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Power generation.

Power Generation

WAPDA and KESC are the two major agencies engaged in the generation and transmission of electricity in the country. Some electricity was also generated by other agencies such as Kanupp. The increase in total installed capacity during July 1990 to March 1990 is given in table -1.
 Table : Table-I
 Electricity Installed Capacity
 (MW)
Period WAPDA KESC Other Total
July-March 1990 6409 1108 137 7654
July-March 1991 7053 1318 137 8505
% Increase 10% 19% - 11.2%


Source: WAPDA & KESC
 Table-I
S. Name of Installed Generating Capacity (MW)
N. Power Station Hyde Thermal Total
1. Tarbela units 1.10 1750 - 1750
2. Mangla units 1-8 800 - 800
3. Warsak units 1-6 240 - 240
4. Small Hydels 107 - 107
5. Multan Steam - 260 260
6. Faisalabad Steam - 132 132
7. Faisalabad Gas Turbines - 200 200
8. Shahdara Gas Turbines - 85 85
9. Guddu Steam - 640 640
10. Combined cycle Guddu - 600 600
11. Sukkur Steam - 50 50
12. Hyderabad Steam - 43 43
13. Kotri Gas Turbines - 130 130
14. Quetta - 83 83
15. Kot Addu Comb. Turbines - 800 800
16. Jamshoro oil fired units 1&2 - 460 460
17. Taken over (REPCO & MESCO) - 29 29
18. Jamshoro oil fired unit 3 & 4 - 420 420
19. Kot Addu c.c. units 9&10 - 224 224
 Total:- 2897 4156 7053


Source: WAPDA

Water and Power Development

Authority (WAPDA):

The installed generating capacity of WAPDA power system comprising Northern, Upper, Lower Sindh and Quetta power markets was 6,409 MW (hydel 2,897 MW, thermal 3,512 MW) as of June 1990. This had increased to 7,.053 MW upto March 1991 due to the commissioning of oil fired unit 3 & 4 of 420 MW capacity at Jamshoro and 224 MW Kot Addu combined cycle unit 9 & 10. Unitwise installed generating capacity is given in table-II.

Energy Generation:

The target of energy generation for 1990-91 was 35,512 million kwh where as upto March 1991, 25,565 million kwh energy was generated. As may be seen from the table-III optimal production from hydel stations had been obtained. The overall mix of hydel and thermal generation had been maintained at about 54:46 to save foreign exchange required for import of oil.
 Table : Tablr-III
 Energy Generation
 (Million kwh)
 %tage %tage
 Hydel to total Thermal to total Total
1987-88 16689 61 10762 39 27451
1988-89 16974 59 11924 41 28898
1989-90 16925 54 14502 46 31427
1990-91 13902 54 11663 46 25565


(upto March) Source: WAPDA

Transmission of Power:

By March 1990 the total length of transmission lines was 22,385 km which increased to 22,729 km by June 1990. The length of lines increased to 22,993 km at the end of March 1991, as given in table below:-

Table : Length of Transmission lines
Voltage Route Length
 Kilometer
 (March 1990) (March 1991)
500 KV 1614 1932
220 KV 1744 1758
132 KV 11064 11216
 66 KV 7963 8087
Total: 22385 22993


Source: WAPDA

Growth in Consumers

The number of consumers has been increasing at a faster pace due to rapid urbanization and extension of electricity supply to unelectrified areas as well as villages. In 1959-60 the number of consumers was 0.31 million only which increased to 6.87 million in June 1990, at an average annual growth rate of 11 per cent, about 4 times the rate of increase in population. The number had increased to 7.15 million by February 1991. The target of new consumers for 1990-91 is 559,000 and by the end of June 1991 the number of consumers is expected to increase to 7,429,679. The progress from 1988-89 through March 1991 is given in the table-IV.

Table : Table-IV
 Consumers by Economic Group
Year General Industrial Agriculture Progressive
 Total
1988-89 6122256 153042 143869 6419167
1989-90 6562325 158800 149554 6870679
1990-91 6488239 161584 151888 7161711


(Upto Feb 91) Source: WAPDA

Use of Electricity by

Economic Groups

As may be seen from the table-V, the consumption by the productive sectors, i.e. industrial and agricultural slightly changed during the past years. However, the electricity used by households had increased from 19 per cent in 1980 to 32 per cent in 1990 as a result of greater use of electrical appliances and gadgets.

Table : Table-V Use of Electricity by Economic Groups (%tage of total Sales)
Categories 1988-89 1989-90 1990-91
 (July-March)
Domestic 31.57 31.71 31.74
Agricultural 19.82 20.75 21.43
Industrial 34.47 34.65 34.20
Commercial 4.86 4.58 4.32


Bulk Supply &
Pub Lighting 9.12 8.15 8.18
Traction 0.16 0.16 0.13


Source: WAPDA

Power Losses

The measures adopted by WAPDA to improve operational efficiency and management have reduced power and energy losses and increased energy sales and revenues.

Table : Annual WAPDA Power Losses
 Losses as percent
 of total generation
 including Consumption
Year in auxiliaries
1988-89 23.90
1989-90 23.25
1990-91 21.00


(Target) Source: WAPDA

Power Development Programme

The work on units 11 to 14 of 432 MW each (1728 MW), Mangla units 9 and 10 of 100 MW each (200 MW), oil fired units 1 to 10 3 of 210 MW each (630 MW) at Muzaffaragarh was progressing fast. Out of the three coal fired fluidized bed units at Lakhra units 1 and 2 of 50 MW each (100 MW), and combined cycle at Faisalabad and Kotri (80 MW) would also be completed. The work had also been started for installing 415 MW combined cycle power plant at Guddu. The commissioning of all these units would add 3153 MW capacity during the remaining two years i.e. 1991-92 and 1992-93 of the 7th Five Year Plan, and WAPDA's total installed generating capacity will increase to 10,206 MW by June 1993. The installation of central diesel power station of 17.5 MW under Phase-I at Pasni on Balochistan coast was progressing fast and is expected to be completed by end June 1991, and will give a big boost to economic activities in the coastal areas.

The schemes for installing oil fired unit-5 of 350 MW at Jamshoro and steam turbo units 11 to 12 of 200 MW with the already completed combustion turbines units 5 to 8 at Kot Addu have been approved. The work on these new projects would be started during 1991-92 and completed during the 8th Plan. WAPDA has also submitted a plan to instal combined cycle power plant units 13 to 15 of 300 MW capacity at Kot Addu. Extension of Lakhra coal fired units 4 to 5 of the same capacity as units 1 to 3 was under installation.

The cornerstone of long term power development plan was to utilize the available as well as economically exploitable hydel potential. This had all the more become essential for achieving optimal self-reliance under the prevailing unpredictable oil supplies from the Gulf countries. The work on Chashma low head project of 270 MW will be undertaken in 1991, of which 135 MW will be developed under Phase-I. Low head power plants of 144 and 108 MW each at Jinnah and Taunsa barrages will also be constructed. If approved by Government, the proposed Kalabagh Dam having 2,400 MW capacity will be built by 1998. Its ultimate capacity will be 3,600 MW. With impounding at Kalabagh, and the two reservoirs at Tarbela and Kalabagh operated in conjunction, units 15 to 17 of 400 MW capacity, each 1,200 MW, will be installed at Tarbela. The feasibility report of Ghazi Garaiala project with estimated potential of 1,200 MW, a site downstream of Tarbela near Attock, is under preparation by joint venture consultants of Pakistan UK/USA with UNDP financing. The investigations etc. of Basha (4,500 MW) upstream of Indus with World Bank assistance would be undertaken. Dasu (5,500 MW) and Thakot (2,400 MW) have also been identified as prospective sites for development.

The scarce energy sources in the country coupled with limited financial resources of the Government are too inadequate to meet the high capital intensive power projects. In order to overcome these constraints, WAPDA's programme will be supplemented by the private sector. The projects under the private sector are 1,292 WM oil fired plant on the Balochistan coast by Saudi-British Company, 300 MW oil fired station at Port Bin Qasim by Fauji Foundation, 400 MW and 100 MW combined cycle power plants based on low calorific gas available at Uch and Nandpur-Panjpir near Multan respectively. The feasibility prepared by Canadian - USA consultants has indicated a complex of 3,600 MW based on imported coal. The work on first two units of 600 MW each is envisaged to be started during the 7th Plan. Besides, a Pakistan-Russian joint venture company has proposed four 210 MW dual fired oil/gas units to be installed at Jamshoro for which feasibility study will be prepared. WAPDA may also be an equity partner in this proposed project.

Village Electrification: The village/rural electrification is an integral programme to uplift the socio-economic living standards and productive capacity of 70 per cent of the population living in the villages. During 1989-90, the number of villages electrified including Federally Administered Tribal Areas was 3,096. During the review period, 2240 villages have been supplied with electricity. The number of villages electrified upto March 1991 has increased to 35,328.

Table : Annual Targets and Achievements
 of Villages Electrified
 Realiza Progressive
 tion (Incl.
Year Targets FATA) Total
1988-89 2771 2301 29992
1989-90 2698 3096 33088
1990-91 1234 2240 35328


(Upto March 91) Source: WAPDA

Karachi Electric Supply

Corporation (KESC)

The Karachi Electric Supply Corporation, a private limited company, is listed with the Stock Exchange since 1913. KESC is engaged in generation, transmission & distribution of power in its licensed area of Karachi Division and Uthal and Bela of Balochistan province. The generation of electricity from KESC is fully thermal and the installed effective capacity station wise is given in the table in the Table-VII.

Table : Table-VII
 July 90-March 91 Apr-June 91 Total Jul-June
 (Actual) (Estimated) (1990-91)
 GWH GWH GWH
KESC Generation 4439.85 1906.96 6346.81


Power Purchased:
Kannupp 241.36 135.0 376.36
WAPDA 150.71 - 150.71
PASMIC 168.05 - 168.05
Total:- 560.12 135.0 695.12


Source: KESC

Generation & Power Purchased: The details of power generation and Purchase of electricity from outside agencies are given in table-VI.

Table : Table-VI
 Capacity
Generation Stations Installed Effective
 (MW) (MW)
1. Steam Station W/W 66 50
2. Korangi Therma 382 360
3. Site Gas Turbine 125 100
4. Korangi Gas Turbine 100 80


5. Bin Qasim Thermal

Power Station Units 1&2 420 420

6. BQPS Unit-5
(Test/Commn.) 210 210
7. Dua Fue 15 10
Total:- 1318 1230


Source: KESC

On Going Projects

210 MW Bin Qasim Thermal Power Station Unit-3: It is under restoration work for the defects observed during trial operation. 210 MW, Bin Qasim Thermal Power Station Unit-4: The test on commissioning is in advance trial stage. 210 MW, Bin Qasim Thermal Power Station Unit-5: The work on the project is progressing very satisfactorily. First synchronization was carried out in January 1991. The unit is running on testing and commissioning at present.

Future Projects

1. 210 MW Bin Qasim Thermal Power Station Extension Unit-6, including Associated 220 KV Transmission facilities: It envisages installation of a 210 MW unit at Bin Qasim site and construction of 36 KV, two 220 KV overhead transmission lines from Bin Qasim Power Station to Korangi West Grid Station. The project will start shortly.

2. Two 210 MW, West Wharf Thermal Power Station, including Associated 220 KV Transmission facilities: The project envisages installation of two units of 210 MW capacity each. The project also includes construction of two 220 KV overhead transmission lines from West Wharf Station to Baldia Grid Station. The main object of these projects is to install and provide additional generating capacity in the KESC system to meet general load growth of Karachi division, part of Thatta district and industrial complexes in Lasbela, Balochistan.
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Title Annotation:generation and transmission of electricity in Pakistan; Power Generation and Transmission
Publication:Economic Review
Date:Jun 1, 1991
Words:2001
Previous Article:First year of OGDC's self-financing.
Next Article:New power projects.
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