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Potential fecundity and lifespan of adult reindeer warble flies (Oedemagena tarandi L. and Cephenomyia trompe Modeer) in the tundra zone of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) of the Russian Federation.

Introduction

Reindeers are bred in many countries, but they are parasitized by warble flies Oedemagena tarandi L. and Cephenomyia trompe Modeer [1-5]. There are about 2.5 million reindeers in the Russian Federation which is 80% of the reindeer world population. Large reindeer farms are concentrated in the tundra and forest-tundra region of Magadan, Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, and the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). Reindeer husbandry is one of the leading branches of farming in these regions [6, 7]. However, the development of reindeer husbandry in our country is largely constrained by a variety of infectious and parasitic diseases of reindeers. The greatest harm is caused by warble flies: subepidermal (Oe. tarandi L.) and nasopharyngeal (C. trompe Modeer). The wide spread of warble flies and their high abundance violate summer pastureanimal regime [8-11].

The larvae of subepidermal and nasopharyngeal warble flies greatly weaken the reindeers' health in winter and spring reducing their resistance to various infectious diseases. According to the estimates of Breev and Saveliev [12], the total losses yielded by subepidermal warble flies account for about 30% of the reindeer husbandry potential gain. Every year 650 thousand reindeer (425 thousand adults, 225 thousand calves) are slaughtered in our country. The losses from skins downgrading are 3.15 million Rub, meat products--4.04 million Rub, reindeer mortality from necrobacillosis associated with warble flies is 0.78 million Rub. Yakutia is still a region with a very high incidence of reindeer invasions with warble flies. However, the ecology of Oedemagenosis and Cephcnemyiosis pathogens is poorly understood in the republic. The aim of our research is to study the regional characteristics of the fecundity and lifespan of adult reindeer warble flies in the tundra zone of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) of the Russian Federation.

Materials and Methods

Yakutia is located in the north-east of Asia between the 76[degrees]3' and 55[degrees]29' north latitude and 105[degrees]3' and 162[degrees]51' east longitude. The area of Yakutia (3,103.2 thousand [km.sup.2]) occupies 18% or almost one-fifth of the Russian Federation territory. This is the area of the northern hemisphere cold pole which is characterized by wide temperature fluctuations. The January long-term mean air temperature in Oymyakon and Verkhoyansk is minus 49-50[degrees]C, low reach minus 68-71[degrees]C. The summer is short, but relatively hot (in most of the republic the maximum temperature is plus 36-38[degrees]C, on the Laptev Sea coasts it is plus 29-32[degrees]C), with a long sunshine duration (a continuous polar day). The number of domesticated reindeer in Yakutia in the research period was 190.15 thousand animals.

The experimental part of the work was carried out in the 2003-2013 in Allaikhovsky and Anabarsky regions of Yakutia located in the tundra on the Laptev and East Siberian sea coasts, in the Archaeoentomology Laboratory of the State Scientific Institution of the Yakutsk Agricultural Research Institute (Figure 1). The dynamics of larvae drop was observed in a group of riding reindeer. We collected 1,395 Oe. tarandi L. larvae and 66 C. trompe Modeer larvae. In this case, a thorough inspection of places of reindeer relaxation was conducted every morning, afternoon, and evening and dropped larvae were collected. The collected larvae were placed in wooden cage nests (boxes) 85 x 45 x 12 cm in size, with conditions created close to natural. The bottom of each nest is covered by a layer of frozen soil, with moss, reindeer lichen, pebbles and sand, etc., on top. Before breeding the warble flies the boxes were covered with gauze. The boxes filled with larvae for pupation and the pupae at the time of migrations were transported on cargo sleds. On arriving at the campsites, the cages were dug in the soil to the depth of 15-16 cm. The pupation was observed daily to determine the larvae survival, the pupation time and the duration of pupae development to adults.

The leaving of the puparium by winged insect, the time after the birth, the insect gender, its behavior after leaving the puparium, air, and soil temperature at the pupae depth were recorded. To determine the insects' lifespan, the hatched flies were relocated into gauze cages on a metal frame 20 x 20 x 20 cm in size. The cages were placed in open and shaded areas, at a height of 0.5 m from the ground, the cage bottoms were covered with pieces of light turf and different vegetation. Each cage contained warble flies which flew out that day. We selected 10 C. trompe Modeer (5 males and 5 females) bred in cages and 117 Oe. tarandi L. (52 males and 65 females). Each cage contained one day breeding with the types of warble flies.

For determining the potential fecundity of Oe. tarandi L. and C. trompe Modeer females, we used the technique by Pavlovsky [13]. The number of eggs in the female gonads and larvae in the warble flies female uterus was counted using the MBS-2 microscope. The specimens collected for the experiment were caught at the beginning and at the end of the flight time, as well as the ones hatched from pupae in the cages. The total number of dissected females caught on turnbuckle was 69 Oe. tarandi L. and 8 C. trompe Modeer, and the number of females bred in cages was 51 Oe. tarandi L. and 2 C. trompe Modeer.

Results and Discussion

The average potential fecundity of Oe. tarandi L. and C. trompe Modeer females bred in cages is higher than that of those captured on the turnbuckle, the fecundity of the first species is 564.8 [+ or -] 16.4 against 336 [+ or -] 64.5 eggs and that of the second is 692 [+ or -] 12.8 against 96.7 [+ or -] 77.1 (p < 0.05) larvae, respectively. The maximum and the minimum fecundity of Oe. tarandi L. and C. trompe Modeer females bred in cages is also higher than that of the collected in nature, the maximum fecundity of the first species is 853 against 786 eggs, for the second it is 795 against 209 larvae, the lowest fecundity of the first species is 315 to 55, for the second it is 539 against 0 larvae (Table 1).

Warble flies lifespan in the adult stage varies greatly (from 1 to 27 days). The most long-living were the adults of nasopharyngeal warble flies. At the average air temperature of 7.1[degrees]C, the C. trompe Modeer females lived from 7 to 27 days, on average--17.2; males--from 4 to 24 days, on average--12.2 days. The lifespan of Oe. tarandi L. females is from 1 to 17 days, on average--9.57 [+ or -] 2.32 days (the average value of three samples), males--from 2 to 19 days, on average--9.53 [+ or -] 0.9, p < 0.05.

With an increase in the average daily temperature to 16.2[degrees]C and relative humidity of 45-55%, the lifespan of Oe. tarandi females is 7.5 days, males--11.3 days. When analyzing the dependence of warble flies viability on sexual characters, it was found that there was no considerable difference between the lifespan of Oe. tarandi L. males and females, while the lifespan of C. trompe Modeer of males is 5 days shorter (Table 2).

Warble flies are cold-resistant. We have recorded them flying after night frosts from -2[degrees]C to -7[degrees]C. Warble flies remained alive after being in the snow at a temperature of -12[degrees]C for 12 h. They began moving actively after being brought in a warm place and staying there for 20-30 min.

References

[1.] Cogley ThP, Anderson JR (1981) Invasion of black-tailed deer by nose bot fly larvae (Diptera: Oestridae: Oestrinae). International Journal for Parasitology 11(4): 281-286.

[2.] Asbakk K, Oksanen A, Nieminen M, Haugerud RE, Nilssen AC (2005) Dynamics of antibodies against hypodermin C in reindeer infested with the reindeer warble fly, Hypoderma tarandi. Veterinary Parasitology 129(3-4): 323-332.

[3.] Oksanen A, Norberg H, Nieminen M (1998) Ivermectin treatment did not increase slaughter weight of first-year reindeer calves. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 35(3): 209-217.

[4.] Pawlowski MM (1909) Reindeer warble flies disease. Herald of General Veterinary 6: 288-291.

[5.] Reshetnicov AD, Prokopyev ZS, Barashkova AI, Hoholova GT, Egomin VS (2007) About the warble flies infection rate of farm animals in Yakutia. Proceedings of All-Russian Institute of Helminthology Named After K.I. Scriabin 45: 191-198.

[6.] Pomishin SB (1990) Origin of Reindeer Husbandry and Domestication of Reindeer. Moscow: Science, p. 141.

[7.] Syrovatsky DI (2000) Organization and Economic of Reindeer Farming. Yakutsk: Sakhapoligrafizdat, p. 408.

[8.] Barashkova AI, Prokopyev ZS, Reshetnicov AD (2013) Seasonal dynamics of horse flies (Diptera, Tabanidae) and warble flies (Oedemagena tarandi L. and Cephenomyia trompe Modeer) number in Yakutia. Herald of Buryat State Agricultural Academy named after V.R. Filippov, Ulan-Ude, 4(33): 12-16.

[9.] Kertselli SV (1909) Materials on the reindeer pathology. Archive of Veterinary Sciences, Saint Petersburg 39(4): 429-437.

[10.] Mezenev NP (1957) Protection from skin warble flies of reindeer. Scientific-Technical Informative Bulletin of the Far-East Agricultural Research Institute 3: 35-36.

[11.] Solopov NV (1982) Biology of reindeer warble flies in the Trans-Urals, and measures to combat them, author's abstract from thesis of Candidate of Biological Sciences. Tashkent, Institute of Zoology and Parasitology of Academy of Sciences of the Uzbek Sovetsvky Socialist Republic, p. 22.

[12.] Breev KA, Saveliev DV (1958) The Reindeer Warble Fly and Protection From It. The Moscow-Leningrad, Publishing House of the Academy of Sciences of USSR, p. 52.

[13.] Pavlovsky EN (1957) Methods of Insects' Manual Dissection. The Moscow-Lenngrad, Publishing House of the Academy of Sciences of USSR, p. 86.

Published: 19th Dec 2014

Aleksander Dmitriyevich Reshetnikov*, Anastasia Ivanovna Barashkova, Zasim

Sidorovich Prokopyev

Yakut Research Institute of Agriculture, Yakutsk, Russian Federation.

* Corresponding author

Table 1: Data on the potential fecundity of reindeer warble flies
females.

                               Oe. tarandi L.

                     Caught in          Bred in cages
                    the nature

The number of           69                   51
dissected
insects

The maximum             786                  853
number of
eggs or larvae

The minimum             55                   315
number of
eggs or larvae

Average          336 [+ or -] 64.5   564.8 [+ or -] 16.4
fecundity

                              C. trompe Modeer

                     Caught in          Bred in cages
                     the nature

The number of            8                    2
dissected
insects

The maximum             209                  795
number of
eggs or larvae

The minimum              0                   539
number of
eggs or larvae

Average          96.7 [+ or -] 77.1   692 [+ or -] 12.8
fecundity

Table 2: The lifespan of Oe. tarandi L. and C. trompe Modeer
adults.

Times of            The males lifespan (days)
breeding
flies, the    Minimal   Maximal        Average
number

of flies                Oe. tarandi L.

13-30 June,   2           17              9
15 adult
specimen

1-5 July,     3           19            11.3
74 adult
specimen

18-28 July,   7            9             8.3
28 adult
specimen

Total         2           19      9.53 [+ or -] 0.9

                          C. trompe
                           Modeer

13 July-4     4           24            12.2
August,
10 adult
specimen

Times of             The females lifespan (days)
breeding
flies, the    Minimal   Maximal        Average
number

of flies                Oe. tarandi L.

13-30 June,      6        17             14.2
15 adult
specimen

1-5 July,        2        12             7.5
74 adult
specimen

18-28 July,      1        11              7
28 adult
specimen

Total            1        17      9.57 [+ or -] 2.32

                          C. trompe
                           Modeer

13 July-4        7        27             17.2
August,
10 adult
specimen

Times of             Air temperature ([degrees]C)
breeding
flies, the    Minimal   Maximal      Average value
number        values    values

of flies                  Oe. tarandi L.

13-30 June,     0.0      25.7             7.1
15 adult
specimen

1-5 July,       9.4      30.7            16.2
74 adult
specimen

18-28 July,     1.2      22.9            11.9
28 adult
specimen

Total            0       30.7     11.73 [+ or -] 2.63

                            C. trompe
                              Modeer

13 July-4        0       25.7             7.1
August,
10 adult
specimen
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Article Details
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Title Annotation:Research Article
Author:Reshetnikov, Aleksander Dmitriyevich; Barashkova, Anastasia Ivanovna; Prokopyev, Zasim Sidorovich
Publication:Biology and Medicine
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:4EXRU
Date:Jul 1, 2014
Words:1954
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