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Powder adsorption characteristics of antibacterial bamboo charcoal during enhancing activity against bacteria transmit.

Bacteria, which were a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms, were among the first life forms to appear on Earth, and were present in most of its habitats. Bacteria inhabited water, soil, radioactive waste, acidic hot springs, and the deep portions of Earth's crust (1). Bacteria also lived in symbiotic and parasitic relationships with animals and plants. There were typically 40 million bacterial cells in a gram of soil, and a million bacterial cells in a milliliter of fresh water. Bacteria were vital in recycling nutrients, with many stages in nutrient cycles dependent on these organisms. Most bacteria hadn't yet been characterized, and only about half of the phyla of bacteria have species that could be grown in the laboratory (2). There were about 10 times as many bacterial cells in the human flora as there were human cells in the body, with the largest number of the human flora being in the gut flora, and a large number on the skin (3). The vast majority of bacteria in body were rendered harmless by the protective effects of immune system, and some are beneficial. However, several species of bacteria were pathogenic and cause infectious diseases, including cholera, anthrax, leprosy, syphilis, and bubonic plague. The most common fatal bacterial diseases were respiratory infections, with tuberculosis alone killing about 2,000,000 people per year, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa (4). Bacteria often floated in mid air. If bacteria was inhaled in vivo, it could cause diseases.

Bamboo charcoal was created by heating bamboo at temperatures of600-900[degrees]C and then the charcoal itself was processed and mixed in with fabrics as part of the growing field of nanotechnology (5-16). Bamboo charcoal had the many positive qualities (5-7). The fabric inhibited bacterial metabolism causing fewer allergic skin reactions than other fibers sterilized with antimicrobial agents. Because the trait was due to the highly porous structure of the bamboo fabric, it could absorb sulfur-based compounds, nitrogen-based compounds and so on (6-12). What's more, bamboo charcoal, which contained potassium, calcium and other minerals, could have adsorption and filtration of extractives, oil, other matters (17-28). That was beneficial for people's health. However, adsorption properties of bamboo charcoal was not strong. Therefore, in order to enhanced adsorption and antibacterial effect, bamboo charcoal were pretreated by two silt and were analyzed by FT-IR.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Bamboo charcoal was purchased from the market. The industrial silt (IS) was the waste water tank from the Industrial Park. The vital silt (VS) was the waste water tank in rural areas. IS and VS were dried and crushed into powder.

Adsorption

Two silt powder were weighed 25g, respectively. These powder and 30g bamboo charcoal were put into the closed vessel, respectively. It was blasted in closed vessel for 0.5h, 1h, 1.5h, 2h, 2.5h, 3h, 3.5h, 4h, 4.5h, 5h, respectively. Each bamboo charcoal was removed, dried, weighed, respectively.

FT-IR spectra

FT-IR spectra of the above samples were obtained using a Thermo Scientific Nicolet iN10 FT-IR microscope as previously (29-32).

Result and Analysis

Based on the above test, the result of adsorption were obtained and listed in Table 1. SC Effect

Based on Table 1, IS's adsorption capacity was 1.12 g/100g, 0.54 g/100g, 0.43 g/100g, 0.31 g/ 100g, 0.3 g/100g, 0.76 g/100g, 0.78 g/100g, 1.02 g/ 100g, 0.98 g/100g, 0.99 g/100g; VS's adsorption capacity was 0.55 g/100g, 0.38 g/100g, 0.52 g/100g, 0.39 g/100g, 1.57 g/100g, 0.43 g/100g, 1.45 g/100g, 0.76 g/100g, 1.01 g/100g, 1.16 g/100g for blast time of 0.5h, 1h, 1.5h, 2h, 2.5h, 3h, 3.5h, 4h, 4.5h, 5h, respectively. It showed that adsorption capacity changed at regularity difference. It might be because rapid stirring leaded to a small amount of silt on the surface of bamboo charcoal. The optimal blast time were 2.5hof VS, and 0.5h of IS.

FT-IR analysis

FT-IR spectra were recorded to investigate the functional groups of bamboo charcoal during adsorption of IS and VS. Spectra of the samples were shown in supporting information Figure 1. In the spectrum of adsorption, the S-S stretch, [H.sub.2]O stretch, O H stretch, C=O or C=C stretch, N-O or C=C stretch were observed at 3850 [cm.sup.1], 3730 [cm.sup.1], 3430 [cm.sup.1], 1660 [cm.sup.1], 1520 [cm.sup.1], respectively(listed in Table 2) [30-34]. Comprehensive comparison of the transmissivity of the peaks of VS and IS (Table 2), for the peak at 1520 [cm.sup.-1], the transmissivity of IS were lower for 0. 5h, 1h, 1.5h, 2h, and 4h; for the peak at 1660 [cm.sup.-1], the transmissivity of IS were lower for 1h, 2h, 4h and 5h; for the peak at 3430 [cm.sup.-1], the transmissivity of IS were lower for 0.5h, 1.5h, 4.5h, and 4h; for the peak at 3730 [cm.sup.-1], the transmissivity of IS were lower for 0.5h, 1h, 2h, 2.5h, and 4h; for the peak at 1520cm 1, the transmissivity of IS were lower for 0.5h, 1h, 2h, and 4h. For FT-IR spectra of IS, the transmissivity of the peaks at 3850 [cm.sup.1], 3730 [cm.sup.1], 1660 [cm.sup.1], and 1520[cm.sup.1] achieved the maximum for 3.0h, and the transmissivity of the peaks at 3430 [cm.sup.1] achieved the maximum for 1.0h. For FT-IR spectra of VS, the transmissivity of the peaks at 3850 [cm.sup.1], 3730 [cm.sup.1], 1660 [cm.sup.1], and 1520[cm.sup.1] achieved the maximum for 1.0h, and the transmissivity of the peaks at 3430[cm.sup.1] achieved the maximum for 4.5h.

VS's and IS's adsorption capacity were different for blast time of 0.5h, 1h, 1.5h, 2h, 2.5h, 3h, 3.5h, 4h, 4.5h, 5h, respectively. The optimal blast time were 2.5hof VS, and 0.5h of IS.

FT-IR spectra showed that bamboo charcoal had the five characteristic absorption band. And the S-S stretch, [H.sub.2]O stretch, O H stretch, C=O or C=C stretch, N-O or C=C stretch were observed at 3850 [cm.sup.1], 3730 [cm.sup.1], 3430 [cm.sup.1], 1660 cm 1, 1520 [cm.sup.1], respectively. For FT-IR spectra of IS, the transmissivity of the peaks at 3850 [cm.sup.1], 3730 [cm.sup.1], 1660 [cm.sup.1], and 1520 [cm.sup.1] achieved the maximum for 3.0h, and the transmissivity of the peaks at 3430 [cm.sup.1] achieved the maximum for 1.0h. For FT-IR spectra of VS, the transmissivity of the peaks at 3850 [cm.sup.1], 3730 [cm.sup.1], 1660 [cm.sup.1], and 1520[cm.sup.1] achieved the maximum for 1.0h, and the transmissivity of the peaks at 3430[cm.sup.1] achieved the maximum for 4.5h.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

This work was financially supported by the National 948 Plan (2014-4-38), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31170532).

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Qingzhi Ma [1] (#), Shengbo Ge [1] (#), Xun Yan [1], Dangquan Zhang [1] *, Yuzo Furuta [2] * and Heping Deng [1] *

[1] School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha 410004, China.

[2] Laboratory of Biomaterials Science, Kyoto Prefectural University, Kyoto, Japan.

(Received: 10 May 2015; accepted: 10 July 2015)

* To whom all correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: csfucyc@163.com

Table 1. Adsorption results

Blast     0.5     1     1.5     2     2.5
time[h]

IS        1.12   0.54   0.43   0.31   0.3
VS        0.55   0.38   0.52   0.39   1.57

Blast      3     3.5     4     4.5     5
time[h]

IS        0.76   0.78   1.02   0.98   0.99
VS        0.43   1.45   0.76   1.01   1.16

Table 2. Group attribution of bamboo charcoal during adsorption
of VS and IS (%)

Kind       Peak                   Adsorption time (%)
       ([cm.sup.-1])

                       0.5    1.0    1.5    2.0    2.5    3.0

IS         1520        78.1   79.6   83.2   82.1   81.9   85.8
           1660        81.7   82.6   84.6   84.2   84.2   85.7
           3430        71.7   79.2   75.6   77.0   76.2   77.6
           3730        75.2   79.3   81.2   79.3   77.6   82.9
           3850        78.5   81.9   83.2   81.8   80.4   83.7
VS         1520        79.3   91.5   83.3   86.0   79.5   83.5
           1660        81.2   89.8   84.5   85.2   81.2   84.2
           3430        74.9   77.3   78.3   74.6   73.0   77.2
           3730        77.8   89.7   80.6   82.4   78.0   79.3
           3850        78.8   89.5   80.9   83.0   79.1   80.1

Kind       Peak               Adsorption time (%)     Group
       ([cm.sup.-1])

                       3.5    4.0    4.5    5.0

IS         1520        83.8   77.9   82.7   81.4   N-O or C=C
           1660        84.7   79.6   84.1   82.7   C=O or C=C
           3430        78.2   69.1   78.1   77.7   OH stretch
           3730        80.0   77.3   80.4   78.6   [H.sub.2]O
           3850        80.8   78.5   81.6   79.5   S-S stretch
VS         1520        79.5   78.7   81.3   81.4   N-O or C=C
           1660        81.5   81.0   83.0   82.9   C=O or C=C
           3430        74.8   73.8   78.9   75.8   OH stretch
           3730        78.3   77.8   79.7   77.8   [H.sub.2]O
           3850        79.4   78.9   80.6   79.0   S-S stretch
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Author:Ma, Qingzhi; Ge, Shengbo; Yan, Xun; Zhang, Dangquan; Furuta, Yuzo; Deng, Heping
Publication:Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology
Article Type:Report
Date:Sep 1, 2015
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