Practice and Research in Career Counseling and Development--2000. (Annual Review).
We have always admired and appreciated the time, energy, and effort that authors of The Career Development Quarterly annual review have expended to provide readers with a comprehensive, yet succinct, summary of literature. After completing the task of writing this year's review, we have developed an increased awareness regarding the various challenges associated with the preparation of an article that attempts to summarize an entire year's worth of published literature in a particular field.
Our review of practice and research in career counseling and development for 2000 includes a review of relevant articles that appeared in our field's primary journals, including The Career Development Quarterly, Journal of Vocational Behavior, Journal of Career Development, and the Career Planning and Adult Development Journal, as well as in journals that are central to the practice of counseling (e.g., the Journal of Counseling & Development, Journal of Counseling Psychology, and The Counseling Psychologist). To ensure that our review of articles in these journals was exhaustive, we conducted hand searches (i.e., manual searches) of each issue of these journals published during 2000 rather than relying on the electronic database search systems that are typically used to obtain a list of relevant articles. Similarly, we conducted manual searches of several other journals that periodically include articles of relevance to career development practitioners and vocational psychologists. We made a particular effor t to conduct searches of international journals and journals that many career counselors and vocational psychologists tend not to read on a regular basis. Finally, in an effort to locate other publications from 2000 that have particular relevance to career counseling and development, we conducted ERIC and PsycINFO database searches using the key terms career and vocational (for the ERIC search) and the subject headings career development and occupational guidance (for the PsycINFO search).
As in previous annual reviews of literature (e.g., Arbona, 2000b; Young & Chen, 1999), we were forced to place some initial limitations on the scope of our review while simultaneously being true to our goal of providing readers with an informative, useful, integrative review of last year's publications. On the basis of these somewhat competing factors, we decided to focus our review on articles, chapters, and books that have direct relevance to the primary work in which career counselors and vocational psychologists are routinely engaged. As a result, several of the topics traditionally germane to the fields of industrial/organizational psychology, human resources, and personnel psychology are not summarized in this review. Included in the list of topics that are not covered are executive coaching, organizational change, career plateaus, sexual harassment and sex discrimination in the workplace, job stress, job burnout, job/work/career satisfaction, absenteeism, career management, organizational mentoring, wo rkplace adjustment, career/organizational commitment, employee productivity, attitudes toward affirmative action, job performance evaluations and appraisals, and employee selection.
Although we initially planned to include publications that addressed career development programs in the workplace and the rising interest in corporate career centers, space limitations deterred us from doing so. Also because of space restrictions, we chose not to summarize literature that addressed the career development of people in specific occupational categories (e.g., school psychologists, speech-language pathologists) or topics more central to vocational education than career counseling. As a matter of professional rigor, we also made the decision not to include articles published in non-refereed periodicals or magazines despite their potential relevance to the practice and research of career counseling and development. Also not included in this review are books--both popular press books and textbooks--that are written for the primary purpose of helping people explore general career options or obtain information about specific careers. Such resources are often included in the National Career Development Association's annual listing of current career literature published yearly in The Career Development Quarterly.
As in last year's annual review (Arbona, 2000b), we decided not to begin the process of gathering and evaluating relevant publications with a preconceived notion of how we would organize the literature we encountered. Instead, we allowed an organization to emerge from our review of each publication. It is our hope that the structure and content of this annual review provides readers with a useful summary of information and an overview of important resources central to the practice of career counseling and development.
Theoretical and Conceptual Advances
Several publications focused on recent theoretical and conceptual advances in career counseling and development. Among these articles and book chapters were discussions of such theories as the Minnesota theory of work adjustment (e.g., Hesketh, b; Swanson & Gore), Super's life-span, life-space theory (e.g., Swanson & Gore), sociological theories of career development (e.g., Lindh & Dahlin), and Gottfredson's theory of circumscription and compromise (e.g., Armstrong & Crombie; Swanson & Gore; Wahi & Blackhurst). However, only two theories received substantial attention in last year's career development literature: Lent, Brown, and Hackett's (1994, 1996) social cognitive career theory and Holland's (1997) person-environment congruence theory.
Social Cognitive Career Theory and the Role of Self-Efficacy in Career Decision Making
Swanson and Gore discussed the early development of and empirical evidence supporting the social cognitive career theory (SCCT; Lent et al., 1994, 1996) as a viable theory of career choice. In an empirical evaluation of the usefulness of the SCCT in predicting occupational behavior, Gore and Leuwerke (b) explored the relationships among self-efficacy beliefs, outcome expectations, person-environment congruence, and occupational considerations (i.e., occupations a student might consider pursuing) in a sample of 93 college students (58% women, 42% men). The results of their investigation revealed that self-efficacy beliefs and outcome expectations were more powerful than the more traditional variable of vocational congruence in predicting the occupational considerations of participants.
Lent, Brown, and Hackett summarized recent research and advocated for additional empirical attention to be targeted at increasing our understanding of contextual aspects of career behavior. Their review of recent literature on career barriers highlighted the renewed interest among researchers in recent years in examining career barriers as interpersonal versus environmental impediments and as generalized versus task-specific variables.
Ferry, Fouad, and Smith examined the role of family context and person input variables on the learning experiences, self-efficacy, outcome expectancies, interests, and goals of 791 undergraduate students enrolled in psychology classes at two universities. Ferry et al. found clear support for several of the tenets of the SCCT, with results indicating that both self-efficacy and outcome expectations were directly related to career interests and goals. Results also revealed significant, direct relationships between parental encouragement and learning experiences (i.e., grades in math and science) as well as between parental encouragement and outcome expectations.
Two articles focused on the theoretical and conceptual role that self-efficacy plays in career counseling and development. Betz reviewed the basic theoretical underpinnings of self-efficacy theory and described its applications to the study of career choice and development. S. D. Brown, Lent, and Gore discussed the results of a recent investigation in which they examined whether self-rated abilities and self-efficacy beliefs were empirically distinct constructs. The results of their study revealed that occupational self-efficacy beliefs and self-rated abilities--although somewhat conceptually overlapping constructs--were empirically distinguishable and were related to occupational interests and perceived options in different ways.
Holland's Theory and Person--Environment Psychology
One of the most popular topics in the career counseling and development literature in 2000 was the evaluation of Holland's (1997) concept of vocational congruence and related concepts associated with person--environment psychology. The latest edition of the Walsh, Craik, and Price volume, Person-Environment Psychology: New Directions and Perspectives, provides a strong theoretical and applied discussion of person--environment psychology and reveals the basic links between person--environment psychology and issues that are central to career counseling and vocational psychology. In a similar way, Swanson and Chu's chapter on person--environment psychology and career development explores the long-standing tradition of the person--environment fit model within career counseling contexts. Swanson and Gore's overview of Holland's theory, although more general in nature, is a reminder that "Perhaps no other aspect of Holland's theory has generated as much empirical data and controversy as has Holland's congruence hyp othesis" (p. 234). In fact, it is that very controversy that formed the basis of a special issue published in 2000 of the Journal of Vocational Behavior titled "Person-Environment Fit: Theoretical Meaning, Conceptual Models, and Empirical Measurement."
The special issue of the Journal of Vocational Behavior began with a contribution by Tinsley (a) that set the stage for a constructive debate regarding what Tinsley (a) referred to as "the congruence myth." Several vocational psychologists and career development researchers (Dawis; Hesketh, a; Prediger; Rounds, McKenna, Hubert, & Day; Tracey, Darcy, & Kovalski) provided responses to Tinsley's (a) original contribution. In a subsequent issue of the Journal of Vocational Behavior, Tinsley (b) reiterated his beliefs regarding the congruence myth by providing a rejoinder to the responses of the other contributors. In his concluding comments, Tinsley (b) encouraged career development profession+als to adopt a broader conceptualization of person-environment interaction. Included in Tinsley's (b) recommendations were suggestions for career development researchers to engage in longitudinal research, to replace the dependence on congruence measures with an informed use of hit rate analysis, and to cross-validate resea rch findings.
Later in the year, Spokane, Meir, and Catalano reviewed 66 studies--published between 1985 and 1999--that evaluated Holland's congruence hypothesis. Spokane et al. highlighted several benchmark studies that used particularly appropriate methodologies, and they summarized the usefulness of congruence as a career intervention outcome. Like Tinsley (a, b), Spokane et al. argued for a "next generation" of congruence research, with continued improvement and diversification of design and methodology.
Finally, in an empirical investigation focusing on the measurement of congruence, Meir and Tzadok reported the results of a study designed to evaluate what they referred to as the diadic measure of environmental congruence. In the diadic measure of congruence--a system of measurement that was initially conceived by Meir, Hadas, and Noyfeld (1997)--congruence values are derived by comparing the first two Holland type code letters (Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, Conventional [RIASEC]) of each participant with the first two code letters of each of the other members of her or his environment. The congruence score for an individual is defined as the mean of his or her similarity scores. Meir and Tzadok encouraged researchers and practitioners to consider using the diadic method of congruence as an alternative measure of person-environment fit.
The Intersection of Career and Personal Counseling
In addition to the purely theoretical discussions that appeared in the literature, several authors discussed the relevance of other important conceptual advances to career counseling and development. Several empirical studies published in 2000 addressed the overlap between career and personal/mental health counseling. Pace and Quinn reported the results of a 2-year study that included 1,690 students who sought counseling services at a midwestern state university. Results of the investigation revealed that 11% of clients who sought career counseling as their primary presenting concern also received treatment for mental health issues. Results also showed that 20% of clients who sought counseling for mental health issues received career counseling as well.
Saunders, Peterson, Sampson, and Reardon asked 215 undergraduates (26% men, 74% women) to complete assessments of career indecision, anxiety, locus of control, depression, and dysfunctional career thinking. Results revealed significant, positive relationships between depression and career indecision as well as between depression and dysfunctional career thoughts. Results also included a significant, negative correlation between depression and vocational identity. Using a slightly different approach, Spengler examined the effort that clinical and counseling psychologists devoted to clients' career concerns in the context of other treatment issues. Results showed that clinicians underemphasized career concerns but only when more severe noncareer problems coexisted. When the career concern of a client was paired with depression of equal or half the severity as the career problem, there was no tendency by clinical or counseling psychologists to underemphasize career concerns.
Niles, Anderson, and Cover found additional evidence to support the interaction of personal and career counseling. Their findings revealed that although clients' intake concerns primarily focused on career exploration issues, clients also cited the need to address education-related issues and ego-dystonic emotions related to work. Furthermore, despite the focus on career concerns and goals at intake, clients' concerns during future sessions seemed to lack such a focus and, instead, tended to include several noncareer, more ego-dystonic emotional issues.
Anderson and Niles used a content analysis system to classify career counseling clients' responses to questions about the helpfulness of their recently completed counseling experiences. The results of the analysis revealed that the kinds of self-exploration and emotional support gains reported by career counseling clients were similar to the types of gains reported by clients of traditional, mainstream psychotherapy. Anderson and Niles discussed the results of their study in the context of their support of previous research suggesting a close relationship between the processes of psychotherapy and career counseling.
A Renewed Interest in Career Exploration Models and Research
Several researchers reported efforts to enhance the understanding of the career exploration process. After providing a definitional and historical background of career exploration, Flum and Blustein proposed a multi-dimensional framework for investigating career exploration that draws on the ego-identity and human motivation literatures. They argued for a convergence of these perspectives that appropriately considers relevant sociocultural and historical contexts of career exploration.
Two empirical investigations of career exploration also appeared in the literature. Bartley and Robitschek examined the relationship between career exploration and several additional factors (including motivational processes, career decision-making self-efficacy, career decidedness, gender, ego-identity states) in a sample of 156 women and 162 men attending college. Their results indicated that the predictor variables accounted for less than one third of the variance in career exploration behavior. Such findings led Bartley and Robitschek to encourage career development professionals to engage in ongoing evaluations of the factors associated with career exploration in hopes of increasing the understanding of the career exploration process for all populations.
Werbel examined the linkages among the constructs of career exploration, job search intensity, and job search effectiveness. The participants in Werbel's study, 219 graduating college seniors (44% men, 56% women), completed measures of self- and environmental exploration and job search intensity and subsequently reported their initial compensation and level of job satisfaction. Results revealed significant relationships between environmental exploration and job search intensity and between job search intensity and initial compensation.
Dual Career Issues and the Work-Family Conflict
Several publications that appeared in 2000 focused on dual career issues and the work-family conflict. An article by Wolf-Wendel, Twombly, and Rice described policies and strategies that institutions (particularly institutions of higher education) could use to decrease the amount of stress and to increase the job and life satisfaction of dual-career couples. Burke (b) examined the relationship between sex, parental status, and spouse's work involvement on multiple measures of work-family experience. Women and men (N = 999) employed in similar jobs at the same organizational level in a large service firm served as participants in the study. Results revealed that women in general, and men whose spouses worked fewer hours than they themselves worked, believed that they had to sacrifice family to serve their career.
A study by Phillips-Miller, Campbell, and Morrison evaluated the relationships between work satisfaction, work-related stress, marital-family stress, and spousal support for career among 242 veterinarians (110 women and 132 men), all of whom were married and employed full-time. Women in the study reported significantly greater effect of marital-family stress on career and less perceived spousal support for career than did their male counterparts. Research reported by Hartung and Rogers examined work-family commitment and attitudes toward feminism in a cross-sectional, medical student sample (126 women, 145 men). Results revealed a relatively high level of commitment to work as well as commitment to family roles among all participants regardless of sex. Hartung and Rogers encouraged counselors to help clients to reframe multiple role commitments as an opportunity for role integration rather than considering such role demands as conflictual.
Frone's examination of the relationship between work-family conflict and several types of psychiatric disorders also revealed important findings for career counselors to consider. Survey data obtained from a representative national sample of 2,700 employed adults who were either married or the parent of a child 18 years old or younger revealed significant relationships between work-to-family and family-to-work conflicts and mood, anxiety, and substance dependence disorders. On the basis of such relationships, consistent across sex of respondent, Frone suggested that counselors discuss (at least with clients for whom it is appropriate) issues central to the multiple demands of work and family roles.
Finally, Bookman devoted an entire book to the topic of the work-family conflict and related issues, presenting a rich summary of interviews with middle-aged women woven together by an organizational structure broken down into five sections: realities, incentives, conditions, capacities, and benefits. Bookman described the changes in social perceptions and labor conditions that influenced women with choices and offered "a new perspective on how middle-aged women with choices contribute to the economy while simultaneously pursuing their personal fulfillment" (p. xiv).
Although the topic of workaholism might be considered more central to industrial/organizational or personnel psychology, the rising interest among career development professionals in the issue warranted its coverage in this review. B. E. Robinson provided a useful summary of research on workaholism, drawing on the literature across several disciplines, including human relations/organizational development, cross-cultural research, and family counseling. B. E. Robinson's discussion included implications for career counseling as well as an appendix summarizing 13 categories of workaholics.
In an empirical investigation, Burke (c) compared workaholism components and workaholic behaviors of managers currently divorced or currently married. Data collected from 530 women and men indicated the absence of a relationship between workaholism and divorce. A somewhat more comprehensive study conducted by Bonebright, Clay, and Ankenmann examined the differences between two types of workaholics (enthusiastic workaholics, high enjoyment in work; and nonenthusiastic workaholics, low enjoyment in work) and nonworkaholic workers (work enthusiasts, relaxed workers, unengaged workers, and disenchanted workers). Participants were 171 salaried employees at a high-tech organization in the Midwest. Nonenthusiastic workaholics reported significantly more work--life conflict and significantly less life satisfaction and purpose in life than the majority of the nonworkaholics. Furthermore, enthusiastic workaholics reported significantly more life satisfaction and purpose in life than nonenthusiastic workaholics. Similar to their nonenthusiastic counterparts, enthusiastic workaholics also reported significantly more work-life conflict than the majority of nonworkaholics.
Other Conceptual Advances in Career Counseling and Development
Although not bound together by any particular thematic element, three additional articles in the literature increased the understanding of conceptual topics in career counseling and development. Pittman recorded and inductively analyzed 30 career counseling interviews of college students, using a discourse analytic method. Findings indicated that clients presented three pervasive dilemmatic themes of career in their talk: uncertainty versus certainty (i.e., clients' uncertainty about their future and how they attempt to make their future known or certain), interests versus practical (i.e., clients' desire to pursue interests, on the one hand, and to make a practical choice, on the other hand), and focus versus options (i.e., clients' identification of a potential decision but then countering that potential decision [focus] with a statement expressing the desire to keep options open). Pittman encouraged career counselors to embrace career dilemmas with their clients and to focus more deliberately on their deve lopment and negotiation in the career counseling interview.
Mignot discussed the usefulness of metaphor as a paradigm for practice-based career research, arguing that career theories, both new and old, are confounded by the dualism of human agency and social structure. As a viable alternative to this limitation, Mignot suggested that metaphor provided a means of understanding the reflexive relationship between human actions and social systems.
Finally, in a study of the relationship between vocational interests and the motivation to lead (MTL), Chan, Rounds, and Drasgow used multidimensional scaling to determine whether the MTL construct is a part of the two-dimensional RIASEC model of vocational interests or is orthogonal to vocational interests. Although findings showed that the MTL construct was correlated with the Social and Enterprising interest domains, it was essentially orthogonal to Holland's hexagonal model (i.e., MTL may be considered as a general construct independent of the domain of interests).
Career Counseling and Development of Identified Populations
Several publications addressed the career counseling and development of school-aged (K-12) populations. Five such articles focused on concerns that cut across several levels of elementary and secondary education. Walls, for example, evaluated the accuracy of 189 third-, sixth-, ninth-, and twelfth-grade students (94 boys, 95 girls) on six occupational dimensions (preparation time, availability, earnings, physical requirements, mental requirements, and status) for 20 well-known occupations (e.g., carpenter, nurse). As expected, students' accuracy in their knowledge of the occupational dimensions generally increased with grade level.
Wahl and Blackhurst reviewed literature that addressed various factors hypothesized to be associated with the occupational and educational aspirations of school-aged children and adolescents. Their review includes a summary of research indicating several well-documented findings across multiple investigations, including--but not limited to--continued sex differences in occupational aspirations, the central role of socioeconomic status in determining educational and occupational aspirations, and the importance of parental expectations and support in the educational aspirations of students of color. Fouad and Brown engaged in a similar review of literature regarding the role of social status in the development of children's career interests, goals, and choices. Their review, which focused on the role of race and social class in work-related behavior, provides a useful summary of empirical data on the topic, emphasizing the need to address issues of social class and diversity when working with all client populat ions.
In an effort to identify useful models for career counseling in the schools, Hayslip and VanZandt described several national standards and models of excellence for integrating career counseling into the curriculum. They also emphasized the importance of program evaluation and the accountability of career counseling programs to school and community. Similarly, Arbona (a) discussed the development of academic achievement in school-aged children and its role as a precursor to career development. Her review of selected theories and empirical investigations focused on sociocognitive theories of achievement motivation that include descriptions of the roles played by thoughts, emotions, and perceptions of self in students' academic performance and school adjustment.
Finally, Armstrong and Crombie examined compromises in occupational aspirations among 502 adolescents (245 boys, 257 girls). The primary objective of the study was to determine if adolescents who showed aspiraton-expectation discrepancies would make anticipatory compromises over time. As expected, results indicated that adolescents with such discrepancies did, in fact, make significant changes to their occupational aspirations over time by shifting toward more realistic and accessible occupations.
Elementary and Middle School Populations
Four publications focused exclusively on the career development of elementary school populations, and two publications focused on the career development of middle school/junior high school students. Magnuson and Starr argued for the importance of the elementary school years as a time to begin life career planning. They encouraged counselors to provide multiple opportunities for children to develop the subskills requisite for effective life career planning. Beale and Williams discussed methods for developing a schoolwide career day for elementary school students, including the process of establishing a committee, developing career day goals, preparing a timeline for accomplishing specific tasks, selecting and inviting prospective speakers, and publicizing the event. Beale and Williams also described three career day formats that could be modified as necessary to meet the particular needs of students. In a separate article, Beale described the value of a well-conceived trip to a hospital as a particularly effec tive career awareness strategy. The article offers numerous practical strategies for preparing for the hospital visit, organizing the hospital tour, and following up at school with discussions about the visit to maximize the educational and career exploration value of the trip.
In an empirical study of elementary school students' career development, McMahon, Gillies, and Carroll examined children's perceptions of the relationship between school and occupations. Data were collected from 55 elementary school students (33 boys and 22 girls) before and after they participated in 10 weekly career education classes conducted by their classroom teachers. Findings clearly showed that participants were able to link school-based learning with jobs that they were interested in pursuing. Similar to the conclusions of others (e.g., Wahl & Blackhurst; Hayslip & VanZandt; Magnuson & Starr), McMahon et al. emphasized the importance of integrating career development programs into the curriculum.
In terms of the career development of middle school/junior high school students, Arrington discussed the importance of providing students in the middle grades with a foundation of career awareness and career exploration experiences. Specific strategies that Arrington proposed included the infusion of career-related topics into the curriculum, the availability of computer-based career planning systems, the use of career portfolios, interest inventory assessment, lessons on time management and study skills, and work-based learning activities (e.g., job shadowing, mentoring).
Lapan, Adams, Turner, and Hinkelman explored the crystallizing career interest and efficacy patterns of 111 seventh-grade students. Results of the study suggested four issues that middle school counselors should consider when incorporating discussions of career development issues into the classroom: (a) Interest and efficacy patterns of students are strongly tied to students' expectations of current employment pattern differences between women and men, (b) many middle school students expressed relatively low levels of self-confidence across many occupational categories, (c) gender differences in the crystallization of interests might be evident in the classroom, with girls tending to exhibit more uniform interest patterns than boys, and (d) some of the boys might express relatively equal interest in Realistic, Investigative, and Enterprising careers but might exhibit substantially lower levels of self-confidence in these career areas.
High School Populations
Several journal articles published in 2000 focused on the career counseling and development of high school students. Ireh discussed various career development theories and their implications for career counseling in high school settings. Kucker provided information about South Dakota's career and life planning system for high school students, a comprehensive effort that includes the participation of students, staff, parents, business/industry leaders, and the community. Casey and Shore discussed the contributions of mentors to the affective, social, and career development of gifted adolescents. Their article identified some of the special career decision-making needs and characteristics of gifted students and suggested how mentors can play a significant role in the career development process.
Four articles addressed the influence of specific factors on the career development and decision making of high school students. Paa and McWhirter presented descriptive data regarding the perceptions of 464 high school students (226 girls, 238 boys) concerning factors that might influence their current career expectations. Results revealed that adolescents perceived their career expectations to be meaningfully influenced by personal (e.g., interests, personality, values), background (e.g., ability, vicarious learning experiences), and environmental (e.g., parents, friends) factors.
Otto also examined high school students' perceptions of influence on their career development, focusing exclusively on adolescents' perceptions of parental influence. Three hundred sixty-two juniors (56% girls, 44% boys) participated in the study. Results revealed that participants--regardless of sex or race--cited their mothers as the single most significant influence in their career development. Findings also showed that 71% of African American students and 86% of European American students reported that their ideas about what they should do with their lives were similar to their parents' ideas.
Mau and Bikos reported the results of an empirical study that examined the relative importance of school, family, personal/psychological, race, and sex variables in predicting the educational and career aspirations of adolescents. Results of the study indicated that adolescents' high school program (i.e., academic track) and type of school (i.e., public vs. private) were the two strongest predictors of both educational and occupational aspirations.
Trusty and Ng conducted a longitudinal study using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88) to examine the relationship between adolescents' perceptions of their high school achievement and their choice of postsecondary major. Results indicated that perceptions of mathematics achievement had the strongest relationship with choice of major for persons from low socioeconomic backgrounds. The relationship between perceptions of English achievement was less significant overall; nevertheless, perceptions of English achievement were stronger than perceptions of mathematics achievement in predicting the choice of major among women from middle and higher socioeconomic backgrounds.
Five additional studies addressed other aspects of high school students' career development. Santos and Coimbra conducted a study of 418 twelfth graders to analyze the relationship between conflictual and emotional independence (two topics central to the psychological separation from parents) and two dimensions of career indecision: developmental and generalized. Results revealed the absence of any relationships between the two sets of variables, indicating that persons with low levels of psychological separation from their parents were found across various levels of generalized and developmental career indecision.
Singh and Ozturk, as well as D. M. Hansen and Jarvis, evaluated the role of employment experiences on high school students' career decision making. In their study of the relationship between part-time work during high school and students' patterns of taking mathematics and science courses, Singh and Ozturk used the NELS:88 database to test their hypothesis that part-time work intensity (i.e., the mean number of hours worked each week) is negatively correlated with course work completion in mathematics and science. Results revealed support for their hypothesis. After controlling for socioeconomic status (SES) and previous achievement in mathematics and science courses, there was a statistically significant, negative relationship between part-time work intensity and course work completion.
The study conducted by D. M. Hansen and Jarvis evaluated the idea that adolescents working in a family-owned business, when contrasted with adolescents working in a private enterprise, would report differences on several variables commonly associated with part-time employment. Results indicated that, among the 127 participants (59 boys, 68 girls), both boys and girls working in a family business reported greater perceived parental support than boys and girls working in a private enterprise. Furthermore, findings showed that boys working in family businesses reported less substance abuse than boys working in private enterprise.
Two international investigations of high school students' career development also appeared in the literature. Okansey evaluated South African adolescent students' perceptions of their career development needs. Results of Okansey's research revealed the importance of asking students what career decision-making needs they possess prior to developing large-scale, career education programs. Osoro, Amundson, and Borgen investigated aspects of the career decision making of high school students in Kenya. Results of their study indicated that rural students, relative to urban students, were more likely to seek career exploration and planning assistance from parents and teachers. Findings also revealed that gender, self-concept, and career stereotypes were among the major factors that influenced the career decisions of students.
The career development of college students was the focus of several publications. Perhaps the most comprehensive of those publications was an edited volume, Career Counseling of College Students: An Empirical Guide to Strategies That Work (Luzzo, a). The book's 17 chapters are organized into four major sections: Theoretical Bases and Models for Career Development, Methods and Techniques, Special Populations and Issues, and Professional Issues and Future Directions. Specific topics include the application of established and emerging career theories to college student career development (Hartung & Niles; Niles & Hartung), emotional-social issues in the provision of career counseling (Schultheiss), college students' callings and careers (Colozzi & Colozzi), career assessment (Carson & Dawis; Lowman & Carson), individual career counseling (Whiston), career planning workshops and courses (Halasz & Kempton), the use of computers and the Internet for career counseling (Iaccarino), and career development issues for s pecial populations (nontraditional students, Luzzo, b; student athletes, Martinelli; students with learning disabilities, Hitchings & Retish; ethnic minority students, DeVaney & Hughey; women, Fassinger & O'Brien; and lesbian and gay students, Pope, Prince, & Mitchell). Two chapters on professional issues and future direction include the discussion of Colozzi's model of systematic career guidance and Toman's identification of a career development research and practice agenda for the twenty-first century.
Several journal articles--many of which were reports of empirical studies--also addressed the career counseling and development of college students. Two studies evaluated factors associated with the career development of student athletes. Martens and Cox gathered data from varsity athletes (n = 131) and nonathletes (n = 95) at a large midwestern university. Participants completed assessments of career development (namely vocational identity, need for occupational information, and perceived career barriers), athletic identity, and commitment to sports. Results indicated statistically significant differences between athletes and nonathletes across the three career development measures, with nonathletes exhibiting higher levels of vocational identity and less of a perceived need for occupational information than the athletes. In a somewhat more comprehensive analysis, C. Brown, Glastetter-Fender, and Shelton explored the relationships between career decision-making self-efficacy, career locus of control, identit y foreclosure, athletic identity, hours of sport participation, and expectations for professional sport careers among 189 collegiate student athletes (117 men, 72 women). Results suggested that extensive hours of participation in sports, the failure to explore alternative career options, and the belief that one's career outcomes were unaffected by one's actions were all associated with lower self-efficacy for career decision-making tasks among student athletes.
Duffy examined the career states (e.g., career plateau, career indecision, underemployment, unemployment) of nontraditional college students over the age of 23 and the relevance of these states to students' critical-thinking abilities and related dispositional traits. Findings revealed that career plateau (i.e., the point in a career at which the likelihood of additional hierarchical promotion is low) and career indecision were the two career states reported most frequently by participants. Furthermore, results showed that students who were identified as experiencing a career plateau exhibited critical-thinking skills that were less well developed than did the students who were identified as career undecided. On the other hand, students who were identified as experiencing a career plateau exhibited more maturity in appraising situations and making judgments relative to students in the career-undecided category.
Furr and Elling examined the influence of work on the academic and social development of 505 students enrolled in a public university. Results revealed that students who worked 30 or more hours each week were significantly less involved with campus activities than students who were not employed or who were employed fewer than 30 hours each week. The students who did not work, in contrast with the students who did, reported more frequent interactions with faculty and an increased likelihood of establishing an important relationship with faculty.
Saks and Ashforth examined the change in job search behaviors and employment outcomes of 121 recent university graduates (44% women, 56% men) who had not secured employment in their final term of college prior to graduation. Participants completed a questionnaire before graduating and again 4 months later. Over the 4-month period, job seekers increased their active job search behavior, formal job-source usage, and search intensity. In addition, participants decreased their job search anxiety over the same 4-month period. Blickle also assessed recent university graduates at two points in time to analyze possible relationships between work values and the use of intraorganizational influence strategies (i.e., strategies for exercising influence on the job). Results of his study indicated support for the idea that work values among college students functioned both as higher order goals and as individual constraints of influence behavior on the job.
In 2000, the most popular topic in the literature regarding college student career development addressed the cultural factors in the career decision making of American and international students. Several of these publications included empirical studies designed to increase the awareness of the role of cultural factors in college students' career development. Trusty, Ng, and Plata, using the NELS:88 database, examined the interaction effects of gender, SES, and race/ethnicity on postsecondary educational choices (i.e., choice of major categorized by predominant Holland type). Results revealed that the relationship between race/ethnicity and educational choice was strongest for men at lower SES levels and weakest for women at high SES levels. A second study reported by Trusty and his colleagues (Trusty, Ng, & Ray), once again using the NELS:88 database, examined the longitudinal relationships between several variables and choice of Social type college majors versus other majors. The relationships between mathem atics ability and sex on choice of Social type majors were fairly consistent across racial/ethnic groups, whereas the relationships of reading scores and SES differed across racial/ethnic groups.
Mau examined the cultural relevance of career decision-making style and career decision-making self-efficacy among American (n = 540) and Taiwanese (n = 1,026) students. Results indicated statistically significant differences in career decision-making styles and career decision-making self-efficacy on the basis of participants' nationality and sex. Although the majority of students, regardless of nationality, endorsed a rational style of decision making, Taiwanese students were more likely to endorse a dependent decision-making style. Taiwanese students also exhibited lower levels of career decision-making self-efficacy than did their American counterparts.
Shih and Brown also evaluated factors associated with the career development of Taiwanese students. In particular, they explored the relationship between acculturation level and vocational identity among 112 graduate and undergraduate Taiwanese students who were attending two midwestern universities. Results indicated that Taiwanese international students who were older and had a shorter length of U.S. residency were more likely to maintain their Asian cultural identity. Students who were older and who had a lower acculturation level also exhibited higher levels of vocational identity than did younger students with a longer length of U.S. residency.
J.C. Hansen, Scullard, and Haviland investigated the fit of Holland's (1997) hexagonal structure of interests among 176 Native American students (103 women, 73 men) who were attending a university in the northern part of the Midwest and a university in the northern Rocky Mountain region. Participants' scores on the General Occupational Themes of the 1985 Strong Interest Inventory were used as measures of Holland's six interest types. Statistical analyses of the data supported the circular order (RIASEC) and two-dimensional nature of Holland's hexagonal model among the Native American students. Holland's hexagonal interest structure was supported more by the women's interest data than the men's interest data.
The relationships between racial/ethnic identity attitudes, career maturity, and life role salience in Black and Asian American students were the focus of Carter and Constantine's investigation of 181 college students (109 women, 72 men) in the Northeast and Midwest. Results revealed significant relationships between several life role salience domains and Black ra cial identity attitudes but the absence of a relationship between Black racial identity attitudes and career maturity. On the other hand, findings showed a significant relationship between Asian Americans' racial identity attitudes and career maturity domains but not between racial identity attitudes and life role salience.
Two other studies that addressed career development issues among international student populations focused on methodological issues. Reitzle and Vondracek, using national surveys of young adults conducted in Germany in 1991 and 1996, highlighted differences between the "variable approach" and the "person approach" methodologies for understanding the complex developmental-contextual factors in career development. Tobacyk, Cyrson, and Tobacyk administered a measure of psychological type to three groups of Poles, including 182 college students, to determine whether persons with similar psychological types are found in the same occupation and academic majors in Poland and the United States. As hypothesized, the psychological type distributions of the Polish managers and the marketing and management students demonstrated convergent validity with the type distributions of American managers and business students.
Spencer-Rodgers administered a culturally relevant career development needs assessment survey to 227 international students (39% women, 61% men) from a random sampling of 50 postsecondary institutions in the United States. Participants' region of origin included Asia (51%), Europe (19%), Latin America (12 %), and other (18%). Results indicated that participants' vocational needs focused on obtaining work experience, overcoming interview barriers, and developing job search skills-needs that resemble those reported by American college students.
People With Disabilities
People with disabilities are yet another population identified in the career development literature as possessing specific types of career development needs. Gilson discussed the various strengths of and issues faced by one-stop career centers. She focused her discussion on the various ways in which people with disabilities could access one-stop career centers to receive needed support and training. Career transition planning for students with learning disabilities was the focus of two articles, one by Lukos and one by Cummings, Maddux, and Casey. Lukos described the career transition-planning program in place for college students with disabilities in New York State, whereas Cummings et al. discussed reasons that transition plans for students with learning disabilities tended to be particularly problematic.
Two empirical investigations that focused on the career development of people with disabilities also appeared in the literature. Alston and Hampton examined the perceptions of parents and teachers regarding several variables as they related to the career entry of people with disabilities into science and engineering fields. A group of 140 parents (97 women, 43 men) and 323 teachers (219 women, 104 men) completed a survey designed to assess their perceptions of the attitudinal, environmental, and educational factors that affect students' pursuit of science and mathematics careers. Results revealed that parents and teachers believed that an insufficient number of role models in science and engineering fields existed for people with disabilities. They also believed that most education professionals did not have a good understanding of the learning potential of people with disabilities. Perhaps most relevant to career counselors was the finding that both parents and teachers of people with disabilities believed t hat counselors typically suggested fields other than science and engineering to students with disabilities.
To enhance the understanding of the career development of people with severe psychiatric disabilities, Botterbusch interviewed 48 such individuals after their participation in a vocational program that offered a variety of services, including individual and group counseling, job-seeking skills, occupational information, and mentoring. Results indicated that a variety of career patterns existed among this population. The one constant across most of these career patterns was the decline in occupational skill level, income, and hours worked over time among workers with severe psychiatric disabilities.
Lesbians, Gay Men, and Bisexual Women or Men
In addition to the previously mentioned Pope et al. chapter addressing the career development of gay and lesbian college students, one other publication emerged from our search of the literature that focused exclusively on the career development of lesbians, gay men, and bisexual women or men, The chapter, written by Croteau, Anderson, DiStefano, and Kampa-Kokesch, reviews the expanding literature base on the career decision-making needs of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals and offers strategies to help practitioners ground their career counseling work in appropriate ways. One of the highlights of the chapter is a useful summary of the content and focus of journal articles addressing LGB career development published between 1980 and 1996. Croteau et al. also identified four content areas for which a particular research need exists to more fully understand the career development of this population: (a) dual-career and multiple-role issues (particularly for lesbians), (b) the degree to which involvem ent in LGB communities affects career lives, (c) the importance of role models during career exploration and choice, and (d) the relative lack of diversity in factors evaluated in LGB research other than sexual orientation.
Several books, book chapters, and journal articles published in 2000 focused exclusively on the career counseling and development of women. In a chapter appearing in the latest edition of the Handbook of Counseling Psychology(S. D. Brown & Lent), Fassinger discussed the role of gender in education and work, summarizing the well-documented literature in vocational psychology that highlights the gender-related barriers to optimal educational and career development. Fassinger encouraged career development professionals working with women to engage in focused efforts to address the contextual, structural barriers that women experience as a result of societal structures (e.g., norms, ideologies, practices, policies, and institutions that serve to limit access and options for women).
Three empirically based articles addressed early influences on women's career decision making. Novi and Meinster investigated friends' influence on the achievement-related choices of88 high school students (all young women) who were attending a private school in the mid-Atlantic region. Results showed that the participants responded more favorably to Thematic Apperception Test (TAT; Murray, 1943) stimuli depicting achievement-oriented situations and more negatively toward affiliation situations. Results also revealed that the influence of peer groups on achievement orientation was less dominant in groups with lower levels of cohesion. Madill et al. conducted a study in which 106 young women completed work values and work salience assessments in 11th grade and again 3 years later. Results indicated significant changes in participants' values and role salience, suggesting the importance of periodic assessment and evaluation of these two factors in career decision making. Shepard and Marshall's qualitative study of young women living in rural communities highlighted the need for more role models among this population and the importance of addressing conflicting values concerning work and family that these women tend to experience.
Specific subpopulations of women were the focus of several articles. Grant, Battle, and Heggoy, using a multiple-case design for the study, explored influences on the choice of major and career-related decisions of seven gifted women over a 5-year period. Their results indicated that career development interventions might have facilitated the career decision-making efforts of the participants in their study and, furthermore, that deficits in career development could serve as a major barrier to the career attainment of gifted women.
C. Brown, Reedy, Fountain, Johnson, and Dichiser surveyed a sample of 71 battered women living in domestic violence shelters in the Midwest region. Results showed that unemployed battered women, contrasted with employed battered women, exhibited lower levels of career decision-making self-efficacy and endorsed a more traditional work role attitude. Findings also indicated that high self-esteem was related to greater self-efficacy for making career decisions, an internal locus of control was related to high self-esteem, and higher perceptions of career barriers were related to an external locus of control.
Railey and Peterson assessed the dysfunctional career thoughts and interest structure of 92 female inmates and probationers. Findings revealed that repeat offenders exhibited significantly less commitment anxiety, whereas first-time offenders indicated significantly less vocational coherence (i.e., proximity of high-point Holland codes among their top three aspirations). Other notable results included the finding that 44% of the participants had not completed high school, that 47% of the participants indicated Social as their dominant field of interest, and that only 13% of the participants possessed high vocational coherence.
Lucas, Skokowski, and Ancis reviewed the counseling intake and progress notes of 18 women who sought counseling services at a university counseling center and who presented with both career concerns and depression. The majority of the women in the study described their career decision-making difficulties in the context of strained relationships with their parents or significant others, or both. Furthermore, both external relationships with others and internal conditions (e.g., mental health issues, skill deficits) emerged as significant factors in the participants' career decision-making process.
Four studies addressed issues associated with job search strategies and employment-related factors among women. Mencken and Winfield investigated whether the sex of the social contact whom women use to find jobs was associated with the segregation of women into jobs in female-dominated occupations. Their analysis of data from 1,131 working women in the Midwest revealed that women were significantly less likely to secure jobs in female-dominated occupations when their social contact was a man rather than a woman. Kulik examined differences in the job search intensity and attitudes toward unemployment among four age groups of married, unemployed Israeli women. Among various age groups, younger respondents (up to age 21) spent more time seeking employment each week than did the older respondents (over age 21); older women (between the ages of 50 and 62) were least likely to reject job offers because of financial considerations.
Nash and Chrisler compared and contrasted 43 women employed in nontraditional blue-collar jobs with 27 women who were in training for such jobs on a number of variables that are traditionally associated with job satisfaction and success. Findings revealed that women in the training group scored higher on problem-focused methods of coping and exhibited higher levels of androgyny than did women already employed in nontraditional jobs. The authors summarized the results by explaining that women who choose to enter blue-collar fields may possess personality characteristics that predispose them to cope well with work-related stressors. In an international study of career priority patterns, Burke (a) examined the career plans of managerial and professional women in Bulgaria, Canada, Norway, and Singapore. Results indicated striking similarities in the career priority patterns across all the women in this study and showed that they endorsed patterns that combined both career and family.
Lalande, Crozier, and Davey engaged in a qualitative inquiry of the role of relationships in women's career development. Using grounded theory methodology, Lalande et al. evaluated the interviews of 18 college women. As expected, participants cited relationships with friends and family members as especially important in their career development, both in terms of their influence on developing self-knowledge and on the process of selecting an occupation to pursue.
Finally, Giles and Larmour explored the role of self-efficacy as a predictor of employees' intentions to apply for promotion. Findings provided strong support for the role of self-efficacy as an important factor in work-related behaviors of women. Such results led Giles and Larmour to conclude the following:
From a practical perspective, the finding that self-efficacy plays a significant role in the prediction of intentions for women suggests that employers not only have a responsibility to provide formal career planning and training programs, but they must also continue to encourage women to take hold of their careers. (p. 2154)
Assessment in Career Counseling and Development
As in recent years (cf. Arbona, 2000b; Young & Chen, 1999), much of the published literature in career counseling and development during 2000 contributed to the understanding of the role of assessment in career decision making. These publications fell into one of two major categories: general issues (e.g., assessment in the early stages of career counseling, the role of the Internet in career assessment, sociocultural aspects of career assessment) or validation and use of specific types of career assessments (e.g., card sorts, career decision-making assessments, Kuder Occupational Interest Survey).
General Issues in Career Assessment
Assessment in the early stages of career counseling. Several articles addressed the use of assessment in the early stages of the career counseling process. Ponterotto, Rivera, and Sueyoshi introduced and provided an initial evaluation of the Career-in-Culture Interview (CiCI) a flexible, semistructured interview protocol that can be used for the career counseling intake session. Based on advances in multicultural counseling and on the social cognitive career theory (Lent et al., 1994, 1996), the CiCI seeks to obtain information from clients regarding their family influence, cultural background, worldview, environmental factors, and perceived personal strengths.
In an empirical study, Gati and Ram asked 29 career counseling psychologists and 48 counseling graduate students (59 women and 18 men) to make judgments regarding the quality of the prescreening stage of the career decision-making process for 18 hypothetical clients. Across both groups of participants, results showed that counselors believed that a desirable outcome of the prescreening stage of career counseling was a concise and homogeneous list of promising alternatives.
Additional discussion of the role of assessment in the early stages of career counseling appeared in a series of articles found in the December issue of The Career Development Quarterly. A lead article presenting a cognitive-information processing approach to readiness assessment (Sampson, Peterson, Reardon, & Lenz, a) was followed by a response by Jepsen, which in turn was followed by a reaction from the original authors (Sampson, Peterson, Reardon, &Lenz, b). Sampson et al. (a) described a five-step process model for readiness assessment, provided readers with a partial listing of instruments that can be used as a component of readiness assessment, and presented a two-dimensional, cognitive information-processing model of readiness for career decision making. Jepsen's comments regarding Sampson et al.'s (a) contribution lent support to many of the issues raised in Sampson et al.'s (a) original article but added a note of caution regarding several of Sampson et al.'s propositions. In particular, Jepsen empha sized the need for additional empirical evidence to support Sampson et al.'s (a) model. In their response to Jepsen, Sampson et al. (b) reemphasized that it was important for practitioners to use a readiness assessment before intervening with clients to "maximize the likelihood of meeting the client's needs in a cost-effective manner" (p. 180). They also provided readers with suggestions for further research to improve the understanding of how the concepts regarding the assessment of decision-making readiness can be used to improve the delivery of career service.
The role of the Internet in career assessment. Exploring the role of the Internet in career assessment was clearly one of the most popular career counseling and development topics that appeared in the literature in 2000. Gore and Leuwerke (a) provided a technologically rich overview of modern Internet systems and discussed their potential benefits to career development professionals who chose to engage in Internet-based assessment. Prince, Chartrand, and Silver focused their discussion on the steps involved in planning and delivering a high-quality, Internet-based career assessment system, using careerhub.org as a model. Sampson and Lumsden also discussed ethical issues in the design and use of Internet-based career assessments, including such topics as the (a) reliability and validity of Internet-based career assessments, (b) readiness of users for Internet-based career assessment, (c) administration of Internet-based career assessments, (d) challenges associated with counseling over the Internet, (e) equity of access, and (0 confidentiality and privacy.
Several authors addressed the role of the Internet and other technological advances in the context of the future of career assessment. Tinsley (c) discussed technological advances in computer hardware (e.g., nanocomputers and nanobots) and software (e.g., the combination of voice input software and item response theory) as well as the social changes accompanying such developments. Reardon, Sampson, and Lenz also speculated about the role of the Internet in the future of career assessment. In particular, they discussed the manner in which the Internet would enable career shoppers (i.e., persons previewing career materials or services before committing to them) to directly participate in career assessment activities. Oliver and Whiston echoed the ideas of other authors who expected individuals to increasingly use the Internet to access career assessments in the new millennium. They also discussed the potential benefits and pitfalls associated with Internet-based career assessment and encouraged practitioners to evaluate career assessment Web sites thoroughly before using them with clients.
In the only empirical article published in 2000 addressing Internet-based career assessment, Austin and Mahlman reported the results of a study in which 119 students in Ohio completed an administrative office technology skills assessment over the Internet, whereas 61 other students completed the same assessment in pencil-and-paper form. Internal consistency reliability of the two assessments was similar as was the variability produced by both versions of the assessment. Responses to surveys indicated that students who completed the assessment using the Internet reported few problems with accessing, downloading, taking, and submitting the test.
Other future trends in career assessment. Three additional articles addressed other future trends in career assessment. Lock and Hogan discussed five major issues -- in addition to technological advances -- that they believed were influencing the career assessment field: (a) The focus and definition of career is changing, (b) the tight labor market expands the career assessment domain for savvy job seekers, (c) job seekers increasingly emphasize the quality of work life, (d) job seekers no longer think in terms of one career path or job family, and (e) many organizations are creating multiple career paths. Fouad and Zao highlighted changes in information technology, globalization, a change in the service sector, and the increasing diversity of the work force as factors that would influence the role of assessment in career counseling and development. They argued for the expansion of traditional interest inventory assessment to include evaluation of skill sets, values, relational skills, and adaptability. Betz and Borgen echoed the suggestion offered by Fouad and Zao regarding the need for expanded assessment options. They focused their discussion on the recent trend of integrating vocational interest measurement with the concepts of self-efficacy and personal styles.
Tymofievich and Leroux discussed three important competencies that counselors should possess when administering assessments to adults in the context of career and personal counseling: the completion of appropriate training in good test-use practices, awareness of the shift in education from using psychometric models to using edumetric ones, and clinical practice in an edumetric framework. As Tymofievich and Leroux explained, "Edumetrics rejects the traditional psychometric method of ranking and statistically deriving distribution to which clients are compared. Rather, it focuses on the movement and learning clients are able to achieve" (p. 53).
Issues of diversity in career assessment. A number of authors addressed the importance of integrating culturally appropriate assessment into career counseling and development. M. T. Brown urged counselors to consider the role of economic, educational, social, and political opportunities that form socio-structural realities and perceptions--both of which can and often do influence the career decision-making processes of women and members of racial and ethnic minority groups. Blustein and Ellis proposed that the major challenge facing career assessment in the twenty-first century is the need to affirm cultural diversity. They argued for adoption of the "unificationist" perspective toward assessment and a change to assessment practices in which counselors and clients embrace local realities that exist within diverse cultural contexts.
The cultural validity and specificity of career assessment measures were the focus of an article by Leong and Hartung (b). They urged career counselors and vocational psychologists to engage in research on culture specific variables in career assessment to increase the understanding of why many Western models, and assessments based on such models, do not seem to work as well for culturally diverse clients.
Venn provided counselors with a thorough overview of issues and concerns regarding the assessment of career and vocational skills among students with disabilities. In his book Assessing Students With Special Needs, Venn devoted an entire chapter to the topic of career assessment of special populations. A review of relevant interest inventories, prevocational and employability skills, and work samples and their application to the career assessment of people with disabilities is included in the chapter.
Validation and Use of Specific Types of Career Assessments
Career development researchers and practitioners authored several publications in 2000 that evaluated the validity and appropriate use of several types of career assessments. Slaney and MacKinnon-Slaney discussed the use of vocational card sorts in career counseling and career exploration. They reviewed several currently available card sorts, examined the use of the card sort technique with clients, described methods of administration and interpretation of card sorts, and discussed the effects of card sort methods in career counseling. Savickas (a) described the use of career decision-making process assessments in career counseling and provided information regarding the construction, development, and validity of three assessments in particular: the Career Decision Scale (Osipow, Carney, Winer, Yanico, & Moschier, 1987), the Career Development Inventory (Super, Thompson, Lindeman, Jordaan, & Myers, 1981), and the Career Maturity Inventory (Crites, 1978).
Several publications focused on the validity and use of the Strong Interest Inventory (SII; Harmon, Hansen, Borgen, & Hammer, 1994). J. C. Hansen discussed appropriate methods of interpretation of the SII for various populations. Brophy, on the other hand, encouraged cautious interpretation of SII scores with less educated clients. He based his recommendation on the atypical norms that result from the relatively high levels of education achieved by participants in the norming groups for many of the scales.
Empirical evaluations of the SII included an analysis of the relationship between Personal Style scales of the SII and the Big Five factors of personality (Lindley & Borgen) and an evaluation of dimensional structure underlying responses to the SIT (Einarsdottir & Rounds). Lindley and Borgen gathered data from a group of 740 college students (458 women, 282 men) between 1993 and 1995 and cross-validated the results with a second group of 321 students (217 women, 104 men) in 1996. Results revealed that across groups and sex of participants, substantial and consistent relationships were observed between the personal styles and the Big Five personality dimensions. Einarsdottir and Rounds applied multidimensional scaling analysis to the responses of 648 college students (404 women, 244 men) to the 110 occupational tide items in the SII. Results of their study supported a three-dimensional structure of vocational interests, with the dimensions defined as Data/Ideas, People/Things, and Sex-Type.
Diamond and Zytowski discussed the background, development, and conceptual foundations of the Kuder Occupational Interest Survey (KOIS; Kuder & Zytowski, 1991) as well as methods of administering, scoring, and interpreting results. The authors also presented a summary of research results supporting the validity and reliability of the KOIS and described the concept of person or career matching implemented in the Kuder Career Planning System. An integral part of this system is the new Kuder Career Search with Person Match interest inventory (National Career Assessment Services, Inc., 2001).
Knapp-Lee presented information regarding the background, development, and conceptual foundations of the Career Occupational Preference System (COPSystem; Knapp & Knapp, 1990), which includes assessments of interests, abilities, and values. Knapp-Lee also discussed methods of interpretation, psychometric properties, and future directions for the COPSystem. An empirical investigation conducted by Lopez, Charter, Guirguis, and Schelling evaluated the interrater reliability of the Manual Speed and Dexterity subtest of the Career Ability Placement Survey (CAPS; Knapp & Knapp, 1981) among 35 vocational rehabilitation patients and 23 volunteers. Three raters, all trained in psychological assessment, independently scored participants' responses to the subtest. Despite requiring considerable qualitative judgment in its scoring, the Manual Speed and Dexterity subtest yielded very high interrater reliabilities among the three raters (r = .98).
Three publications focused on the validity and usefulness of the SelfDirected Search (SDS; Holland, 1994). Spokane and Catalano described the theoretical model on which the SDS is designed; presented information about the various components of the SDS; and documented evidence supporting the reliability, validity, and functional utility of the inventory. Mattie evaluated the suitability of the SDS for nonreaders with learning disabilities or mild mental retardation. Results revealed that among the 337 participants in the study, the SDS was reliable, validly measured preferences, and was sensitive to preferences with respect to disability group membership. Wright, Reardon, Peterson, and Osborn evaluated the relationship among constructs in the Career Thoughts Inventory (CTI; Sampson, Peterson, Lenz, Reardon, & Saunders, 1996) and the SDS. Their results, based on data collected from 81 persons (48 women, 33 men) seeking assistance from the career center at a large southeastern university, revealed that dysfuncti onal thinking may be related to the career decision making of those with high Enterprising interests.
Two studies evaluated aspects of the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ; Weiss, Dawis, England, & Lofquist, 1977). Tan and Hawkins investigated the factor structure of the MSQ Short Form when it had been completed by individuals with psychiatric disabilities while they were participating in vocational rehabilitation. Results based on data from 87 respondents indicated a three-factor structure among this population, including an intrinsic factor, an extrinsic factor, and another factor pertaining to satisfaction derived specifically from participating in vocational rehabilitation. Hirschfeld also examined the validity of the MSQ Short Form, comparing the original intrinsic and extrinsic subscales of the MSQ with revised subscales. Analyses from two samples of employed workers indicated that revising the intrinsic and extrinsic subscales of the MSQ made little difference in the results obtained.
Two articles evaluated the use of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI; Myers & McCaulley, 1998) in career counseling. Healy evaluated methods for integrating the interpretation of MBTI results as a means of helping clients understand their SII profiles. Participants included 370 adults (153 men, 217 women) who completed the SII and MBTI as part of their career counseling course at a West Coast university extension center. Results showed that single, categorical MBTI scores related modestly to the SII General Occupational Theme scores, as expected. Buboltz, Johnson, Nichols, Miller, and Thomas examined the relationship between MBTI scores and the Personal Style scores of the SII. Participants, consisting of 192 men and 231 women and 3 persons who did not indicate sex, completed the two inventories as part of a career development and life-planning course at a large midwestern university. Results indicated significant relationships between the Personal Style scales of the SII and the MBTI polar dimensions in v arious combinations.
Several articles described initial development and validation of relatively new career assessments. Gati, Osipow, Krausz, and Saka examined the validity of the Career Decision-Making Difficulties Questionnaire (Gati, Krausz, & Osipow, 1996) by gathering data from 95 individuals who were receiving career counseling (39 men, 56 women) and their counselors as well as from a comparison group of 259 young adults. Results supported earlier research (Gati et al., 1996) in revealing three major categories or factors of career decision-making difficulty: lack of readiness, lack of information, and inconsistent information. Neuman, Bolin, and Briggs reported psychometric support for a newly developed short form of the Ball Aptitude Battery (BAB; Sung & Dawis, 1981). Results from several groups of participants revealed comparable reliability and validity of the original BAR and its short-form companion.
Smith and Betz described the development and validation of a scale of Perceived Social Self-Efficacy (PSSE). Results from a study of 354 undergraduates (90 men, 264 women) showed a high degree of internal consistency reliability for the PSSE (r = .94) and test-retest reliability over a 3-week interval of .82. Smith and Betz also provided evidence of the PSSE's construct and discriminant validity. D. S. Carlson, Kacmar, and Williams discussed the construction and initial validation of a multidimensional measure of work-family conflict. Analyses of data collected from five samples (N = 1,211) supported the assessment's content adequacy, dimensionality, reliability, factor structure invariance, and construct validity.
Career Counseling Programs and Interventions
Several publications in 2000 addressed the importance of ongoing development and evaluation of effective career counseling programs and interventions for diverse clientele. The topics covered in these publications included (a) the use of the Internet as a career intervention strategy, (b) the evaluation of school-to-work transition programs, (c) empirical evaluations of the efficacy of career interventions, and (d) other topics in career counseling programs and interventions.
The Use of the Internet as a Career Intervention Strategy
Several authors discussed the role of the Internet as a career intervention strategy. Refrem, Plante, and Osborne discussed methods of integrating the use of the Internet into school career development programs, and Studd described strategies for adapting Internet technology to meet the career development needs of diverse populations. Studd's discussion of the career.Max initiative provided a thorough description of ways to incorporate assessment and career information into the Internet delivery of career services to high school students. Reile and Harris-Bowlsbey also discussed methods for incorporating Internet-based assessment, career planning, and job search strategies into the broader context of career development and counseling.
A special issue of the Career Planning and Adult Development Journal, titled "Career Counseling in an Information Age," provided various perspectives on the potential role of the Internet and related technologies in the career counseling and development field. A major contribution by Pyle is followed by several reactions and responses by other leaders in the field (Ahn; Borchard; Brott; Epperheimer; Harris-Bowlsbey; Henderson; Howland & Palmer; Krane & Hendershot; Love; Reile & Suddarth). These contributions include the presentation and discussion of several practical methods for incorporating the Internet into individual and group career-counseling interventions.
Clark, Horan, Tompkins-Bjorkman, Kovaiski, and Hackett described three Internet-based career development programs, which were developed at Arizona State University and were designed to (a) change irrational career beliefs and occupational stereotypes common among young women, (b) educate parents on practices affecting the career outcomes of their children, and (c) alter attributions relevant to the academic motivation and performance of at-risk youth. Descriptions of these interventions include the evolution of their development, the theoretical basis for each program, and early indications of the effectiveness of each approach.
N. K. Robinson, Meyer, Prince, McLean, and Low discussed the advantages associated with providing college students with an organized framework that can help guide them toward accessing career information on the Internet in meaningful ways. Their description of the Career Exploration Links program (N. K. Robinson, 1999) and its usefulness with college student populations includes a description of the program's home page, the information architecture, the interest assessment path, and the information-only paths.
Web-assisted career counseling was also the focus of an article in which Kirk outlined selected issues likely to affect counselors over the next few years. In the article, Kirk responded to a series of questions that many career counselors are beginning to ask themselves: "Are clients still going to need me?" "Should I incorporate Internet use into my practice?" "What Internet services can I provide for my clients?" Also included in the article is a listing and brief description of several career exploration and planning Web sites organized around the topics of career planning, career advice and information, job-hunting sites, and services for special populations.
The Evaluation of School-to-Work Transition Programs
Blustein, Juntunen, and Worthington provided a thorough overview of career counseling and vocational psychology research associated with the school-to-work transition. In their chapter, Blustein et al. discussed historical perspectives, assessment issues, school-to-work models, best practices, and program evaluation. They also described the contributions of various theoretical issues associated with the transition process, including person-environment fit theories, developmental theories, learning theory, social cognitive career theory, and sociological-economic and developmental-contextual theories. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the career counseling implications of the existing school-to-work literature base.
Johnson presented the results of an exploratory study in which 373 sixth- and ninth-grade students who were enrolled in a primarily White, middle-class, suburban school district in New York completed a survey to determine their awareness of important school-to-work transition principles (i.e., the skills, knowledge, and attitudes needed for success). Results revealed that students had a very limited understanding of how school relates to the real world and exhibited limited awareness of the skills and knowledge requisite for a successful transition from school to work.
Wentling and Waight conducted a telephone interview with 21 school-to-work partnership directors from 16 states across the United States in an effort to identify school-based school-to-work initiatives that were likely to assist and support the successful transition of minority youth into the workplace. The five most frequently cited initiatives offered by the study's participants included (in order) the design and implementation of an integrated and relevant curriculum, training of school personnel, mentoring for minority youth, career exploration and guidance for minority youth, and parent involvement.
Lent and Worthington addressed the cultural validity of career development theories in describing the school-to-work transition. Their article, in response to a set of criticisms lodged by D. Brown regarding the cultural sensitivity of career development theories when applied to school-to-work issues, highlighted the need for additional empirical data to determine whether career theories were culturally valid as a context for understanding the school-to-work transition.
Empirical Evaluations of the Efficacy of Career Interventions
Interventions designed to enhance self-efficacy and career confidence. Several studies published in 2000 evaluated the efficacy of career exploration and planning courses, workshops, and group counseling on the career self-efficacy and career confidence of participants. McWhirter, Rasheed, and Crothers investigated the influence of a 9-week career education class on the career decision-making self-efficacy, vocational skills self-efficacy, perceived educational barriers, outcome expectations, educational plans, and career expectations among a sample of 166 high school sophomores (97 women, 69 men). Participants in the course, relative to students in a control group, exhibited increases in career decision-making self-efficacy, increases in vocational skills self-efficacy, and short-term gains in outcome expectations.
Peng reported the results of research that compared two approaches to enhancing the career confidence of undecided women attending college. The 30 participants were randomly assigned to two counseling treatment groups (i.e., cognitive restructuring and career decision-making skills training) or the control group. Results indicated that the career confidence of the participants who received either one of the career interventions increased relative to the confidence levels of the participants in the control group. Results also indicated that the cognitive restructuring intervention was somewhat more effective than the career decision-making skills treatment in enhancing the career confidence of participants.
Sullivan and Mahalik evaluated the efficacy of a career group designed to increase career-related self-efficacy. The participants included 31 college women who participated in a 6-week treatment group and 30 women who participated in a control group. The intervention consisted of six 90-minute group counseling sessions based on the four sources of self-efficacy information (i.e., successful performance accomplishments, vicarious/observational learning, emotional arousal, and verbal persuasion/encouragement). Results indicated the efficacy of the treatment group (relative to the control group) in increasing participants' career decision-making self-efficacy, vocational exploration, and commitment to career choice.
Enhancing the career decision-making self-efficacy of Upward Bound students was the focus of a two-study investigation conducted by O'Brien and her colleagues (O'Brien et al.). Participants in the first study included 34 students (18 girls, 16 boys) enrolled in an Upward Bound Summer Institute, which included five 2-hour, small-group career exploration and planning sessions (of 8 or 9 students each). The researchers collected pretreatment data prior to the start of the program and post-treatment data during the final career exploration session. Analyses of the data revealed an effect size of .25 on participants' career decision-making self-efficacy. Two groups of high school students enrolled in Upward Bound Summer Institutes participated in the second study. One of the groups (n = 22) received the career exploration and planning treatment, whereas the other group (n = 26) did not. In this study, the treatment consisted of small-group sessions that lasted 50 minutes five times a week for 5 weeks. Results indi cated that students who received the career intervention exhibited significantly higher levels of career decision-making self-efficacy than did the students in the control group.
Career decision-making self-efficacy was also one of the outcome variables of interest to Krieshok, Ulven, Hecox, and Wettersten. They described two studies in which veterans seeking career services in a Veteran's Affairs Medical Center served as participants. The career intervention in the first study consisted of resume preparation in which participants worked with a counselor to identify individual strengths, past achievements, realistic possibilities, and self-potential. In the second study, vocational test feedback was also incorporated. Results from both studies demonstrated the positive effects of the career interventions on the self-knowledge and career decision-making self-efficacy of participants.
Two studies evaluated the efficacy of interventions designed to increase Realistic self-efficacy expectations and interests in college women. Betz and Schifano evaluated a 7-hour self-efficacy enhancing intervention that focused on building, repairing, and construction activities. Participants included 54 Introductory Psychology students, 24 of whom were randomly assigned to the treatment group and 30 of whom were randomly assigned to a control group. Results indicated significant increases in participants' Realistic self-efficacy expectations in comparison with the participants in the control group. In a related investigation, Dawes, Horan, and Hackett evaluated the effects of a 7-week technology education program designed to provide master experiences and, thereby, increase the technical/scientific self-efficacy and career interests of 169 seventh- and eighth-grade students. In the Dawes et al. study, however, treatment effects were not found.
Interventions designed to enhance other aspects of career development. Jurgens investigated the relative effects of a two-phase and a four-phase computer-based career planning intervention on measures of career certainty, career indecision, and client satisfaction among undecided college students. Both treatments included a 2-hour computerized assessment on the DISCOVER program and an individualized career-counseling session. The four-phase intervention also included a 2-hour workshop and a 2-hour professional forum. Results indicated that both interventions were effective in increasing career certainty and decreasing career indecision of participants.
Oweini and Abdo reported the results of an experimental investigation of the effects of a career-counseling workshop for Lebanese secondary school students. The 116 participants participated in a workshop that included self-exploration, completion of the SDS, and the preliminary selection of a college major. A post treatment questionnaire indicated the effectiveness of the workshop in providing students with helpful information about choosing a college major.
Jones, Sheffield, and Joyner compared the relative effects of administering and interpreting the results of the Career Key (Jones, 1993), the Self-Directed Search (Holland, 1985), and the Job-O Enhanced (Cutler, Ferry, Kauk, & Robinett, 1995) among 201 middle school students (57% girls, 43% boys). Participants rated the three assessments equally; however, students who used the Career Key compiled a substantially lengthier list of occupations of interest compared with the list generated by students who used the other two assessments.
Other Career Counseling Programs and Interventions
Several publications described career counseling programs and interventions that could be applied to various populations for a variety of purposes. Vann, Wessel, and Spisak discussed the development of a job-opportunity-evaluation matrix that clients might use to evaluate a single job opportunity or to compare multiple opportunities. Gfroerer discussed New Hampshire's efforts in developing and implementing a competency-based transcript (i.e., a career portfolio) for high school students. Lyon and Kirby described the usefulness of the career-planning essay in the career development of college students. And Brewington and Nassar-McMillan discussed career intervention strategies that counselors might use when working with older adults. The interventions recommended by Brewington and Nassar-McMillan included congruency- based and developmentally based interventions, as well as interventions based on career stages, retraining, and workplace adjustment.
Resources for the Professional Development of Career Counselors and Vocational Psychologists
As we engaged in our analysis of the career counseling and development literature in 2000, we encountered a number of publications that did not seem to belong in any of the other categories used for organizing the literature. However, many of these publications seemed appropriate to include in this review because of their relevance to the professional practice of career counseling; as such, they are included in this final section of our review.
An excellent resource for career development professionals who teach career counseling classes or facilitate career groups, or both, is the National Career Development Association's publication, Experiential Activities for Teaching Career Counseling Classes and for Facilitating Career Groups (Pope & Minor). This book is an excellent and refreshing resource for the instructor who is searching for ways to generate interest, enthusiasm, and learning among students and clientele enrolled in career exploration and planning courses or engaged in a career counseling group. The book is divided into eight sections that can be sampled in any order, depending on classroom or group needs. The eight sections are Introduction to Career Issues, Theory Application, Assessment and Values Clarification, Occupational Information Resources, Career Counseling, Identifying and Developing Services, Diversity, and Job Search. The more than 70 suggested activities--offered by dozens of career development professionals--range from on- the-spot discussions to reflective research to role-playing exercises.
Two other publications likely to be of interest to instructors of career counseling classes include a chapter by M. Peterson on the electronic delivery of career development university courses and a chapter by Walz and Reedy that describes the International Career Development Library, a reference-based database accessible to anyone interested in obtaining information associated with career counseling and career development publications.
Career development professionals of all types will benefit from the various articles included in a special joint issue of The Career Development Quarterly and the Journal of Employment counseling (Amundson & Niles) that focused on collaboration, partnership, policy, and practice in career development. Internationally renowned contributors to the special issue presented their perspectives on such issues as collaboration among professional organizations, governmental entities, and counselors (Herr), career development and public policy (Watts, a), the importance of international research collaboration (Stead & Harrington), international collaboration in translating career theory into practice (Sampson, Watts, Palmer, & Hughes), the linkages that exist within and across career development service providers (Plant), and methods of implementing a consultative process to assess unemployed clients' employability needs (Borgen). Also included in the special issue is the description of the North American Career Develo pment Partnership between the United States and Canada (B. L. Carlson, Goguen, Jarvis, & Lester) and a discussion of the emergence of career development facilitators as important players in the provision of career development services (Splete & Hoppin).
Several articles published in 2000 are especially relevant to counselors who provide career development services in particular environments or who work with particular clientele. Rehabilitation counselors will benefit from the summary of career counseling suggestions provided by Hawley, McMahon, Reid, and Shaw. School counselors will benefit from the results of an empirical study conducted by Barker and Satcher in which participants (all of whom were school counselors) perceived the need to enhance the workplace skills and career development competencies of all students. School counselors will also want to read an article by Perrone, Perrone, Chan, and Thomas in which the authors examined the self-efficacy and perceived importance of several career counseling competencies among school counselors.
Career counselors working in college or university career centers will appreciate the special issue of the Career Planning and Adult Development Journal (Beasley & Hinkelman) titled "Reinventing Career Centers." The special issue describes the career development service models at 15 colleges and universities as well as the role of e-networking for college students. Finally, counselors who typically or periodically provide career services to mandated clients, and those who engage in career counseling with armed services personnel transitioning from the armed services to civilian life, are sure to benefit from articles by Amundson and Borgen and by Gowan, Craft, and Zimmerman, respectively.
Career development professionals who are interested in engaging in career-related research will want to read an article by Oliver and Chartrand that addresses strategies for career assessment research on the Internet. Also likely to be of interest to researchers, and of interest to professors who work with graduate students engaging in research, is an article by Bieschke, in which she provided evidence supporting the factor structure of the Research Outcome Expectations Scale (Bieschke & Bishop, 1994). Likely to be of interest to all career counselors and vocational psychologists is an article by Pope, in which he presented an historical overview of the six stages of the development of career counseling in the United States. The article is an excellent resource for novice career counselors as well as for members of the profession who have never learned about the profession's historical bases. Career counselors and vocational psychologists of all types will most definitely want to read through S. D. Brown and Krane's chapter that is in the latest edition of the Handbook of Counseling Psychology (S. D. Brown & Lent). Holland (as interviewed by Feller, Honaker, & Zagzebski, 2001) recently referred to the chapter, which provides a rich summary of career intervention strategies and an agenda for future research in career counseling, as "a creative book chapter ... the best I've read about career interventions [with a] useful plan for new research" (pp. 214-215).
Two full-length books (not previously reviewed in this article) that are relevant to the practice of career development and counseling also appeared in 2000. N. Peterson and Gonzalez published The Role of Work in People's Lives: Applied Career Counseling and Vocational Psychology, a resource helpful to practicing career counselors as well as to those in counseling psychology and counselor education training programs. In addition to traditional topics that appear in full-length books on career counseling and development, Peterson and Gonzales's textbook includes chapters on values, ethics, and meanings in the workplace; family and systemic influences on occupational choices; and multicultural and diversity issues.
The other full-length book published in 2000 that is applicable to the practice of career development and counseling is The Future of Career (Collin & Young). This edited volume includes 18 chapters, organized into three major areas: changing contexts; new perspectives; and new directions for theory, practice, and policy. Contributing authors addressed topics such as renovating the psychology of careers for the twenty-first century (Savickas, b), adapting to the changing multicultural context of career (Leong & Hartung, a), and the new career and public policy (Watts, b).
Summary and Conclusions
As we began the process of gathering and reviewing articles published in 2000 that are relevant to the practice and research of career counseling and development, we acknowledged the challenges of summarizing such a wealth of knowledge and information into an article of this length. Nevertheless, the process of sifting through articles, book chapters, and books was both an enlightening and rewarding enterprise. As we reviewed the publications cited in this article--as well as the dozens that were not included due to space limitations--three major themes emerged.
First and foremost, we were pleasantly surprised by the variety of professional journals that contained at least one article during the year that addressed issues central to the practice of career counseling and vocational psychology. Among the articles included in the final version of this review, 37 journals representing a variety of subject areas are represented! This discovery served as a stark reminder to us that the primary journals in our field (e.g., The Career Development Quarterly, Journal of Career Assessment, Journal of Vocational Behavior, Journal of Career Development) contain only a portion of the literature base in career counseling and development each year. Furthermore, we were reminded of the important contributions made by international scholars and the large number of contributions that appeared in journals published outside of the United States.
The second theme that emerged from our review of the literature was the acknowledgement among career development researchers and practitioners alike that the Internet and other technological advances have direct relevance to the practice of career counseling. Rather than lagging behind in the application of technology in our profession, career counselors and vocational psychologists have forged ahead with the examination and consideration of various ways to harness the benefits of such technology in advancing our profession.
Third, much of the research and practice literature reviewed in this article addresses issues of diversity in the broadest sense. Numerous journal articles, book chapters, and books focused on the career development and counseling needs of specific populations (e.g., women, people with disabilities, international students) that have been traditionally underrepresented in career counseling and vocational psychology literature. It is our hope that such a trend will continue in the years to come as the meaning of career across diverse populations continues to evolve, and, along with that evolution, career counselors and vocational psychologists embrace the dynamic nature of our profession.
Darrell Anthony Luzzo is the president of Career Counseling & Consulting Services in Broomfield, Colorado. Marilyn Wright MacGregor is a private practitioner and adjunct faculty member at Mt. Hood Community College in Gresham, Oregon. Correspondence regarding this article should be sent to Darrell Anthony Luzzo, Career Counseling & consulting Services, 12655 Yates Street, Broomfield, CO 80020 (e-mail: email@example.com).
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|Author:||MacGregor, Marilyn Wright|
|Publication:||Career Development Quarterly|
|Date:||Dec 1, 2001|
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