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Potential impact on biodiversity in Kwale's forest reserve by power plant establishments.


Nigeria has a rich variety of natural forest ranging from open vegetation and savanna forests of northern dry climate, to the tropical moist forest (TMF) of the south with riparian forest along the major rivers (Niger and Benue). Approximately eleven percent of the total land area of the country is covered by forest, comprising eighty percent savanna and twenty percent high forest [1]. The rain forest belt, where Kwale forest can be found is remarkable in spite of its relatively small area; it contains more mammalian species than any other forest vegetation belt in Nigeria [2]. This is attributed to its structural complexity, which allow for large number of niches and its ability to produce abundant food for inhabitants [2].

Generally, the ecosystem in Kwale forest is dominated by evergreen plants, tall shrubs which belong to several unrelated families that share common habitat preferences, physiognomy (that is the structural arrangement of the surface area of land and the vegetation cover), functional and structural adaptations. Vast area of this wetland is mostly affected by activities resulting from decisions, which either ignored the potential economic value of the resources or also placed a significantly higher value on the alternative land use. The current trend of uncontrolled resource exploitation has greatly fragmented and destroyed the natural rain forest ecosystem. Much of the rain forest in the eastern part of the country has been destroyed due to various activities of resource exploitation. Therefore, mammals adapted in the forest have coevolved with the system over the years and destruction or modifications of the forest have therefore profoundly threatened their continued existence [3].

The Niger Delta is one of the largest wetlands covering over 20,000 [km.sup.2] and Kwale forest constitutes a significant part of it. Most of the conservation areas at this zone are not gazetted like Kwale forest; therefore the ecozones have been fragmented by oil exploitation, industrial activities and other eco-development projects. This zone is one of the highest conservation priorities on the West Coast of Africa because it holds a larger number of threatened and endangered species, particularly mammals that are economically and scientifically valuable [2].

Developmental project often has an adverse impact on the environment, such as environmental pollution and degradation that are intensified by both human disturbances (anthropogenic activities) and natural occurrences (adverse climatic conditions) [4]. Activities like road construction, mineral and natural resources exploitation, like oil and gas exploitation and unsustainable agricultural practices have affected the environment [5]. In order to effectively protect, sustain and manage the environment, alongside development and advancement, the concept of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is necessary. "Environmental Impact Assessment can be defined as: The systematic process of evaluating the probable consequences of a proposed action during decision-making processes where serious environmental damage can be minimized or even avoided" [6]. Many developmental activities such as damming of rivers, construction of dual carriage roads, and other human-economic activities have been carried out without proper EIA [5]. The effects of these on wildlife species and other conservation areas cannot be over emphasized, the multiplier effect are mostly noticeable at the feeder streams or rivers flowing in and out the charnels that are blocked and the wetlands get dried up.

The project of Independent Power Plant (IPP) is a national development project that requires power generation of 450 MW (Megawatt) from the gas effluent of Nigeria Agip Oil Company (NAOC) to the national electric grid. The recycling plant is located at Kwale forest, and this required extension of overhead electrical cable to Onitsha, which is about 52km away. However, the ecosystem and general natural inhabitants of the Kwale forest is bound to change in physiognomy, functional and structural adaptation. Such a vast forest area is mostly affected and flora/fauna resources indigenous to the area are not as adaptable as man, therefore an EIA study is required. As a tool for decision-making, the value of EIA will be realized if there is timely bridge in gap of communications between the individual conducting the assessment and those planning a proposed project, there by solved the problem of writing massive technical document [7].


Kwale forest situated in the old Bendel State, South eastern part of the present Delta state, and is one of the gazetted forest reserves in Nigeria since 1960's. It has land area of 3[km.sup.2] with seven adjoining communities namely: Okpai, Umu-Uzor, Ugbome, Nkwor, Amama, Asah and Opia. The major stakeholder to the forest reserve is Opai clan (Fig. 1, Map of the site). The topography is generally flat with depression; hence the area is characterized with wetland flood plain with terrestrial habitat submerged in most part of the year [8]. The Independent Power Plant (IPP) of 450 megawatts required land area of 500[m.sup.2] of the Kwale forest, while the power line transmission for over-head electrical cable to Onitsha extends for 52km from the project site.


The present study is mainly an eco-development project, which is defined as an ecologically sound development strategy that emphasizes the need for harmonizing economic, social and environmental concerns in the process of development [9]. This, therefore, requires on-the-spot assessment of the general environment, which includes the flora and fauna evaluation. Five transects of five kilometers each were established, with an expected segment of five meters width. At each reference point (5m interval), quadrants of 5[m.sup.2] were laid randomly to evaluate all plant species as described and identified [10]. Both indirect and direct sampling methods were adopted for rapid assessment of fauna that is mammals and aves [11]. This study covered both dry and wet season of the year 2003. The forest reserve was assessed by using preference index method [12]:

D = (r - p)/r + p - 2rp

Where r is the proportional use of habitat by the species and p is the proportion of forest environment. The method took into consideration habitat use, condition, and information on the species abundance and utilization rate. Other information is obtained through structured questionnaire (administered by individual by knowledge 'Ik' model) to the inhabitants at the sites. The current price of wild animals (bush meats) was established, average number of each species were used to determine current market price.

Tasks carried out to obtain wildlife data were:

a) Reconnaissance survey of the study site (the first day). By establishing ten transect lines and transect survey of all wild species (to determine species status)

b) Wildlife Socio- Economic study: To determine human-wildlife conflicts, and also current market values of wild animals in that area through questionnaire administration.

The above were achieved through the following:

(i) Assessing the composition of flora and fauna diversities within the area;

(ii) Assessing the impact of forest activities in terms of the anthropogenic activities within the area.

(iii) Proffering mitigation measures (recommendations) towards the conservation of natural resources (wildlife) and establishment of IPP at the Forest ecosystem and the anthropogenic importance of the area to human inhabitants at the site.

The materials used are as follows: recording-ecological sheet, binoculars, Geographic Positioning System (GPS), forest guide (native of the area), measuring tape (500-1000m rule), camera and films, ecological map of the area.

The research work is purely based on impact of the proposed project on the wild fauna, thereby predicting likely environmental impact as well as effect on the species composition at the site, and evaluating their status and possible mitigation measure to the policy makers.


In total there are 47 mammalian species, 7 reptilians and 3 amphibians encountered. Every species and sub-species at the forest ecosystem were evaluated according to the classification by IUCN [13]. Most of these species are threatened, endangered, vulnerable and extinct species (Table 1).

Species like bush back Tragelaphus scriptus, tree squirrel Funiscinrus pyrrhopus, patas monkey Cercopithecus patas, and tree hyrax Dendrohyrax arborea were populous and directly sighted (absolute density). While foot print (relative density) of species like leopard Panthera pardus, fox Vulpas palluda, forest otter Aonyx carpensis and genet cat Civerra civetta were prominent along the stream bank of river Niger closer to Beneku - water side settlement. The reptiles such as monitor lizard Veranus niloticus, tree pangolin Manis tricuspis and water moccasin Ancistrodon piscivoruos, were directly sighted.

Bird populations were characteristically distributed over the villages and farmlands (19 species), forest area (49 species), river bank and beaches (14 species) as shown in table 2. African Black kite Milvus migrans and pied hornbill Tochus nasutus are the most abundant, while carmelite sunbird Nectarina spp, long tail glossy starling Lamprotornis caudatus, slender billed bulbul Andropardus virens and abyssinian roller Coracias abyssinica were sighted in the forest and beaches. A rare bird species Abdim's stock Ciconia abdinni an intra-African migrant, were sighted during dry season, which indicated roosting period, because the species only migrate to northern part of the country indicating beginning of wet season.

The physiognomy of the natural high forest with component trees differentiated the site (Kwale forest) as tropical rainforest. Vegetation is endowed with highest stratum, the upper canopy composed of emergent trees such as: Treculia africana, Berlinia auriculata, Chrysophylium albidum and Cynometra megtalophylla. The prominent tree species are Landolphia oweriensis, Glyphaea brevis, Cynometra megalophylla, Ceiba pentandra and Irvingia gabonensis (Table 3). The under-storey layer was dominated by Napoloon vogelli, strychnos spinosa, Lindacleeria dentata and Diospyros species, and the climbers include Paulina pinnata and combretum smeathmannii. The species preferences for hunting by the people were primate (monkeys, baboon and galagos), giant rat, cane rat and other antelopes (bush buck, duikers).

The identified purpose of hunting apart from their utilization for medicinal purposes was for protein source such as bush meat. The market price of bush meats is not cheaper when compared with prices of conventional meats such as beef, pork, fish and chicken; despite this bush meat is still favored by the inhabitants. The percentage preference for hunting of primate, rodent, antelope and avifauna are 55%, 20%, 20%, 5%, respectively (Table 4); this indicated relishes of the bush-meat. The preference for consumption of meat indicated that bush meat is mostly preferred (33.5%) by the inhabitants, compared to other conventional sources such as beef, pork, fish, and chicken with 20.6%, 10.5%, 25.6% and 10.0%, respectively (Table 5).


Most of the species of flora and fauna in Kwale forest reserve and the Okpai ecosystem (transit pipeline to Onitsha) are classified as conservation-important species (threatened, endangered or rare) by the IUCN 1996 category. The extent of development that utilizes these natural resources (.that is eco-development) is determined by many economic, social and political factors, which are external to its primary need and objective [14].

The need of Kwale Forest Reserve for Independent Power Plant generation (IPP) may contribute significantly to the continuous loss of natural forest as well as stock of indigenous wildlife species in the wetland eco-zone. Most of the pscivorous bird species are specialized brooders, either using the area for breeding, incubating and for feeding on fruiting trees; mammals, on the other hand, are procreating on balanced rate of relationship (predator / prey relationship). Once this habitat is tampered with, they will find it extremely difficult to adapt and adjust to disturb environment because the wild animals are climax species. Nature has provided wildlife with certain forms of habitats [15]. Due to this, wildlife is not as adaptable as man to new or disturbed environments. It can, however, be confirmed that land-use decisions will be highly influenced by economic criteria of this nature, and government decision on the position of natural resources (flora and fauna) given the public pattern of land use will be related to economics growth [16].


In conclusion, incompatible land uses are presently spreading into strongholds of wild animals and forest reserves; therefore the land use plans for the remaining land in the tropical region should assume a degree of compatibility between all the competing uses, such as wildlife, forest reserve, agriculture, oil exploitation and animal husbandry [17]. Utilization of wild animals for bush-meats is an alternative source of protein for the people in the area, while numbers of economic trees and fruits bearing tree species are also in abundance in the reserve due to its secondary rainforest nature and thicket of secondary plant succession. Eighty percent of the people in southern Nigeria depended on bush meat as source of protein [11]. Destruction of this natural habitat will render specialized species homeless thus endangering them or causing them to migrate. To the people in rural area, wild animals are so vital for food, medicine, traditional and cultural uses that adequate consideration must be given to maintain natural habitat when planning for rural development projects (ecodevelopment) [15].

Developmental projects in Nigeria are proposed and executed on a daily basis; many of these projects involve large-scale vegetation cover removal and ecosystem damage. Many of these projects did not have proper Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) studies before implementation. The exploitation of both renewable and non renewable resources over the past decades has created problems in the environment, which has further adversely affected the socio-economic development of the nation.


[1.] Happold DCD The Mammal of Nigeria. 1st Edition. Clarendon Press. Oxford. 1987: 8-17.

[2.] Amubode FO Comparative Assessment of Wildlife species Diversity in Stubbs Creeks and Taylor Creek Forest Reserve, Southern-Eastern Nigeria. In Obot, E; and Barker, J, Eds 1996 Essential Partnership; The Forest and the people. 1996: 150-155.

[3.] Akpata TVI and DUU Okali Nigerian Wetlands Eds. The Nigerian Man and Biosphere National Committee. 1990. Conference held at Fed. Secretariat Rivers State. 1990: 27-29 August, 1986.

[4.] Fagbeja MA Mapping the Incidences of chronic Bronchitis and Bronchopnenmonia and verification of High Risk Areas Using GIS. Unpublished. M. Sc. Dissertation. Dept. of Geography University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. 2001.

[5.] Sanwo SK and AO Arimoro Land Use Conflict and Integrated forest Management in Mountain Areas: Conservation Strategies for Mountain Forests in Africa. Ecological and Economic Benefits of Mountain Forests Conference. Held at Innsbrack, Austria: 2002 Sept. 15-18, 2002.

[6.] Erickson PA A Practical Guide to Environmental Impact Assessment. Academic Press 1st Ed. 1994: 30-32.

[7.] Olokesusi A The Environmental Assessment Process, initiation and making it work for Nigeria. Proceeding of the NNPC Seminar on Petroleum Industry and the Environment. NNPC Lagos1994 pp34-54.8. Adebisi L. A. Flora Composition of the Delta Area in Nigeria, as recorded in Biodiversity survey of Nigeria. 2004. pp 45.

[8.] Jackman A and S Bell Quantitative measurement of food selection. Oecologia 14, As in the Conservation Handbook; Research Management and Policy, by William Sutherland. 1979: 413-417.

[9.] Keay RWJ An outline of Nigerian Vegetation. 3rd ed., Federal Government Printer, Lagos, Nigeria. 1973.

[10.] Keay RWJ, Onochie CFA and DP Stanfield (1960- 64) Nigerian Trees. Vols. 1&2. Federal Department of Forest Research, Ibadan, Nigeria. 1959.

[11.] Ajayi SS Wildlife Survey of Bonny Island and GTS Route. Report submitted to Ecosphere Nigeria Ltd. For NLNG plus Project No: E035 (NLNG Series 04). 2001; 23-28.

[12.] Jacob P Quantitative measurement of food selection. Oecologia 14, pp 413-417. As in the Conservation Handbook; Research Management and Policy, by William J. Sutherland. 1974: 34-37.

[13.] IUCN. International Union for Conservation of National Resources. (Flora and Fauna) Red Data Book, Ladder Presentation. U.K. 1996.

[14.] Jim BB Global Forest Resources: History and Dynamics. In Julian Evans (2000) The Forest Handbook 1st Ed. 2000. Vol. 1. 3-21.

[15.] Adeola MO Management Policy and Administration of Wildlife Resources in Nigeria. M. Sc. Thesis, Colorado. 89 pages FAN 1991 Annual proceeding. 1993.

[16.] Myers N A Farewell to Africa, Inter. Wildlife II. 1981; (6) 36-46.

[17.] Lusigi WJ Future Directions for the Afro-tropical Realm. Proceedings of the Wild Congress on National Parks, Bali, Indonesia, 11 - 22 October. 1982: 137-146.

Lameed GA (1) *

* Corresponding author email: and/or

(1) Senior Lecturer, Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Management, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Ibadan, Ibadan. Nigeria
Table 1: Wildlife species population structure in study
location of Kwale Forest Reserve

CLASS     ORDER            FAMILY               COMMON NAME

MAMMALIA  Carnivora        Viverridae           March mongoose
                           Felidae              Forest Gene
                           Mustelidae           Palm civet Serval
                                                Cape Clawless Otter
          Carnivora        Carnidae             Fox
                           Mustelidae           Spotted necked otter
          Artiodactyla                          Red River--hog
                           Hippopotamu          Hippopotamus
                                                African buffalo
                                                Blue duker
          Primate          Galagidae            Dwarf Galago
                           Cercopithedidae      Mona monkey
                                                Pata monkey
Rodentia                   Sciuridae            Redless Tree-
                                                Giant forest-
                           Cricetidae           Squirrel
                                                Gambian Giant-rat.
                                                Cane rat
                           Muridae              Black rat
                                                Shaggy rat
                                                Swamp rat
                                                Striped mouse
          Insectivora      Soricidae
                                                Nigerian Musk shew
          Hyracoidea       Procavidae           Black Giant shrew
          Pholidota        Manidae              Western Tree-hyrax
REPTILIA  Reptila                               Nile croccodilus
                                                Monitor lizard
                                                Water moccasin
                                                Rock python
                                                Green mamba
                                                Black cobra

ORDER                            STATUS     IDENTIFICATION    NUMBER

MAMMALIA  Atilax paludinosus       T              F             1
          Vivvera civetta          E              F             2
          Genetta poensis          T             F.A            1
          Nandinia biotata         T              I             --
          Felis serval             E              I             --
          Panthera pardus          E             I.F            1
          Aonyx capensis           E              I             --
          Vulpes palluda           T              A             2
          Lutra maculicolis        T              F             1
          Phaecechoerus                          F.A            15
          Potamocherus                           F.A            10
                                   T             A.I            1
          Syncerus caffer
          Cephalophus              T              I             --
          Kobus kob                E              I             --
          Tragelaphus              T              F             6
                                   T              F             4
                                   T             F.A.           9
          Galagoides               E              S             1.
          Cercopithecus mona       E              C             2.
          Erythrocebus patas       T              C             3

          Cercopithecus            E              C             5
Rodentia  Funisciurus              T             A.C.           5
                                                 A.C.           5
          Protexerus               T             S.I.           8
                                   T             S.I.           3
          Thryonomys               T             I.A.           1
          Rattus rattus            T              I             --
          Dasymys incomtus         T             D.I.           4
          Malacomys Edwards        E              I.            --
          Hybomys vittatus         T
          Crocidura                V              I             --
          Crocidura odorata        V              I             --
          Dendrohyrax              T              C.            11
          Manis tricuspis          E              S.            2
REPTILIA  Croccodilus              T             I.A.           1
          Veranus niloticus        T              S             1
                                   T              S             1
          Python sebae             E              I             --
          Dendrospis viridis       T              I             --
                                   T              A             1
          Kinixys erosa            T              I             --

Key: F = footprint; C = Call, S = Direct sighting,
D = Droppings, A = Activity sites, I = Information (interview)
Threatened = T, Endangered = E, Vulnerable = V, Extinct = Ex

Table 2: Distribution of avifauna at the study locations

Table 2A. Aves (birds) in the Kwale/Okpai localities

COMMON NAMES                        SCIENTIFIC NAME

1. African Black kite               Milvus migrans
2. Stand Night jar                  Macrodipteryx longipemix
3. Black-belied Coucal              Centropus grillii.
4. Little African Swift             Apus affinis
5. Yellow fronted canary            Sevinus mozambicus
6. Yellow wagtail                   Motocilla flava
7. Collard sunbird                  Nectarinia cuprea
8. Pintailed Whydah                 Vidua macroura
9. Bronze Mannikin                  Lunchura cucullata
10. Senegal coucal                  Centropus senegalensis
11. Tambourine Dove                 Turtur tympanistria
12. Laughing Dove                   Prinia subflava
13. West African Thrush             Corvus albus
14. West African Prinia             Pycronotus barbatus
15. African Pied crow               Merops albecollis
16. Common bulbul                   Erycronotus barbatus
17. White throated Bee-eater        Merops albecollis
18. Broad Bill Roller               Erystomus glancurus
19. Village Weaver Bird             Placeus cucullatus

Table 2: Distribution of avifauna at the study locations

Table 2B. Aves (birds) in the River Niger Banks, Beaches

COMMON NAMES                        SCIENTIFIC NAME

1. Abdim's Stock                    Ciconia abdimii
2. West African rive Eagle          Haliaetus vocifera
3. Pied Kingfisher                  Ceryle rudis
4. Swam Palm bulbul                 Thescelecichla leacoplearms
5. Pygmy kingfisher                 Ceyx Picta
6. Common vulture                   Neophron monachus
7. Whistling Teal                   Dendrocygna viduata
8. Splendid sunbird                 Nectarina coccinigaster
9. Great White Egret                Ardeola ibis
10. Hammerkop                       Scopus umbrella
11. Little African Swift            Apus affinis
12. White-Ruped Swift               Apus caffer
13. African Sand Martin             Riparia pahidicola
14. African Black Kite              Milvus migrans

Table 2: Distribution of avifauna at the study locations

Table 2C. Aves (birds) in the project site and forest
areas (page 17-19)

COMMON NAMES                        SCIENTIFIC NAMES

1. Vinaceous Dove                   Streptopelia vinacea
2. Laughing Dove                    Steptopelia senegalensis
3. Tambourine Dove                  Turtur tympanistria
4. West African Touraco             Touraco pera
5. Violet Plaintain--eater          Musophaga violacea
6. Little Sparrow Hawk              Accipiter erythropus
7. West African Gooshawk            Accipitertoussenelli
8. Palmnut Eagle                    Gypohierax angolensis
9. Abdim's Stock                    Ciconia abdimii
10. WhistlingTeal                   Dendroygna viduata
11. African Golden Oriole           Iriolus awratus
12. Black headed Oriole             Oriolus branchrhynchus
13. Glossy backed Drongo            Dicrurus adsimilis
14. Common Garden Bulbul            Pyconotus barbatus
15. Swamp Palm Bulbul               Thescelocichla leucopleurus
16. West African Thrush             Turdus pelius
17. African Pied crow               Carvus albus
18. Senegal wood Hoope              Phoeniculus chrysocomus
19. Pired King fisher               Ceryle radis
20. Senegal king fisher             Halcyon senegalensis
21. Broad billed Roller             Erystomus glaucurus
22. Cardinal Wood Peker             Dendropicus fuscescens
23. Piping Hornbill                 Bycanisters fistulator
24. Splendid glossy Starling        Lamprotonis splendilus
25. Mosque Swallow                  Hirundo senegalensis
26. White throated bee-eater        Merops albecollis
27. Yellow Wagtail                  Motacilla flava
28. Senegal coucal                  Centropus senegalensis
29. Black bellied coucal            Centropus grilli
30. Levaillent's Cuckoo             Clamator glandaius
31. African Barn Owl                Tylo alba
32. Wood Owl                        Ciccaba woodfordi
33. Standard night jar              Macrodipteryx longipennis
34. Little African Swift            Apus affinis
35. White Rumped Swift              Cypsiurus parous
36. Ahanta Francolin                Francolinus ahentensis
37. Crested malimbe                 Malimbus malimbus
38. Red vented malimbe              Malimbus scutatus
39. Allied Hornbill                 Tockus semifascialus
40. Yellow-fronted canary           Serinus mozambicus
41. Green fruit Pigeon              Treron australis
42. Grey Parrot                     Psittacus erythacus
43. Naked face Barber               Gymnobucci calvus
44. Yellow-fronted Tinkerbird       Pogoniulus chrysocomus
45. Carmelite Sunbird               Nectarinia coccinigaster
46. Long tailed glossy starling     Nectarinia cupreea
47. Abyssinian roller               Coracias abyssinica.

Table 3: Flora species frequency and occurrence at IPP
site (Secondary Rainforest)

Serial   Species                       Life       Remarks as on site
No.                                    Form

1.       Acanthus montanus             Herb       Threatened (Th.)
2.       Adenia lobata                 Herb       Th
3.       Aframomum daniellia           Herb       Th.
4.       Aframosia alata               Herb       Th.
5.       Alchomea cordifolia           Shrub      Th.
6.       A. laxiflora                  Shrub      Th.
7.       Allophyllus africanus         Herb       Th.
8.       Anthocleisia nobilis          Tree       R.
9.       Anthonothat macrophylla       Tree       Th.
10.      Baphia ninda                  Tree       Dominant
11.      Bermia grandiflora            Tree       Th.
12.      Bridelia micrantha            Tree       R
13.      Calamus derratus              Shrub      D.
14.      Carpolobia lutea              Shrub      Th.
15.      Chromolacna odorata           Herb       Th.
16.      Cissus polyantha              Shrub      Th.
17.      Cleistopholis pattens         Tree       Th.
18.      Combreum zenkeri              Shrub      Th.
19.      Commelina benghalensis        Herb       Th.
20.      Cosnis afer                   Herb       R.
21.      Digitaria debilis             Herb       Th.
22.      Dimorphochlamys mannii        Herb       Th.
23.      Dossotis rotundifolia         Herb       Th.
24.      Elaeis guineensis             Tree       D.
25.      E vogeli                      Tree       Th.
26.      Harungana madagascariensis    Shrub      Th.
27.      Leptoderris branchyptera      Herb       Th.
28.      Macaranga barteri             Herb       Th.
29.      Manihot esculenta             Shrub      Th.
30.      Marantochloa cuspidate        Climber    Th.
31.      Napoleona vogelii             Tree       D.
32.      Nauclea latifolia             Tree       R.
33.      Olax subscorptoides           Climber    Th.
34.      Oxyanthus tuboflorus          Shrub      Th.
35.      Paulina pinata                Shrub      D.
36.      Phyilanthus discoideus        Herb       Th.
37.      Picralima nitida              Herb       Th.
38.      Psidium guajava               Tree       Th.
39.      Pterocarpus santhozyloides    Tree       Th.
40.      Pycnanthus anagolensis        Shrub      Th.
41.      Scleria racemosa              Tree       Th.
42.      Smilax kraussiana             Climber    Th.
43.      Tabernaemontana pachysiphon   Tree       Th.
44.      Triumfetta cordifolia         Tree       Th.
45.      Vitex paradoxa                Tree       R.
46.      Xylopia aethiopica            Tree       Th.

Table 4: Wildlife species percentage preference
for hunting at the site

Species                                    Percentage (%)

Rodents (Cane rat, giant rat, squirrel     55%
Artiodactyla (bush buck, duiker)           20%
Primate (Patas monkey, Baboon, Galagos)    20%
Aves (birds)                               5%

Table 5: Meats price rate per kilogram and percentage
preference rate

Meat Source    Price rate in     % (PPR)
               Naira (N)/kilo

Beef           430               20.6
Pork           400               10.5
Fish           300               25.6
Chicken        550               10.0
Bush meat      850               33.5

N: Naira, currency value in Nigeria. PPR : Percentage
Preference Rates
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Author:Lameed G.A.
Publication:African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:6NIGR
Date:Dec 1, 2009
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