students. The students were in the final year of secondary school and were enrolled in lower achieving classes. In Great Britain, career advisers conduct individual career guidance interviews as a normal part of the programs, and the researchers focused on preinterview expectations and postinterview evaluation of these interviews. Regarding the preinterview expectations, students tended to expect more directions than the career advisers anticipated providing. It is interesting that in postinterview recollections of what transpired, students reported receiving more direction and attention and experienced greater trust and understanding than the career advisers perceived that they had provided. Furthermore, in overall evaluations of the interviews, students tended to rate the session as being more valuable, as having more depth, and as being easier than the advisers rated the session. In terms of activities considered to be the most related to satisfaction with the interviews, students reported activities such as the time advisers spent with them, feeling free to talk, and hearing new ideas.
Gati and associates (Gati & Asher a, b; Gati, Saka, & Krausz) proposed and empirically tested a model for facilitating career decision making. Gati and Asher (a) proposed a three-stage model for facilitating career decision making called the PIC model (prescreening, in-depth exploration, and choice). The goal of the prescreening stage is to identify a small number of promising alternatives that correspond to the client's career-related preferences. They recommended using the sequential elimination approach (see Gati, 1986) to narrow the list of alternatives to a manageable number. In the second stage of the PIC model, the goal is in-depth exploration, which involves collecting comprehensive information on each of the promising alternatives and then verifying the suitability of each alternative. The third stage, the choice stage, involves comparing the alternatives in order to select the most suitable choice. Gati et al. tested this model and hypothesized that career decision-making difficulties would decrease as individuals progressed through the PIG stages. These researchers combined three Israeli computer-assisted career guidance systems that focused on different aspects of the PIG model, and they found that certain aspects of career decision-making difficulties did decrease as individuals progressed through the model. In general, individuals benefited from using the comprehensive program as indicated by a significant decrease in different areas of decision-making difficulties after using all three computer-assisted systems.
In addition, we found two other career interventions outcome studies that involved international populations. Peng (a) evaluated a group that combined cognitive restructuring and training regarding career decision-making skills with female college students from Taiwan. She found that both anxiety and career indecision decreased for the participants as a result of the career group. In a similar study, Peng (b) compared a cognitve restructuring approach and a career decision-making skills approach to career education courses. She found that the two treatment groups had lower career indecision than did the control group but that the treatment groups did not differ in terms of career indecision. Gorter, Eijkman, and Hoogstraten found that Dutch dentists who attended a career counseling program that focused on cognitive and behavioral techniques reported less emotional exhaustion and greater personal accomplishments than did the dentists who did not attend the individual and group counseling sessions.
Career Interventions Innovations
In our review of articles that have been published related to career counseling and development, we identified 19 publications that provided suggestions on methods for improving career counseling. Because many of these articles are applicable to practitioners both in the United States and abroad, we have not attempted to organize them geographically. While noting changes in multiple areas that affect career development, Hansen recommended a holistic approach to career counseling. She described an approach called "Integrative Life Planning" (ILP), which focuses on wholeness, integrative thinking, democratic values, and assistance to clients in making career decisions not only for self-satisfaction but also for the common good. In the ILP approach, the counselor serves as both an advocate and a change agent. In another multifaceted approach, Martz suggested using the construct of "possible selves" in career and employment counseling. The possible selves approach is based on information-processing models of cogn ition and suggests that individuals have schematas in which they organize their self-concepts. By exploring these possible selves, clients have a better understanding of their multifaceted self-concept and of the variations in their affect and cognitions with which they regard themselves.
Much of the career literature in the last 20 years has focused on women's issues; however, Heppner and Heppner deviated from this trend and provided a needed discussion of career counseling with men. They highlighted 10 critical issues, based primarily on the emerging literature related to the psychology of men, for practitioners to consider in career counseling with men. Using Gysbers, Heppner, and Johnston's (1998) model of career counseling, Heppner and Heppner described integrating issues of male gender role socialization into the career counseling process.
Two articles (Brott; Thorngren & Feit) and a chapter (Emmett) suggested postmodern or constructivist strategies in career counseling. In their discussion of a postmodern approach to career counseling, Thorngren and Feit introduced the Career-O-Gram, an intervention designed to elicit contextual influences on clients' career development. Brott discussed the storied approach as a constructivist perspective on career counseling. Emmett, focusing on the teaching of career counseling, suggested using a constructivist approach in which students use case studies, reflect on their own career development, and engage in actual career counseling.
Brewer described a somewhat different approach for examining the role of work in one's life. She presented a model that can be used with adults to explore their work and life choices in a holistic way including spiritual, philosophical, and psychological ideas. Using the Vocational Souljourn Paradigm, the counselor and client explore how the dynamic interactions of meaning, being, and doing (the what, who, and how of human experience, respectively) can direct an individual toward a particular work/life path. The model also involves examining how these three factors affect individuals' progress through the nonlinear structure of working life by moving between job, occupation, career, and vocation, all of which differ in the degree of commitment and energy required. In another somewhat philosophical discussion, Amundson tackled the topic of how one should live and, using the metaphor of a particle, proposed a three-dimensional life. Amundon's article might serve as bibliotherapy for clients interested in work-- life balance.
King suggested a career self-management approach to counseling that is related to individuals navigating the political context of work. With this approach, the practitioners would assist the client in charting the institutional landscape, identifying gatekeepers, implementing career strategies, and evaluating those strategies. Although it can be applicable to counselors working in other settings, Hershenson advocated a model of work adjustment for counseling workers in one-stop career centers. Work adjustment involves the interaction between person and the elements of the work setting. In addressing issues related to occupational burnout, Malach-Pines and Yafe-Yanai recommended the psychoanalytic-existential approach, which examines the influences on current career choices and the need to find lives that are meaningful.
Boer's book on career counseling using the Internet is designed to serve as a resource for practitioners interested in the theory and practice of online career services. Boer argued that Internet career counseling offers an important contribution in counseling and that the paradigm shift that is occurring cannot be ignored. She discussed how to apply and integrate 11 career counseling competencies into online career services. The book also included text from career counseling sessions to provide direct examples of online counseling. In a study investigating career practitioners' receptivity to Internet career resources, Hambley and Magnusson found that career practitioners were positive toward using the Internet for resources. Nevertheless, many of the practitioners still had concerns and wanted to be knowledgeable in appropriate uses of these resources.
Soper and Von Bergen provided documentation of the benefits of expressive writing as a way to therapeutically address the negative emotions associated with job loss. Keune and Gelauff-Hanzon recommended on the basis of research done in the Netherlands that employment counselors use paraprofessionals as partners in the process of assisting individuals in finding employment.
Hoyt and Maxey argued that counselors have a responsibility to inform both youth and their parents about current employment trends. More specifically, they contended that individuals need to be aware that only 50% of those who begin college complete a 4-year college degree and that there is a projected 20-25% oversupply of 4-year college graduates when compared with the number of occupational opportunities. They further recommended that counselors help individuals understand the wide variety of postsecondary educational choices and assist them in finding an educational institution best suited to their needs. Hoyt (a) also provided suggestions for school counselors in working with both students and their parents on ways to facilitate the exploration of various postsecondary options.
Pope-Davis and Hargrove focused on the future of career counseling theory, research, and practice with African American clients. They argued for new paradigms in career counseling that are culturally relevant and sensitive to diversity. On the basis of international research, Backenroth provided suggestions for counseling individuals with disabilities. Backenroth recommended counseling that involves both counseling-oriented and work-oriented models across the life span. Vernick and Reardon contended that there is a need to improve career development assistance to incarcerated individuals. They suggested that in corrections settings, career interventions be linked to related programs in basic adult education, vocational education, and transition training. In working with clients with spinal cord injuries, Roessler suggested that career development specialists do periodic check-ins with employed clients to analyze issues of satisfactory performance and satisfaction with the job.
Career Interventions: Supervising and Evaluating
Career development professionals have an obligation to evaluate whether or not the career interventions they provide are helpful and to determine the most effective ways of providing career counseling and interventions. Hence, it is important to examine the literature related to evaluating career interventions. We identified two articles published in 2001 that addressed issues related to evaluating career interventions and related programs. Whiston proposed a scheme, based on psychotherapy and career counseling research, for selecting outcome measures. Her proposed framework consists of four dimensions that facilitate the systematic selection of multiple measures from multiple perspectives. Lapan and Kosciulek proposed a comprehensive community career system and a framework for assessing student outcomes after high school. They suggested that outcomes should be organized around three themes: benefits to students, benefits to employers, and benefits to the community. Furthermore, these researchers provided an outline to guide formative and summative evaluation and stressed the need for collaboration and networking in ongoing program evaluation and research. Supervision of individuals who are providing career counseling is a topic that is rarely discussed in either the supervision or the career counseling literature. Bronson, citing the scant research in this area, provided an overview of supervision models and interventions with a focus on career counseling applications.
Career Interventions Section: Conclusions
The majority of the articles that were published in 2001 related to career interventions were conceptual discussions rather than empirical investigations. Although conceptual discussions can provide useful information to practitioners, these articles provide little accountability information that can convince external audiences of the merits of career interventions. Our finding of comparatively few outcome studies is consistent with Sexton's (1996) finding that there are decreasing numbers of career outcome studies being published. We encourage more career counseling outcome research because we believe there will be increasing demands to document the effectiveness of career counseling and services. There are, however, some findings from articles published in 2001 that practitioners should consider when counseling clients. First, many clients enter career counseling with high levels of psychological distress, and career counseling does reduce many clients' level of distress. Also, we found support for the noti on that career counseling and personal counseling are similar in process and that clients are generally satisfied with the career counseling they have received. We also found support internationally for career guidance and education programs. Furthermore, career counseling tends to be helpful to individuals with various psychopathologies. On a more negative note, we did find ethnic differences in terms of probability of using career services. In conclusion, we also found numerous discussions of innovative ideas and approaches to provide career interventions to a wide spectrum of clients.
As Hackett and Watkins (1995) indicated, career assessment has historically been a rich and fertile area in the career literature, and this tradition continued in 2001. This section includes both discussions of general assessment issues and research related to specific career instruments. Because a majority of the research in this area is related to specific instruments (e.g., Strong Interest Inventory [SSI]), this section of our review is not organized according to whether the research was conducted with an international sample or with one from the United States. If, however, an international sample was used, this is noted.
R. P. Bingham and Krantz provided a comprehensive review of career assessment literature published in 1997 and 1998. They noted the development and refinement of a number of career assessment tools during this period. In addition, they found substantial research in the area of career indecision, with some researchers focusing on the assessment of decision-making difficulties, whereas other researchers focused on assessing factors (e.g., life skills) that may enhance or hamper career decision making. R. P. Bingham and Krantz cited several studies that questioned the viability of career maturity. They did observe an increase in samples that were diverse regarding age, race/ethnicity, gender, and class but slightly fewer than expected studies involving participants with disabilities. In conclusion, they noted a dearth of literature related to the training of graduate students in the effective use of career assessment tools. In another publication that specifically addressed career assessment with African America ns, Ward and Bingham challenged how career assessments are often conducted in a "one-size-fits-all" manner that does not acknowledge the history of slavery, issues of racism, and the internal and external barriers facing African Americans. They recommended a broader definition of career assessment and made specific recommendations for career assessment with African Americans.
Chartrand and Walsh conducted another review of the career assessment literature in a book honoring Samuel H. Osipow. They contended that career assessment has always been a staple in the counseling field but that it has never been so widely accepted as it is today. They described how changing technological and economic factors were influencing the world of work, which, in turn, affected how practitioners conducted career assessment. The authors also argued that career assessment must be adapted to the changing demographics of the workforce and that practitioners must consider ethical responsibilities and more detailed testing standards. In addition, new proficiencies for practice are prescribed that suggest new competencies in the areas of quantitative advancements, multicultural diversity, and computer technologies. These accomplished researchers concluded the review with suggestions for future research related to career assessment.
Regarding articles related to assessment that were published in 2001, the majority of them addressed assessment of interests. Silvia argued that expressed and measured interests were not two different aspects of vocational interests but rather that these were two distinct psychological constructs. He proposed that expressed interests more accurately represented specific vocational intentions, whereas measured interests were reflections of vocational interests. Viewing expressed and measured interests as two separate constructs is supported by the lack of congruency between the two with some clients. Silvia further contended that career counselors should have greater confidence in the predictive abilities of expressed interests compared with the results of an interest inventory. In using interest inventories, M. J. Miller and Wells provided some suggestions for counselors when different occupations have the same Holland codes but clients do not understand the similarities of those occupations.
The SII was the subject of three articles. Majors and Larson investigated whether there were unique underlying dimensions of the SII that differentiated a single occupational group from the general population of occupations. Using the female and male Business Educational Teacher Occupational Scales, they found a unique factor for both the male and the female occupational scales. A confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the uniqueness of these factors, and this finding suggests that there are unique characteristics of interests that can be used in guiding an individual in seeking a career. Tang investigated the vocational structure of Chinese college students using the SII and found that the Chinese students had interests similar to, but not identical with, the RIASEC model; however, the structures in Tang's models were not similar to Holland's hexagonal model. Tang also investigated whether the factorial structure of the 25 Basic Interest Scales remained intact with a Chinese sample and found a factor structu re that more closely approximated Holland's six types of personality. She did find, however, that the SII has some utility with Chinese students because 54% of the Chinese participants were correctly identified in their major based on their SII results. The third study related to the SII (Buboltz, Thomas, & Johnson) addressed the use of the SII in combination with the MBTI. They found evidence that the MBTI personality types and the six occupational themes of the SII were not independent and that there were significant relationships among the MBTI dimensions and many of the Basic Interest Scales and Occupational Scales of the SII. Hence, they concluded that these two instruments provided information that complemented each other, and they provided suggestions on how practitioners can use the instruments in tandem.
In another study with a Chinese sample, Leung and Hou investigated the cross-cultural validity of the Self-Directed Search (SDS). The concurrent validity of the SDS was assessed by examining whether the SDS scores were consistent with the academic track of the participants. They found that science students had higher Realistic and Investigative scores and that students in art had higher Artistic, Social, and Enterprising scores. In addition, the direction of the gender differences on the SDS scores for this Chinese sample was similar to differences found in the United States. The congruence, however, between the three-letter code of the SDS and the anticipated college major and career choice in the Chinese sample was not as consistent as some studies have found with American samples.
Historically, the name Kuder has also been associated with interest assessment, and Zytowski (b) described a new generation of Kuder interest assessments: the Kuder Career Search (KCS). The preference record portion of the KCS is administered online and is composed of 60 triads of activities, in which individuals rank order the three activities from most liked to least liked. Individual interests are scored using the 10 Activity Preferences scales and the six Kuder clusters. Individuals are then presented with 25 "person-matches," which are descriptions of individuals from the criterion pool who have activity preferences that are most similar to the client's interests. The pool of "criterion persons" is maintained at a maximum of 2,500 and is intended to represent the scope of occupations covered in the Occupational Outlook Handbook. Zytowski (b) also provided initial psychometric information on the KCS, with median reliability estimates around .72 and .81 and some documentation of validation evidence. Furthe rmore, this article provided suggestions for counselors and a case study of a college student who took the KCS.
In another study that investigated online career assessment, Gati and Saka (b) compared the English and Hebrew paper-and-pencil and Internet versions of the Career Decision-Making Difficulties Questionnaire (CDDQ). Initial analyses of the Hebrew paper-and-pencil and Internet versions of the CDDQ revealed that they were similar in estimates of reliability and factor structures; however, the pattern of responses for 24% of the Internet users was considered questionable. Concerning the English versions of the instruments, they also seemed similar in terms of reliability and structure.
In another study involving interest assessment with an international sample, Athanasou, using a Rasch model of item response analysis, examined the vocational interests of Australian high school students. In a rare application of the Rasch model, or item response theory, to interest assessment, Athanasou found some intricate relationships between a person's overall level of vocational interest and the probability of his or her endorsing a rating category. In our opinion, this study forged new ground for interest assessment, and we encourage other researchers to pursue this type of study with more commonly used interest assessments.
Pietrzak and Page investigated the stability of the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF). They tested the stability of the measure's predictors in predicting Holland types as measured by the SDS. However, none of the regression equations met the criteria for practical significance, thus indicating little overlap between the 16PF and the SDS. The authors recommended that practitioners use the SDS when a measure of SDS types is needed rather than use the 16PF.
Barak presented an alternative model to the traditional trait-and-factor approach to the assessment of interest. Traditionally, interests are assessed and matched to corresponding occupations; however, Barak argued that interests are actually emotions and that assessment should involve interests that are dysfunctional, counterproductive, and destructive. He proposed a cognitive model of interests, which has some similarities with social cognitive career theory and social learning theory. In Barak's model, interests are a by-product of particular antecedent beliefs concerning one's capabilities, success, and satisfaction with various activities. These beliefs, however, can be subjectively biased or distorted, which can negatively affect the individual's attainment of goals. Hence, the role of the counselor is, first, to assess whether the interests are dysfunctional and, second, to modify the interests that are found to be dysfunctional. Meir and Tziner analyzed the ways that cultural differences might affect the expression and assessment of interests. They identified the significant issues related to constructing interest instruments that can be used cross-culturally and then provided sound suggestions for developing and using instruments cross-culturally. In conclusion, Meir and Tziner asserted that the development of valid interest assessments that can be used cross-culturally was possible and urged researchers to pursue this line of work.
Although the dominant area of inquiry regarding assessment during 2001 was related to measuring interests, there were some investigations regarding abilities or perceptions related to abilities. In using the Ability Explorer, Harrington and Harrington found that students in various majors had different patterns of self-estimates of abilities. Furthermore, Harrington and Harrington found substantial overlap among student ratings of abilities and abilities identified for those occupations in a job analysis report conducted by the U.S. Department of Labor. Gwilliam and Betz explored the reliability and validity of five measures of math/science self-efficacy. These instruments were further analyzed for use with different populations (i.e., African American or European American clients). The overall internal consistency estimates were in the .82 to .94 range for all instruments, and there was little variation when reliability was estimated for subgroups on the basis of gender and ethnicity. Although validation evi dence was comparable for the two ethnic groups, practitioners who use these self-efficacy measures should examine the results of this study.
With the goal of developing a more sensitive measure of academic self-concept, Benishek and Lopez drew from hardiness theory and research on academic motivation. Using hardiness theory, they developed 40 items that reflected commitment, challenge, and control. Subsequent factor analyses supported the three-factor model of the Academic Hardiness Scale (AHS). Furthermore, preliminary validation evidence indicated that the AHS is related to selected demographic and math-related indices.
Two studies explored measures of career decision making. Mau investigated the validity of the CDDQ in a study that involved participants from both the United States and Taiwan. Mau's results indicated that the CDDQ can be used with American clients, but clinicians should be cautious in using it with Taiwanese clients because there was relatively poor fit of the factorial model with students from Taiwan. The second study (Vidal-Brown & Thompson), concerning measures of career decision making, investigated the validity of the Career Assessment Diagnostic Inventory (CADI). Their results indicated that the scores of the CADI were reliable and the expected six factors were found in the investigation of the factor structure. In addition, correlational analyses were encouraging, and additional inquiry into the CADI is probably merited.
Two articles were identified that explored personality assessment in career counseling. Hammond (b) suggested the use of the five-factor model of personality in career counseling. Kelly and Jugovic noted the increase in online assessments and examined the concurrent validity of the Keirsey Temperament Sorter II. They found that the Keirsey Temperament Sorter II was highly related to the MBTI with undeclared college freshmen.
Nauta and Kokaly described the development and validation of the Influence of Others on Academic and Career Decisions Scale, which is an instrument that is designed to assess the type and level of role model influence on college students' academic and vocational decisions. Even though their findings were preliminary, there were some indications of reliability and modest correlations with some appropriate career measures.
Only one study (Hanson, Claiborn, & Kerr), a reprint of a study originally published in 1997, was found that addressed interpretation of assessment results. In their study, the interpretation of test results was performed in either an interactive manner that involved clients or in a passive manner that did not elicit client involvement. Although the interactive style did not influence the clients' cognitive processing of the test results, the clients who received the interactive interpretation evaluated the session and the counselor more positively than did the clients who received the more passive style of interpretation. The results of this study have significant implications for career counseling practice, but it is disturbing that only one study was published in 2001 that addressed interpretation of career assessments and that this sole study is a reprint of an earlier publication. Given the frequent use of career assessments, it seems that additional research on methods for effective interpretation shoul d be a focus of future research.
Career Assessment Section Conclusions
Many of the publications related to career assessment that were published in 2001 addressed topics concerning the assessment of interests. There seemed to be particular focus on the assessment of interests with international populations. Although there are many obstacles to developing interest assessments that can be used cross-culturally, 2001 seems to be a year when there were both conceptual and empirical advancements in assessing interests internationally. Furthermore, a number of comprehensive reviews of career assessment issues were published in 2001 that provided knowledgeable analysis of past practices and scholarly predictions about the future direction of career assessment. It is evident that 2001 was not particularly fruitful in terms of studying how to use career assessments effectively or of providing effective strategies for interpreting results because we identified only one publication that addressed these issues, and this was a reprint of an article originally published in 1997. Hence, we sug gest that more research should focus on how, when, and with whom career assessments should be used.
In analyzing the career literature published in 2001, we identified 17 publications that addressed various issues related to learning from the past, future directions of the profession, or critical issues facing the field of career counseling or development. We believe that the focus on professional issues in 2001 merits specific discussion and review even though this category has not been specifically addressed in previous reviews.
A special millennium issue of The Career Development Quarterly (CDQ: Shahnasarian, b) began with a historical overview of career development in which Herr contended "that if one believes in evolution, rather than revolution, as the origin of career development practice, then the seeds of the future exist in the past and in the present" (p. 196). In a detailed review of the history of the field, Herr traced the development of the profession over the last century, beginning with social reformism of urban settlement workers and the Progressive education movement, through the changes in definitions and practice of vocational guidance, to the current state of the field of career development. On the basis of this historical perspective, Herr then makes some prognostications about the future of career development and the role of career counselors. Herr's historical perspective is supplemented by a decade-by-decade review of important milestones in the profession that Herr and Shahnasarian compiled. This historical o verview is further enriched by a listing in this special issue of CDQ of the presidents and the Eminent Career Award Winners of the National Vocational Guidance Association/National Career Development Association. Also contributing to our historical knowledge is Hoyt's (b) response to Pope's (2000) brief history of career counseling. Hoyt (b) contended that Pope did not differentiate among different types of career counseling, and he further specified the effect of specific federal legislation on school and career counseling.
In this same issue of CDQ Harris-Bowlsbey and Sampson explored whether the prophecies made 30 years ago about the impact of computers on career planning had come to fruition. They described five dreams of pioneers in the computer-based career planning (CBCP) field and then traced the history of the computer in counseling to determine if these dreams had been realized. They concluded that the dreams have been partially realized, but they also provided recommendations to increase the availability and effectiveness of CBCP systems.
Of particular importance to the career counseling field was a special issue of the Journal of Vocational Behavior (JVB) edited by Savickas (b) devoted to envisioning the future of vocational psychology. Leading contributors to JVB were invited to conduct an analysis of the profession of vocational psychology. Blustein (a) articulated the need for the profession to develop an inclusive and integrative psychology of working rather than primarily serving and studying those who are better educated and affluent (e.g., college students). He contended that our theoretical foundations (e.g., Holland and Super) assume that people choose vocations and have the opportunity to express their self-concepts in the world of work; however, these frameworks ignore the majority of people in the world who engage in work that is not intrinsically interesting nor a reflection of their self-concept. He suggested a transformation of the field so that the focus would be on the psychology of working, which would include the work lives of all citizens and would be studied in diverse and integrative approaches. Fouad echoed some of Blustein's (a) concerns and contended that vocational psychology has overemphasized quantitative methods and underemphasized contextual factors and class-related perceptions of working. She, nonetheless, articulated specific dreams for the field in the areas of training, science, practice, and social advocacy. In a discussion of the need to study diverse populations, Russell also included international participants and contended that the field should continue to attend to the needs of adults in the changing workplace.
Walsh contended that P--E fit is at the heart of career theory and practice and that there is a compelling need to expand the profession's perspective and evaluate various P--E models that have only been studied longitudinally. He further argued that the field would benefit from an understanding of the commonalities among interests, self-efficacy, personality, goals, and subjective well-being. Vondracek documented the lack of vocational development research and theory in the life span development literature and encouraged substantive contributions to what is already known about the vocational development of children, adolescents, and adults. Subich argued that the traditional strengths of the field could be complemented by the addition of postmodern theoretical perspectives. She further focused on the linkage between science and practice and the contention that this linkage could enhance both domains.
Many of the contributors in the special edition of JVB argued that technology is both a threat to and an opportunity for the field. G. D. Gottfredson's analysis of the field of vocational psychology focused primarily on issues related to measurement and commitment to science. According to him, poorly trained professionals and the Internet, which allows the delivery of career assistance that is often without a measurement or scientific foundation, are threats to the integrity of vocational psychology. R. W. Lent also listed the Internet as a threat but maintained that the question is not whether to become involved in this new technology, but rather how to provide ethical and effective services. R. W. Lent added to the professional literature by providing a succinct mission statement for vocational psychology, followed by 12 goals that encourage continued and novel development in the field. As did Blustein (a), Hesketh extolled the benefits of interdisciplinary integration into the knowledge base ofvocational p sychology. Concerning limitations, he cited the field's slow response to the impact of technology and a possible drifting away from the profession's psychological roots. Tinsley also recommended involvement in technological advancement. In addition, he voiced fervent concerns about the marginalization of vocational psychology within the field of counseling. Betz (b) and Savickas (c) responded to the 10 articles published in the special edition of JVB on the future direction of vocational psychology and stressed many of the issues already alluded to: diversity, reaffirming research, links with related disciplines, bridging science and practice, implications of new technology, need for longitudinal research, diverse epistemologies, and more study of work adjustment. Both Betz (b) and Savickas (c) stressed that the vitality and viability of the field are directly tied to recruitment and training of graduate students and new professionals in the discipline. In our opinion, this series of articles in this edition of JVB is a significant contribution that provides "grist for the mill" for both researchers and practitioners.
E. J. R. Santos, Ferreira, and Chaves argued that career counselors not only have a responsibility to promote individual change but also have a moral obligation to be change agents in addressing sociopolitical issues. Using examples from Portugal, these writers demonstrated how career counselors could effectively address social and political structures that impeded individuals' overall development. Two additional articles concerned current career guidance practice and whether future career services will be provided to all young people or only to certain individuals. In an article in IJEVG, Gysbers and Lapan discussed the evolution of school guidance in the United States from a set of counseling services that involved just some students to a comprehensive program that is an integral part of a school's educational program. They cited studies that have found that comprehensive guidance programs enhanced student development. Watts (b), however, noted an opposite trend in the United Kingdom, where legislation that mandated career guidance (i.e., Career Service) for all young people in England has recently been phased out in favor of youth services that focus on providing career assistance to young people from disadvantaged backgrounds or who are experiencing difficulties. In both articles, the authors argued that in the future, career guidance should be provided to all young people. Hoyt and Wickwire contended that the United States needs workers with good basic skills and productive work habits and that the only educational reform movement that can address these issues is career education.
Professiona1 Issues Section: Conclusions
Although a variety of opinions were expressed in 2001 about the future of the career counseling field, there is universal agreement that the field will continue to play a vital role in assisting individuals across the life span with a wide array of personal and career issues. We suggest that these discussions of the past, present, and future of the profession reflect a rich and substantial historical foundation that will continue to influence a profession that not only assists individuals but also enhances quality-of-life issues globally. In reviewing these discussions, we would like to add our hopes for a future with a vision of research, practice, and advocacy being intertwined and a world where all individuals have equal opportunities and resources.
In this review, we summarized a total of 258 publications, which encompassed one book, articles from 54 journals, and chapters from 12 books. Our review included information published from diverse sources because many journals are associated with other disciplines (e.g., business, sociology, education, and medicine) and at least 9 were published outside the United States. Hence, it is quite difficult for practitioners to stay abreast of the research and literature in the field, given the diversity of publication sources. Therefore, we hope that readers have found this review informative, helpful, and insightful because, due to personal circumstances, we completed it during a particularly challenging time.
We believe the literature published in 2001 supplements a rich body of previous research and knowledge in the field. A consistent theme in many of the articles was that career counseling is a multidimensional process that requires a holistic view of the client in which both the total person and his or her environment are considered. In 2001, there was also a particular focus on exploring issues related to gender and ethnicity, and this focus continued to add to the understanding of contextual factors in career development. In this same vein, we actively sought to integrate studies with international samples and publications that examined global topics. Another research trend that should be noted is the number of studies conducted with adults and adolescents compared with the prevalent practice of using college students. This is a refreshing trend, considering that Whiston (2002) documented that almost 50% of the studies conducted since 1950 have involved college populations. A further promising research trend is the increased use of diverse research methodologies. We particularly noted numerous studies that involved qualitative designs. In addition, 2001 also produced some noteworthy reflections on the history of the field and sound visions for the future.
In reviewing the literature published in 2001, we also encountered some disturbing gaps and limitations in the research. First, it was quite disturbing to find the lack of studies that investigated the effectiveness of career interventions. Arbona (2000) and Luzzo and MacGregor (2001) both noted this same trend, and this raises the more significant question of whether the lack of efficacy studies is a short-term or a long-term problem. We also did not find substantial empirical investigations of current theories or significant advancement in terms of theoretical conceptualization. There was also little inquiry or few pertinent discussions about career and work-related issues in a number of populations. For example, we found very few studies investigating the career development of elementary-age children, older adults, individuals with disabilities, or GLB clients.
In closing, we would like to encourage both practitioners and researchers to continue to contribute to the career counseling and development knowledge base. Although there have been substantial contributions during 2001, there are many topics and issues that require further inquiry, exploration, and discussion, and readers are encouraged to participate in the expansion of the career counseling field. Contributing to the knowledge of the profession can involve many actions; however, the prerequisite to all of these actions is professionalism and solid foundations in current knowledge. We intended to summarize some of the more current knowledge in this review, and we hope that it will serve as a springboard for further contributions by many of the readers.
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Susan C. Whiston and Briana K. Brecheisen, School of Education, Department of Counseling and Educational Psychology, Indiana University. Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Susan C. Whiston, 201 N. Rose, Bloomington, IN 47405-1006 (e-mail: email@example.com).
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|Author:||Brecheisen, Briana K.|
|Publication:||Career Development Quarterly|
|Date:||Dec 1, 2002|
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