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Potential challenges of climate change to orchid conservation in a wild orchid hotspot in southwestern China.

Introduction

The Southwestern China Orchid Hotspot and its Conservation Status

Southwestern China, consisting of Yunnan, Guangxi and Guizhou Provinces, is one of the nine world orchid hotspots (Cribb et al., 2003). Orchid conservation issues in the region, however, are acute. In addition to threats from rapid habitat destruction and alteration associated with rapid economic growth and rural development during the past three decades, Chinese wild orchids are facing destructive collecting pressures due to large cultural, horticultural and ethnobotanical demands and the primitive horticultural techniques in the country (Luo et al., 2003; Liu et al., 2009).

In 2004 several Chinese botanists discovered more than 100 species of orchids, some of which with extremely large, relatively undisturbed populations, in a 220 [km.sup.2] state forestry reserve in a remote area in northwestern Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. This area was made a provincial nature reserve soon after the discovery and more recently, it was elevated to the status of national nature reserve, namely the Yachang Orchid Nature Reserve (Liu & Luo, 2010). Yachang is the first nature reserve in China, and second of its kind in the world defined by a national government primarily on the basis of protecting wild orchids. Protection of the rich orchid resources in Yachang, however, is not without problems, especially with the projected rapid global climate change. In this paper we identify a few specific challenges that may be posed by the current and projected climate changes as well as potential solutions.

The Challenges of Current Climate Change to Biological Conservation

In the past 2.5 million years, cycles of climate change driven by natural factors have occurred over periods of decades, centuries, and millennia (Wright, 1989; Bond et al., 1997, 2001; Diaz & Markgraf, 2000). For example, over 40 glacial/interglacial cycles were detected using oxygen-isotope analysis of ice cores from the Greenland ice sheet (Wright, 1989). These cycles were driven by variations in primary orbital cycles of the Earth (Zachos et al., 2001). Abundant evidence worldwide indicates that life on earth had responded to climate change at each of these scales in the past (Jackson et al., 1987; Thompson, 1990; Grayson, 1993).

Darwin speculated that species migration in response to climate change had proceeded in an orderly manner and that entire communities had shifted poleward together as a unit (Darwin, 1859). However, studies of pollen and fossils during the past glacial and inter glacial periods tell a different story (Miller & Brubaker, 2006). Species responses were individualistic such that population increases or decreases did not appear to be in synchrony with climate change, especially when climate changes were extreme and abrupt, and non-analog ecological communities (i.e., communities that do not exist in present time) were common (Miller & Brubaker, 2006).

How species or population respond to climate change depends on the species biology and the geographic location of the population. In general, populations in a relatively flat terrain migrated poleward during a wanning period (Jackson et al., 1987), while those in mountainous areas with mild slopes migrated upward along an elevational gradient (Thompson, 1990; Grayson, 1993). However, in regions where habitats were complex, highly patchy, and with steep and discontinuous gradients, species, especially rare species, responded primarily with shrinking in population sizes, minor geographic range shifts, or local extinctions (Heusser, 2000; Maschinski et al., 2006).

The current anthropogenic driven climate changes are worrisome to conservation biologists because the projected warming in the next 100 years will result in an earth that is hotter than most extant species have ever seen (Bamosky, 2009). In addition, the rate of warming is at least twice as fast as what nature has experienced in the past (Davis & Shaw, 2001; Barnosky, 2009). It is therefore questionable whether current species migration can keep up with the speed and magnitude of the warming. A case in point, upward migrations of Andean cloud forest tree communities due to warming in the past 5 years has been approximately 2 m/yr, less than 4 times slower than is required to keep pace with the speed of warming (Kenneth J Feeley, Florida International University, pers. com.). Finally current natural habitats are highly fragmented and isolated by anthropogenic landscapes such as cities, farmlands, pastures and so on (Barnosky, 2009). Such landscape features make natural migration, one of the main responses to climate change, challenging if not impossible.

Hypotheses on how plants will respond to climate change are largely derived from studies on forest canopy species, especially those with wind dispersed pollen (Miller & Brubaker, 2006). Modern phenological monitoring also focuses primarily on common tree species, because they are easy to observe and can be compared across a wide range of locations (Schwartz, 2003; Chen, 2003; Zhu & Wan, 1983; Wan, 1986, 1987). The response of herbaceous understory species to climate change are, however, largely unknown. These plants include orchids, many of which are rare and threatened.

Current and Projected Climate Change in Southwest China and its Challenges to Orchid Conservation

The Yachang Orchid Nature Reserve is situated between 24[degrees]44'16" to 24[degrees]53'58" N, and 106[degrees]11'31" to 106[degrees]27'04" and is influenced by the subtropical climate--as is the case with most of southwestern China (Corlett, 2009). In this region, there are pronounced seasonal variations in both rainfall and temperature (Coder & Lafrankie, 1998; Huang et al., 2008), with nearly 60% of the rainfall occurring in the hot summer months and less than 10% in the cold winter months (Huang et al., 2008). Phenology of woody plants in southwestern China is characterised by regular, annual cycles at the individual, population, and community level (Corlett & Lafrankie, 1998; Wan, 1986, 1987), probably triggered by temperature and/or water availability (Corlett & Lafrankie, 1998).

Records indicate that warming in southwestern China in the past 100 years was around 0.5[degrees]C, slightly lower than the global average of 0.7[degrees]C (IPCC, 2007; Huang et al., 2005), and the warming has been largely due to increase in winter, spring and fall temperatures (Chen et al., 2008; He et al., 2007; Wang et al., 2008). Total annual rainfall, on the other hand, has remained the same or has increased slightly for the region (Huang et al., 2005; Bates et al., 2008). It is projected that the warming trend will continue during the next two centuries in Southwest China (Jiang et al., 2005; IPCC, 2007; Xu et al., 2009). Precipitation, on the other hand, is projected to increase only slightly (Bates et al., 2008; Jiang et al., 2005; Xu et al., 2009), but will not keep pace with the increase in evaporation rates due to warming (Bates et al., 2008). As such a slight decrease in soil moisture is predicted (Bates et al., 2008).

Challenge 1--Lower Soil Moisture

Orchids are notorious for their stringent habitat requirements, a factor contributing to their rarity (Cribb et al., 2003). The projected increase in precipitation and evaporation rate will result in a lower level of soil moisture (Bates et al., 2008). This will likely to impact mostly the terrestrial orchids. Sixty eight (50%) of the orchids in Yachange are either terrestrial or saprophytic.

Challenge 2--Geographical Barriers and Limits to Natural Migration

Complex terrain and habitat fragmentation and non-availability may hinder natural poleward migration. The Yachang Orchid Nature Reserve, as in adjacent areas in southwestern China, is characterized by many low to medium height limestone hills (elevations of 1,200 m or less), separated by steep valleys or rivers. Species in such complex terrain are expected to respond primarily by shrinking in population size (Heusser, 2000). This may happen to more than 100 species of orchids in Yachang (73%), since they are currently growing on the mountain tops (Table 1), with no higher places to migrate to. The most extraordinary feature in Yachang is that populations of some orchid species are extremely large (Shi et al., 2007b; Liu et al., 2009). Conservation of these unusually large populations is one of the conservation priorities for the Yachang Reserve. Most of these large populations are located on or near the hill tops. Thus, the projected warming in the region will likely threaten the long-term persistence of these large populations unless these populations possess a high micro-evolutionary potential which will enable them to evolve in accordance to the environmental changes related to climate changes (Holt, 1990). This group of species includes several species with horticultural importance or potentials, e.g. Bulbophyllum andersonii, Coelogyne fimbriata, Cymbidium cyrprefolium, Eria coronaria, Liparis viridiflora, L. chapaensis, L. cordifolia, Oberonia myosurus, Paphiopedilum hirsutissimum, Panisea calalerei, Pholidota yunnanensis, and Vanilla siamensis.

Sixty five orchid species (47%) currently consist of very small populations in Yachang, and 20 species (14%) have narrow distributional ranges. These orchids, which face high risk of extinction without the climate change (Rabinowitz, 1981), may also face high level of threat from climate change, especially if they are found on hill tops. Species in this category include Bulbophyllum tianguii, Cymbidium goeringii, C. longibracteatum, C. nanulum, C. tracyanum, Dendrobium officinale, P. micranthum (Table 1). In addition, populations that represent the southern limit of the species distributions (34 orchid species or 25% in Yachang) are also vulnerable to local extinction (Lavergne et al., 2006). Yachang Orchid Nature Reserve is located in transitional zone of warm subtropical to cool subtropical climate and harbors some southern-most populations of temperate orchid species (Table 1). For example, Yachang is one of the few places where Paphiopedilum, a genus of tropical lady's slipper orchids, co-occur with the temperate lady's slipper orchids, Cypripedium species. The only Cypripedium species in Yachang, C. henryi are found in very small numbers on a hill top. This population, being small, on hill top, and at the south limit of the species' distribution, is certainly the one most vulnerable to local extinction (Table 1).

Challenge 3--Erosion Induced by Extreme Weather

Extreme rainfall events are predicted to occur more frequently even though overall rainfall has been and is projected to increase only slightly in the region (IPCC, 2007, Chen Yegou, Guangxi Meteorology Bureau, pers. comm.). Extreme rainfall event can accelerate erosion. Nearly half of the orchid species in Yachang (42%) have populations on steep cliffs (Table 1) that have probably adapted to the disturbance caused by frequent runoffs associated with rain and occasional erosions. However, increased degree and frequency in erosion may negatively affect the cliff populations. Orchids in this category include Coelogyne fimbriata, Eria coronaria, E. rhomboidalis, E. spicata, Paphiopedilum dianthum, P. hirsutissimum, Pholidota yunnanensis, Oberonia ensiformis, O. myosurus.

Challenge 4--Flowering Responses to Climate Change

The fourth challenge for orchid conservation in the region relating to climate changes is the potential mismatches in phenology between orchids and their pollinators due to spring warming.

The majority of orchid species have specialized insect pollination system, relying on one to a few pollinator species (Cingel, 2001; Tremblay et al., 2005). This is likely to be the case for orchids in Yachang. Pollination systems of 10 orchid species in Yachang have been studied and all are pollinated by a single species of pollinator (Cheng et al., 2007, 2009; Shi et al., 2007a, 2008, 2009; Shangguan et al., 2008; Luo et al., unpubl data). One species (Geodorum densiflora) can also self-pollinate, possibly requiring the assistance of rain (Liu et al., unpbl, data).

Long-term phenological data are rare for orchid species (Willis et al., 2008). However, fluctuations in flowering time due to fluctuations in spring temperatures have been well documented for many temperate woody species and a limited number of herbaceous species (Wan, 1986, 1987; Chen, 2003; Dose & Menzel, 2006). Early initiation of flowers and other spring events due to the current global warming has also been reported for many temperate species (Fitter & Fitter, 2002; Menzel et al., 2006; Miller-Rushing & Primack, 2008). Little data is available on the response of subtropical species response to global climate change. Nevertheless, phenology of some subtropical species can be temperature driven, especially in areas with pronounced annual fluctuation in temperature (Corlett & Lafrankie, 1998; Feng et al., unpbl, data). Warming in winter and spring are therefore likely to affect the flowering phenology of some orchid species in southwestern China, including those in the Yachang Reserve.

The majority of orchid pollinators are insects (Pemberton, 2010). Yet, our knowledge of insect responses to current climate change is just beginning to accumulate. There is evidence that some butterflies and moths have migrated poleward or upwards within the past 5 decades in responding to the warming (Parmesan et al., 1999; Chen et al., 2009a). European honey bees (Apis mellifera) have been reported to respond to spring temperature fluctuations by coming out of their annual dormancy either early or late in the warm or cool springs, respectively, in temperate China (Wan, 1986, 1987). There is a need for studies to determine whether the Chinese honey bee (A. cerana), a major orchid pollinator in southwestern China, and other insect pollinators have similar responses to changes in spring temperatures.

The ability to track global warming varies among species (Miller-Rushing & Primack, 2008). It is unknown whether the change or lack of change in plant flowering phenology will be in synchrony with its pollinator's activity. A simulation of the impacts of global wanning on generalist plant-pollinator webs indicated disruptions and even extinction of some of these crucial interactions (Memmott et al., 2007). Climate change might have induced asynchronized shifts in space and time between peak flowering of the British orchids and the peak flight times of the orchid's pollinators (David Roberts, Kew, pets. comm.). It is logical to expect that specialized pollination relationships, such as the ones borne by orchids and their pollinators, will be more vulnerable to such mismatch than the more generalist interactions (Ashworth et al., 2004; Dixon, 2009). This vulnerability is due in part to the skewed relationships between orchids and pollinators, with the orchid being much more dependent on the pollinators than vice versa (Dixon, 2009; Pemberton, 2010; Vereecken et al., 2010). Fifty five species or 40% of orchids in Yachang flower in the Spring and are therefore likely to be impacted the most (Table 1), these include Cymbidium faberi, C. floribundum, C.goeringii, C. longibracteatum, Geodorum densiflora, G. eulophioides, G. recurvum, Paphiopedilum hirsutissimum, and P. micranthum, to name a few.

Challenge 5--Lack of Knowledge on Response of Orchid-Fungi Mycorrhizal Relationship to Climate Changes

The symbiotic relationship between orchid and mycorrhizal fungi is considered to be critical in natural seed germination and seedling growth of all orchid species (Rasmussen & Rasmussen, 2009). This relationship is also essential in post-seedling growth in many orchid species (Deamaley, 2007; Rasmussen & Rasmussen, 2009; Liu et al., 2010, this volume). However, despite the significant advance made on orchid mycorrhiza research in the past two decades (Rasmussen & Rasmussen, 2009), our knowledge on orchid-mycorrhizal fungi relationships is limited, particularly in the case of Chinese wild orchids (Liu et al., 2010, this volume). The function and stability of orchid mycorrhiza can be sensitive to environmental factors (Batty et al., 2001). However, it is not known whether and how the role of mycorrhizal fungi in orchid germination and growth will be maintained with rising temperature and reduced soil moisture.

Potential Solutions

A number of actions can be taken to alleviate the threats imposed by climate change on orchids in this orchid hotspot.

Ranking Vulnerability of Species Due to Climate Change

Prioritizing the species based on vulnerability of wild orchids to climate change can be performed using their habit, flowering time, population size, distribution patterns in elevational range as well as their geographic range as indicators. We attempted such a ranking system in Table 1. We first assigned a value of 1 to each positive answer of the threatening factors listed, and then summed the values for each species. Species with a score of four or greater in this exercise were considered highly vulnerable. Overall, nearly a quarter of the species facing high risk and they spread across 19 genera. Each of these threats impacts 14% to 72% of the species, and each species is threatened by at least one of these factors (Table 1).

We also calculate the average risk for each genus in Yachang Reserve to see whether there is a risk pattern in this higher taxonomic level. There are 7 genera which have a mean score of 4 or higher, with Bletilla, Cypripedium, and Pahiopedilum most at risk (risk scores of 4.3 and above). Both Dendrobium and Cymbidium, two genera of high market values for horticultural and Chinese medicinal use, respectively, are not at particularly high risk, yet, but some members in these genera are (Table 1). Whether a species is subject to high collecting pressure can influence the species' extinction probability. We did not list this factor because it is independent of climate change. One could also weigh each of the factors differently based on the degree of its potential impacts on population dynamics. Restoration experiments should be started on the most vulnerable species.

Establishing Long-Term Phenological Monitoring for Plants and Pollinators

Currently, rangers are assigned to patrol areas where large populations of orchids occur. These rangers may be trained to collect phenological data using data sheet designed by, and under the supervision of, conservation ecologists. Some rangers have already been trained to assist in long-term population monitoring of large populations in Yachang Reserve. This can also be supplemented by phenological studies from the herbarium specimens. If there are indeed mismatches in phenological responses to spring temperature fluctuations between orchids and their pollinators, it will be useful to know the magnitude of the mismatch and how this may contribute to the overall population decline.

Assisted Migrations

As mentioned earlier, natural poleward or upward migration of orchids, especially mountain top species, would be very difficult if not impossible for orchids in the Yachang Reserve because, like many other protected areas in the world, it is of small size (18 km south-north, by 26 km west-east), and surrounded by, or interspersed with, disturbed or human-dominated landscapes. In addition, there are 89 mountains of elevation 1,000 m or higher. However, only 19 of these are above 1,500 m. Nevertheless, all hills are not equally occupied by orchids. Thus, micro- and macro-habitat analyses, including using remote sensing data, will be useful to determine what are suitable and projected suitable sites and vegetation successional stages. Projected suitable but unoccupied sites can be used as experimental artificial planting or restoration sites. Such restoration approach can provide opportunity to determine how orchids in the area can better cope with the predicted climate changes.

Before a network of protected areas in this orchid-rich region are established, human-assisted migration of selected orchids to protected areas in Guizhou (to the north of the Reserve) or to Yunnan (to the west, more inland, and with higher mountains) provinces may be required. Human-assisted migration (alternatively referred to as "assisted colonization", "artificial transplantation", or "managed translocation") of rare and endangered species in relation to climate change has been advocated and implemented elsewhere (Fox, 2007; McLachlan et al., 2007; Zimmer, 2007; Hoegh-Guldberg et al., 2008; Richardson et al., 2009). However, such efforts will also require co-ordination among provinces, which can be challenging. In addition, habitat destruction is worse in Guizhou than in the other two neighboring provinces and it is questionable whether appropriate habitat can be identified there. Nevertheless, this measure, along with assisted migration to locations within Yachang with higher elevations, may be a good option for the narrow endemic species, such as Bulbophyllum tianguii, Geodorum eulophioides, and Paphiopadilum dianthum. Following the general rules of temperature gradient along elevational or latitudinal gradients (Colwell et al., 2008; Jump et al., 2009), a 500 m upward or 500 km pole-ward migration will be sufficient for a species to track the 2.5[degrees]C projected change in southwestern China for the next century (Jiang et al., 2005; IPCC, 2007; Xu et al., 2009).

Orchid Restoration Using Symbiotic Seed Germination and Seedling Growth

Before human-assisted migration is conducted, mycorrhiza relationships should be studied in detail for selected orchid species in Yachang Reserve. Besides identifying the orchid mycorrhizal fungi partners and determining their roles in orchid population dynamics, the effects of temperature and moisture on these relationships should be investigated with other environmental variables. Transplanting symbiotic plants (e.g. seedlings inoculated with appropriate mycorrhizal fungi) are expected to overcome impediment from lack of adequate symbiotic fungi. Therefore, knowledge on the identities and roles of mycorrhizal fungi of orchids will determine in part whether such a restoration project will be successful (Dearnaley, 2007; Swarts & Dixon, 2009, Liu et al., 2010).

Intra-Species Hybridization

Another possible tool in conservation of the orchid species is to hybridize plants from warmer areas of a species' distribution with those in Yachang. This may improve the heat tolerance of the local populations (Fox, 2007). However, the microevolutionary potential of the spectacularly large populations of certain orchid species in Yachang should be investigated before taking the hybridization approach.

Concluding Remarks

We acknowledge that some of the potential conservation measurements are controversial. Yet, depending on the objectives of the Yachang Reserve, e.g. preventing species from extinction, and maintaining the large populations unique to the Reserve, they may be the best options to accomplish these goals in light of the projected climate change. In addition to in-situ conservation options proposed here, ex-situ conservation measures, especially seed banking of highly vulnerable species, should be implemented to buffer species extinction (Seaton et al., 2010). Other non-climate change related conservation measures, such as conserving resources that pollinators depend on (Pemberton, 2010; Vereecken et al., 2010; Bernhardt & Meier, 2010), should be promoted. For example, a wasp species (Vespula sp.) was found to be the sole pollinator for Coelogyne fimbriata (Cheng et al., 2009), however the wasp itself is collected by the local people for consumption. Regulated exploitation of the wasp is one obvious measure that could be pursued by the Reserve.

Climate change is considered to be one of the biggest threats to diversity. But in most studies the actual mechanisms through which climate change will affect individual species have remained ambiguous or undefined. Here we identified seven specific threats that climate change may pose to the orchids of the Yachang Reserve and the specific species that are most likely to be impacted. Although there are potentially more that we did not look at, this study provides a scientific framework for conservation workers in the southwestern China orchid hotspot to prioritize their conservation efforts.

DOI 10.1007/s12229-010-9044-x

Acknowledgements We wish to thank Vice Governor of Guangxi, Dr. Chen Zhangliang, for his vision to convene the Guangxi International Orchid Symposium, which stimulated this synthesis. We are indebt to the staff of Yachang, especially Wu Tiangui and Luo Dun for their logistic support of the conservation research in Yachang Reserve. Graduate students Lin Wuying and Ma Xiaokai from the Institute of Botany, Chinese Academic of Sciences, Yachang staff Liu Shiyong, Deng Zhenhai, Wei Xinlian, Lan Yutian, and Huanglan are acknowledged for their excellent field assistance. Travel support to HL, HYG, and YBL from the Guangxi Forestry Bureau and research support to HL, YBL, BSC, ZSW and HYG from the Guangxi Science and Technology Bureau (Chairman's Foundation grant #09203-04) are greatly appreciated. Financial supports from The Mohamed bin Zayed species conservation fund (0905324) to HL and YBL, and the Social Welfare Research Project (2005DIB6JI44) of the Ministry of Science and Technology of the People's Republic of China to CLF help to cover partial costs of research related to this project. Drs. Amots Dafni, Philip Seaton, David Roberts, Richard Primack, Robert Pemberton, and Kenneth J. Feeley provided critical reviews on earlier drafts of the ms.

Published online: 26 March 2010

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Hong Liu (1,2,3,8) * Chang-Lin Feng (4) * Yi-Bo Luo (5) * Bao-Shan Chen (3) * Zhong-Sheng Wang (6) * Hong-Ya Gu (7)

(1) Department of Earth and Environment, Florida International University, 11200 SW 8th Street, Miami, FL 33199, USA

(2) Center for Tropical Plant Conservation, Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, Coral Gables, FL, USA

(3) Guangxi Key Laboratory of Subtropical Bioresources Conservation and Utilization, Guangxi University, Nanning, China

(4) Experimental Center of Tropical Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Pingxiang, China

(5) State Key Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China

(6) Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Global Changes, School of Biological Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China

(7) College of Biological Sciences, Beijing University, Beijing, China

(8) Author for Correspondence; e-mail: hliu@fiu.edu
Table 1 List of Orchids (139 species in 47 genera) in Yachang Orchid
Nature Reserve (a,b) and Potential Threats from Climate Change

Species                               Terrestrial (c)   Narrow
                                                        endemic (d)

Acanthephippium sylhetense Lindl.     Yes               No
Anoectochilus elwesii (Clarke ex      Yes               No
  Hook. f.) King & Pnatl.
Anoectochilus moulmeinensis (Par.     Yes               No
  et Rchb. f.) Seidenf.
Anoectochilus roxburghii (Wall.)      Yes               No
  Lindl.
Aphyllorchis montana Rchb. f.         Yes (S)           No
Bletilla formosana (Hayata.)          Yes               No
  Schltr.
Bletilla ochracea Schltr              Yes               No
Bletilla striata (Thunb. ex A.        Yes               No
  Murray) Rchb. f.
Bulbophyllum ambrosia (Hance)         No                No
  Schltr.
Bulbophyllum andersonii (Hook. f.)    No                No
  J. J. Smith
Bulbophyllum kwangtungense Schltr.    No                No
Bulbophyllum longibrachiatum Z. H.    No                Yes
  Tsi
Bulbophyllum odoratissimum (J. E.     No                No
  Smith) Lindl.
Bulbophyllum tianguii k. Y. Lang et   No                Yes
  D. Luo
Calanthe argentro-striata C. Z.       Yes               No
  Tang et S. S. Ying
Calanthe davidii Franch               Yes               No
Calanthe hancockii Rolfe              Yes               Yes
Calanthe reflexa (Kuntze) Maxim       Yes               No
Calanthe sylvatica (Thouars) Lindl.   No                No
Calanthe triplicata (Willem.) Ames    Yes               No
Cephalanthera longifolia (L.)         Yes               No
  Fritsch
Cheirostylis chinensis Rolfe          Yes               No
Cheirostylis yunnanensis R.           Yes               No
Cleisostoma menghaiense ZH.Tsi        No                Yes
Cleisostoma nangongense Z. H. Tsi     No                Yes
Cleisostoma paniculatum (Ker-Gawl.)   No                No
  Garay
Cleisostoma williamsonii (Rchb. f.)   No                No
  Garay
Coelogyne fimbriata Lindl.            No                No
Coelogyne faccida Lindl.              No                No
Cremastra appendiculate (D. Don)      Yes               No
  Makino
Cymbidium bicolor subsp. obtusum Du   Yes               No
  Puy & Cribb
Cymbidium cyperifolium Wall. et       Yes               No
  Lindl.
Cymbidium aloifolium (L.) Sw.         No                No
Cymbidium ensifolium (L.) Sw.         Yes               No
Cymbidium faberi Rolfe                Yes               No
Cymbidium foribundum Lindl.           Yes (semi)        No
Cymbidium goeringii (Rchb. f.)        Yes               No
  Rchb. f.
Cymbidium goeringii var. serratum     Yes               No
  (Schltr.) Y.S. Wu et S.C.Chen
Cymbidium kanran Makino               Yes               No
Cymbidium lancifolium Hook.           Yes (semi)        No
Cymbidium macrorhizon Lindl.          Yes (S)           No
Cymbidium nanulum Y. S. Wu et S. C.   Yes               No
  Chen
Cymbidium giubeiensis K. M. Feng et   Yes               Yes
  H. Li
Cymbidium sinense (Jackson ex         Yes               No
  Andr.) Willd.
Cymbidium tortisepalum var.           Yes               Yes
  longibracteatum (Y S. Wu & S. C.
  Chen) S. C. Chen & Z. J. Liu
Cymbidium tracyanum L. Castle         No                No
Cypripedium henryi Rolfe              Yes               No
Dendrobium aduncum Wall et Lindl.     No                No
Dendrobium aphyllum (Roxb) C. E. C.   No                No
  Fisch
Dendrobium aurantiacum Rchb. f.       No                No
  Var. devonanum (kerr) Z. H. Tsi.
Dendrobium chrysanthum Lindl.         No                No
Dendrobium devonianum Paxt            No                No
Dendrobium fimbriatum Hook.           No                No
Dendrobium hancockii Rolle            No                No
Dendrobium henryi Schltr.             No                No
Dendrobium hercoglossum Rchb. f.      No                No
Dendrobium lindleyi Stendel           No                No
Dendrobium loddigesii Rolfe           No                No
Dendrobium lohohense T. Tang &        No                No
  F. T. Wang
Dendrobium nobile Lindl.              No                No
Dendrobium ofcinale Kimura et Migo    No                No
Dendrobium williamsonii Day &         No                No
  Rchb. f.
Epipactis helleborine (L.) Crantz.    Yes               No
Eria clausa King et Pand.             No                No
Eria Corneri Rchb. f.                 No                No
Eria coronaria (Lindl.) Rchb. f.      No                No

Eria lasiopetala (Willd.) Ormerod     No                No
Eria obvia W.WSmith                   No                No
Eria rhombodalis T. Tang et F. T.     No                No
  Wang
Eria spicata (D. Don) Hand.-Mazz.     No                No
Eulophia bracteosa Lindl.             Yes               No
Eulophia pava (Lindl.) Hook. F.       Yes               No
Eulophia zollingeri (Rchb. f.)        Yes (S)           No
  J. J. Smith
Flickingeria albopurea Seidenf        No                No
Flickingeria angustifolia (BI.)       No                No
  Hawkes
Flickingeria calocephala Z. H. Tsi    No                Yes
  et S. C. Chen
Galeola lindleyana (Hook. f. et       Yes (S)           No
  Thorns.) Rchb. f.
Gastrodia eleta Bl.                   Yes (S)           No
Geodorum densiforum (Lam.) Schltr.    Yes               No
Geodorum eulophioides Schltr.         Yes               Yes
Geodorum recurvum (Roxb.) Alston      Yes               No
Goodyera henryi Rolfe                 Yes               No
Goodyera schlechtendaliana Rchb. f.   Yes               No
Habenaria ciliolaris Kraenzl.         Yes               No
Habenaria davidii Franch.             Yes               No
Habenaria dentata (Sw.) Schltr        Yes               No
Habenaria fordii Rolfe                Yes               Yes
Habenaria petelodi Gagnep.            Yes               No
Herminium bulleyi (Rote) Tang et      Yes               Yes
  Wang
Herminium lanceum (THunb.) Vuijk      Yes               No
Kingidium braceanum (Hook. f.)        No                Yes
  Seidenf.
Lecanorchis multii lora J. J. Smith   Yes (S)           No
Liparis bootanensis Griff.            No                No
Liparis cordifolia Hook. f.           Yes               No
Liparis distans C. B. Clarke          No                No
Liparis esquirolu Schltr.             No                Yes
Liparis inaperta Finet                No                No
Liparis japonica (Miq.)Maxim.         No                No
Liparis nervosa (Thunb.ex A.          No                No
  Murray) Lindl.
Liparis nigra Seidenf                 No                No
Liparis stricklandiana Rchb. f.       No                No
Liparis viridiora (B1.) Lindl.        No                No
Luisia teres (Thunb. ex A. Murray.)   No                No
  Bl.
Malaxis acuminata D. Don              Yes               No
Malaxis biaurita (Lindl.) Kuntze      Yes               No
Malaxis latifolia J. E. Smith         Yes               No
Malaxis monophyllos (L.) Sw.          Yes               No
Malaxis purpurea (Lindl.) Kuntze      Yes               No
Nervilia fordii (Hance) Smitin        Yes               No
Nervilia plicatao (Indr.) Schltr.     Yes               No
Oberonia ensiformis (J. E. Smith)     No                No
  Lindl.
Oberonia myosurus (Forst. f) Lindl.   No                No
Pachystoma pubescens Bl.              Yes               No
Panisea cavalerei Schltr.             No                Yes
Paphiopedilum dianthum T. Tang et     No                Yes
  F.T. Wang
Paphiopedilum hirsutissimum           Yes (semi)        No
  (Lindl. et Hook.) Stein
Paphiopedilum micranthum T. Tang      Yes (semi)        Yes
  et F. T. Wang
Peristylus affinis (D.Don) Seidenf    Yes               No
Peristylus fagellifer (Makino) Ohwi   No                Yes
Peristylus mannii (Rolfe) Makerjee    No                No
Phaius favos (BI.) Lindl.             Yes               No
Phaius tankervilleae (Banks ex        Yes               No
  L'herit.) Bl.
Pholidota cantonensis Rolfe           No                No
Pholidota levedleana Schltr.          No                Yes
Pholidota missionariorum Gagnep.      No                Yes
Pholidota yunnanensis Rolfe           No                No
Pleione yunnanensis (Rolfe) Rolfe     Yes               No
Pogonia japonica R.                   Yes               No
Robiquetia succisa (Lindl) Seidenf    No                No
Spathoglottis pubesceras Lind.        Yes               No
Spiranthes sinensis (Pers.) Ames      Yes               No
Tainia angustifolia (Lindl.) Benth.   Yes               No
  et Hook. f.
Tainia macrantha Hook. f.             Yes               Yes
Thelasis pygmaea Hook. f.             No                No
Vanda concolor Bl.                    No                No
Vandopsis gigantea (Lindl.) Pfitz     No                No
Vanilla siamensis Rdfe ex Downie      No                No
Zeuxine goodyeroides Lindl.           Yes               No
Zeuxine strateumatica                 Yes               No
Number of species (%)                 72                20
                                      (51.8%)           (14.4%)

Species                               Spring       Mountain top
                                      flower (e)   population (f)

Acanthephippium sylhetense Lindl.     Yes          No
Anoectochilus elwesii (Clarke ex      No           Yes
  Hook. f.) King & Pnatl.
Anoectochilus moulmeinensis (Par.     No           Yes
  et Rchb. f.) Seidenf.
Anoectochilus roxburghii (Wall.)      No           Yes
  Lindl.
Aphyllorchis montana Rchb. f.         No           No
Bletilla formosana (Hayata.)          Yes          Yes
  Schltr.
Bletilla ochracea Schltr              No           Yes
Bletilla striata (Thunb. ex A.        Yes          Yes
  Murray) Rchb. f.
Bulbophyllum ambrosia (Hance)         Yes          Yes
  Schltr.
Bulbophyllum andersonii (Hook. f.)    Yes          Yes
  J. J. Smith
Bulbophyllum kwangtungense Schltr.    No           Yes
Bulbophyllum longibrachiatum Z. H.    No           Yes
  Tsi
Bulbophyllum odoratissimum (J. E.     Yes          Yes
  Smith) Lindl.
Bulbophyllum tianguii k. Y. Lang et   No           Yes
  D. Luo
Calanthe argentro-striata C. Z.       Yes          Yes
  Tang et S. S. Ying
Calanthe davidii Franch               No           No
Calanthe hancockii Rolfe              Yes          No
Calanthe reflexa (Kuntze) Maxim       No           Yes
Calanthe sylvatica (Thouars) Lindl.   Yes          No
Calanthe triplicata (Willem.) Ames    Yes          No
Cephalanthera longifolia (L.)         No           Yes
  Fritsch
Cheirostylis chinensis Rolfe          Yes          Yes
Cheirostylis yunnanensis R.           Yes          No
Cleisostoma menghaiense ZH.Tsi        No           Yes
Cleisostoma nangongense Z. H. Tsi     No           No
Cleisostoma paniculatum (Ker-Gawl.)   No           Yes
  Garay
Cleisostoma williamsonii (Rchb. f.)   Yes          Yes
  Garay
Coelogyne fimbriata Lindl.            No           Yes
Coelogyne faccida Lindl.              Yes          Yes
Cremastra appendiculate (D. Don)      No           Yes
  Makino
Cymbidium bicolor subsp. obtusum Du   Yes          No
  Puy & Cribb
Cymbidium cyperifolium Wall. et       No           Yes
  Lindl.
Cymbidium aloifolium (L.) Sw.         No           No
Cymbidium ensifolium (L.) Sw.         No           Yes
Cymbidium faberi Rolfe                Yes          Yes
Cymbidium foribundum Lindl.           Yes          Yes
Cymbidium goeringii (Rchb. f.)        Yes          Yes
  Rchb. f.
Cymbidium goeringii var. serratum     Yes          Yes
  (Schltr.) Y.S. Wu et S.C.Chen
Cymbidium kanran Makino               No           Yes
Cymbidium lancifolium Hook.           No           Yes
Cymbidium macrorhizon Lindl.          No           Yes
Cymbidium nanulum Y. S. Wu et S. C.   No           No
  Chen
Cymbidium giubeiensis K. M. Feng et   No           Yes
  H. Li
Cymbidium sinense (Jackson ex         No           Yes
  Andr.) Willd.
Cymbidium tortisepalum var.           Yes          Yes
  longibracteatum (Y S. Wu & S. C.
  Chen) S. C. Chen & Z. J. Liu
Cymbidium tracyanum L. Castle         No           Yes
Cypripedium henryi Rolfe              Yes          Yes
Dendrobium aduncum Wall et Lindl.     No           No
Dendrobium aphyllum (Roxb) C. E. C.   Yes          Yes
  Fisch
Dendrobium aurantiacum Rchb. f.       Yes          Yes
  Var. devonanum (kerr) Z. H. Tsi.
Dendrobium chrysanthum Lindl.         No           Yes
Dendrobium devonianum Paxt            Yes          Yes
Dendrobium fimbriatum Hook.           Yes          Yes
Dendrobium hancockii Rolle            No           Yes
Dendrobium henryi Schltr.             No           Yes
Dendrobium hercoglossum Rchb. f.      No           No
Dendrobium lindleyi Stendel           Yes          No
Dendrobium loddigesii Rolfe           Yes          Yes
Dendrobium lohohense T. Tang &        No           Yes
  F. T. Wang
Dendrobium nobile Lindl.              Yes          Yes
Dendrobium ofcinale Kimura et Migo    Yes          Yes
Dendrobium williamsonii Day &         Yes          Yes
  Rchb. f.
Epipactis helleborine (L.) Crantz.    No           Yes
Eria clausa King et Pand.             Yes          Yes
Eria Corneri Rchb. f.                 No           No
Eria coronaria (Lindl.) Rchb. f.      Yes          Yes

Eria lasiopetala (Willd.) Ormerod     Yes          Yes
Eria obvia W.WSmith                   Yes          Yes
Eria rhombodalis T. Tang et F. T.     Yes          Yes
  Wang
Eria spicata (D. Don) Hand.-Mazz.     No           Yes
Eulophia bracteosa Lindl.             Yes          No
Eulophia pava (Lindl.) Hook. F.       Yes          No
Eulophia zollingeri (Rchb. f.)        Yes          Yes
  J. J. Smith
Flickingeria albopurea Seidenf        No           Yes
Flickingeria angustifolia (BI.)       No           Yes
  Hawkes
Flickingeria calocephala Z. H. Tsi    No           Yes
  et S. C. Chen
Galeola lindleyana (Hook. f. et       No           Yes
  Thorns.) Rchb. f.
Gastrodia eleta Bl.                   No           Yes
Geodorum densiforum (Lam.) Schltr.    No           No
Geodorum eulophioides Schltr.         No           No
Geodorum recurvum (Roxb.) Alston      No           No
Goodyera henryi Rolfe                 No           No
Goodyera schlechtendaliana Rchb. f.   No           Yes
Habenaria ciliolaris Kraenzl.         No           Yes
Habenaria davidii Franch.             No           Yes
Habenaria dentata (Sw.) Schltr        No           Yes
Habenaria fordii Rolfe                No           Yes
Habenaria petelodi Gagnep.            No           No
Herminium bulleyi (Rote) Tang et      No           Yes
  Wang
Herminium lanceum (THunb.) Vuijk      No           Yes
Kingidium braceanum (Hook. f.)        No           Yes
  Seidenf.
Lecanorchis multii lora J. J. Smith   No           No
Liparis bootanensis Griff.            No           No
Liparis cordifolia Hook. f.           No           Yes
Liparis distans C. B. Clarke          Yes          Yes
Liparis esquirolu Schltr.             No           Yes
Liparis inaperta Finet                No           Yes
Liparis japonica (Miq.)Maxim.         No           No
Liparis nervosa (Thunb.ex A.          Yes          No
  Murray) Lindl.
Liparis nigra Seidenf                 Yes          Yes
Liparis stricklandiana Rchb. f.       No           No
Liparis viridiora (B1.) Lindl.        Yes          No
Luisia teres (Thunb. ex A. Murray.)   Yes          Yes
  Bl.
Malaxis acuminata D. Don              No           Yes
Malaxis biaurita (Lindl.) Kuntze      No           Yes
Malaxis latifolia J. E. Smith         No           Yes
Malaxis monophyllos (L.) Sw.          No           No
Malaxis purpurea (Lindl.) Kuntze      No           No
Nervilia fordii (Hance) Smitin        No           No
Nervilia plicatao (Indr.) Schltr.     No           Yes
Oberonia ensiformis (J. E. Smith)     No           Yes
  Lindl.
Oberonia myosurus (Forst. f) Lindl.   No           Yes
Pachystoma pubescens Bl.              Yes          No
Panisea cavalerei Schltr.             Yes          Yes
Paphiopedilum dianthum T. Tang et     No           Yes
  F.T. Wang
Paphiopedilum hirsutissimum           Yes          Yes
  (Lindl. et Hook.) Stein
Paphiopedilum micranthum T. Tang      Yes          Yes
  et F. T. Wang
Peristylus affinis (D.Don) Seidenf    No           No
Peristylus fagellifer (Makino) Ohwi   No           Yes
Peristylus mannii (Rolfe) Makerjee    No           Yes
Phaius favos (BI.) Lindl.             No           Yes
Phaius tankervilleae (Banks ex        Yes          Yes
  L'herit.) Bl.
Pholidota cantonensis Rolfe           Yes          Yes
Pholidota levedleana Schltr.          No           Yes
Pholidota missionariorum Gagnep.      No           Yes
Pholidota yunnanensis Rolfe           No           Yes
Pleione yunnanensis (Rolfe) Rolfe     Yes          Yes
Pogonia japonica R.                   No           No
Robiquetia succisa (Lindl) Seidenf    No           No
Spathoglottis pubesceras Lind.        No           Yes
Spiranthes sinensis (Pers.) Ames      No           Yes
Tainia angustifolia (Lindl.) Benth.   No           Yes
  et Hook. f.
Tainia macrantha Hook. f.             No           No
Thelasis pygmaea Hook. f.             Yes          Yes
Vanda concolor Bl.                    Yes          No
Vandopsis gigantea (Lindl.) Pfitz     Yes          No
Vanilla siamensis Rdfe ex Downie      Yes          Yes
Zeuxine goodyeroides Lindl.           No           Yes
Zeuxine strateumatica                 Yes          Yes
Number of species (%)                 55           101
                                      (39.6%)      (72.7%)

Species                               Cliff            Very small
                                      population (g)   population (h)

Acanthephippium sylhetense Lindl.     No               Yes
Anoectochilus elwesii (Clarke ex      No               No
  Hook. f.) King & Pnatl.
Anoectochilus moulmeinensis (Par.     No               Yes
  et Rchb. f.) Seidenf.
Anoectochilus roxburghii (Wall.)      Yes              No
  Lindl.
Aphyllorchis montana Rchb. f.         No               Yes
Bletilla formosana (Hayata.)          No               Yes
  Schltr.
Bletilla ochracea Schltr              No               Yes
Bletilla striata (Thunb. ex A.        No               No
  Murray) Rchb. f.
Bulbophyllum ambrosia (Hance)         No               Yes
  Schltr.
Bulbophyllum andersonii (Hook. f.)    Yes              No
  J. J. Smith
Bulbophyllum kwangtungense Schltr.    Yes              No
Bulbophyllum longibrachiatum Z. H.    Yes              No
  Tsi
Bulbophyllum odoratissimum (J. E.     Yes              No
  Smith) Lindl.
Bulbophyllum tianguii k. Y. Lang et   Yes              Yes
  D. Luo
Calanthe argentro-striata C. Z.       Yes              No
  Tang et S. S. Ying
Calanthe davidii Franch               No               Yes
Calanthe hancockii Rolfe              No               Yes
Calanthe reflexa (Kuntze) Maxim       No               Yes
Calanthe sylvatica (Thouars) Lindl.   No               Yes
Calanthe triplicata (Willem.) Ames    No               Yes
Cephalanthera longifolia (L.)         Yes              Yes
  Fritsch
Cheirostylis chinensis Rolfe          No               No
Cheirostylis yunnanensis R.           No               No
Cleisostoma menghaiense ZH.Tsi        Yes              Yes
Cleisostoma nangongense Z. H. Tsi     No               Yes
Cleisostoma paniculatum (Ker-Gawl.)   No               No
  Garay
Cleisostoma williamsonii (Rchb. f.)   No               No
  Garay
Coelogyne fimbriata Lindl.            Yes              No
Coelogyne faccida Lindl.              Yes              Yes
Cremastra appendiculate (D. Don)      No               Yes
  Makino
Cymbidium bicolor subsp. obtusum Du   Yes              No
  Puy & Cribb
Cymbidium cyperifolium Wall. et       No               No
  Lindl.
Cymbidium aloifolium (L.) Sw.         Yes              No
Cymbidium ensifolium (L.) Sw.         No               No
Cymbidium faberi Rolfe                No               Yes
Cymbidium foribundum Lindl.           Yes              No
Cymbidium goeringii (Rchb. f.)        No               Yes
  Rchb. f.
Cymbidium goeringii var. serratum     No               Yes
  (Schltr.) Y.S. Wu et S.C.Chen
Cymbidium kanran Makino               No               Yes
Cymbidium lancifolium Hook.           Yes              No
Cymbidium macrorhizon Lindl.          No               No
Cymbidium nanulum Y. S. Wu et S. C.   No               Yes
  Chen
Cymbidium giubeiensis K. M. Feng et   No               No
  H. Li
Cymbidium sinense (Jackson ex         No               Yes
  Andr.) Willd.
Cymbidium tortisepalum var.           No               Yes
  longibracteatum (Y S. Wu & S. C.
  Chen) S. C. Chen & Z. J. Liu
Cymbidium tracyanum L. Castle         Yes              No
Cypripedium henryi Rolfe              No               Yes
Dendrobium aduncum Wall et Lindl.     Yes              No
Dendrobium aphyllum (Roxb) C. E. C.   No               No
  Fisch
Dendrobium aurantiacum Rchb. f.       Yes              No
  Var. devonanum (kerr) Z. H. Tsi.
Dendrobium chrysanthum Lindl.         No               No
Dendrobium devonianum Paxt            Yes              Yes
Dendrobium fimbriatum Hook.           Yes              No
Dendrobium hancockii Rolle            Yes              Yes
Dendrobium henryi Schltr.             Yes              Yes
Dendrobium hercoglossum Rchb. f.      Yes              Yes
Dendrobium lindleyi Stendel           No               No
Dendrobium loddigesii Rolfe           Yes              No
Dendrobium lohohense T. Tang &        Yes              Yes
  F. T. Wang
Dendrobium nobile Lindl.              Yes              Yes
Dendrobium ofcinale Kimura et Migo    No               Yes
Dendrobium williamsonii Day &         Yes              Yes
  Rchb. f.
Epipactis helleborine (L.) Crantz.    No               Yes
Eria clausa King et Pand.             Yes              Yes
Eria Corneri Rchb. f.                 Yes              No
Eria coronaria (Lindl.) Rchb. f.      Yes              No

Eria lasiopetala (Willd.) Ormerod     Yes              No
Eria obvia W.WSmith                   Yes              Yes
Eria rhombodalis T. Tang et F. T.     Yes              No
  Wang
Eria spicata (D. Don) Hand.-Mazz.     Yes              Yes
Eulophia bracteosa Lindl.             No               Yes
Eulophia pava (Lindl.) Hook. F.       No               No
Eulophia zollingeri (Rchb. f.)        No               No
  J. J. Smith
Flickingeria albopurea Seidenf        Yes              No
Flickingeria angustifolia (BI.)       Yes              Yes
  Hawkes
Flickingeria calocephala Z. H. Tsi    Yes              No
  et S. C. Chen
Galeola lindleyana (Hook. f. et       No               No
  Thorns.) Rchb. f.
Gastrodia eleta Bl.                   No               No
Geodorum densiforum (Lam.) Schltr.    No               No
Geodorum eulophioides Schltr.         No               Yes
Geodorum recurvum (Roxb.) Alston      No               No
Goodyera henryi Rolfe                 No               No
Goodyera schlechtendaliana Rchb. f.   No               No
Habenaria ciliolaris Kraenzl.         No               No
Habenaria davidii Franch.             No               Yes
Habenaria dentata (Sw.) Schltr        No               No
Habenaria fordii Rolfe                No               No
Habenaria petelodi Gagnep.            No               Yes
Herminium bulleyi (Rote) Tang et      No               Yes
  Wang
Herminium lanceum (THunb.) Vuijk      No               No
Kingidium braceanum (Hook. f.)        No               Yes
  Seidenf.
Lecanorchis multii lora J. J. Smith   No               Yes
Liparis bootanensis Griff.            Yes              Yes
Liparis cordifolia Hook. f.           No               No
Liparis distans C. B. Clarke          Yes              No
Liparis esquirolu Schltr.             Yes              Yes
Liparis inaperta Finet                Yes              No
Liparis japonica (Miq.)Maxim.         Yes              Yes
Liparis nervosa (Thunb.ex A.          Yes              Yes
  Murray) Lindl.
Liparis nigra Seidenf                 No               No
Liparis stricklandiana Rchb. f.       No               Yes
Liparis viridiora (B1.) Lindl.        Yes              No
Luisia teres (Thunb. ex A. Murray.)   No               No
  Bl.
Malaxis acuminata D. Don              No               No
Malaxis biaurita (Lindl.) Kuntze      No               No
Malaxis latifolia J. E. Smith         No               No
Malaxis monophyllos (L.) Sw.          No               Yes
Malaxis purpurea (Lindl.) Kuntze      No               No
Nervilia fordii (Hance) Smitin        No               No
Nervilia plicatao (Indr.) Schltr.     No               No
Oberonia ensiformis (J. E. Smith)     Yes              No
  Lindl.
Oberonia myosurus (Forst. f) Lindl.   Yes              No
Pachystoma pubescens Bl.              No               Yes
Panisea cavalerei Schltr.             Yes              No
Paphiopedilum dianthum T. Tang et     Yes              Yes
  F.T. Wang
Paphiopedilum hirsutissimum           Yes              No
  (Lindl. et Hook.) Stein
Paphiopedilum micranthum T. Tang      Yes              Yes
  et F. T. Wang
Peristylus affinis (D.Don) Seidenf    No               Yes
Peristylus fagellifer (Makino) Ohwi   No               Yes
Peristylus mannii (Rolfe) Makerjee    No               Yes
Phaius favos (BI.) Lindl.             No               No
Phaius tankervilleae (Banks ex        No               No
  L'herit.) Bl.
Pholidota cantonensis Rolfe           Yes              No
Pholidota levedleana Schltr.          Yes              Yes
Pholidota missionariorum Gagnep.      Yes              No
Pholidota yunnanensis Rolfe           Yes              No
Pleione yunnanensis (Rolfe) Rolfe     No               No
Pogonia japonica R.                   No               Yes
Robiquetia succisa (Lindl) Seidenf    Yes              No
Spathoglottis pubesceras Lind.        No               Yes
Spiranthes sinensis (Pers.) Ames      Yes              No
Tainia angustifolia (Lindl.) Benth.   No               Yes
  et Hook. f.
Tainia macrantha Hook. f.             No               Yes
Thelasis pygmaea Hook. f.             Yes              Yes
Vanda concolor Bl.                    No               No
Vandopsis gigantea (Lindl.) Pfitz     No               No
Vanilla siamensis Rdfe ex Downie      Yes              No
Zeuxine goodyeroides Lindl.           No               Yes
Zeuxine strateumatica                 No               Yes
Number of species (%)                 58 (41.7%)       65 (46.8%)

Species                               South     Risk score
                                      most
                                      range

Acanthephippium sylhetense Lindl.     No        3
Anoectochilus elwesii (Clarke ex      Yes       3
  Hook. f.) King & Pnatl.
Anoectochilus moulmeinensis (Par.     No        3
  et Rchb. f.) Seidenf.
Anoectochilus roxburghii (Wall.)      Yes       4
  Lindl.
Aphyllorchis montana Rchb. f.         No        2
Bletilla formosana (Hayata.)          Yes       5
  Schltr.
Bletilla ochracea Schltr              Yes       4
Bletilla striata (Thunb. ex A.        Yes       4
  Murray) Rchb. f.
Bulbophyllum ambrosia (Hance)         No        3
  Schltr.
Bulbophyllum andersonii (Hook. f.)    No        3
  J. J. Smith
Bulbophyllum kwangtungense Schltr.    No        2
Bulbophyllum longibrachiatum Z. H.    No        3
  Tsi
Bulbophyllum odoratissimum (J. E.     No        3
  Smith) Lindl.
Bulbophyllum tianguii k. Y. Lang et   No        4
  D. Luo
Calanthe argentro-striata C. Z.       No        4
  Tang et S. S. Ying
Calanthe davidii Franch               Yes       3
Calanthe hancockii Rolfe              Yes       5
Calanthe reflexa (Kuntze) Maxim       Yes       4
Calanthe sylvatica (Thouars) Lindl.   No        2
Calanthe triplicata (Willem.) Ames    No        3
Cephalanthera longifolia (L.)         No        4
  Fritsch
Cheirostylis chinensis Rolfe          No        3
Cheirostylis yunnanensis R.           No        2
Cleisostoma menghaiense ZH.Tsi        No        4
Cleisostoma nangongense Z. H. Tsi     No        1
Cleisostoma paniculatum (Ker-Gawl.)   No        1
  Garay
Cleisostoma williamsonii (Rchb. f.)   No        2
  Garay
Coelogyne fimbriata Lindl.            No        2
Coelogyne faccida Lindl.              No        4
Cremastra appendiculate (D. Don)      No        3
  Makino
Cymbidium bicolor subsp. obtusum Du   No        3
  Puy & Cribb
Cymbidium cyperifolium Wall. et       No        2
  Lindl.
Cymbidium aloifolium (L.) Sw.         Yes       2
Cymbidium ensifolium (L.) Sw.         No        2
Cymbidium faberi Rolfe                Yes       5
Cymbidium foribundum Lindl.           No        4
Cymbidium goeringii (Rchb. f.)        Yes       5
  Rchb. f.
Cymbidium goeringii var. serratum     Yes       5
  (Schltr.) Y.S. Wu et S.C.Chen
Cymbidium kanran Makino               No        3
Cymbidium lancifolium Hook.           No        3
Cymbidium macrorhizon Lindl.          No        2
Cymbidium nanulum Y. S. Wu et S. C.   No        2
  Chen
Cymbidium giubeiensis K. M. Feng et   No        3
  H. Li
Cymbidium sinense (Jackson ex         No        3
  Andr.) Willd.
Cymbidium tortisepalum var.           Yes       6
  longibracteatum (Y S. Wu & S. C.
  Chen) S. C. Chen & Z. J. Liu
Cymbidium tracyanum L. Castle         No        2
Cypripedium henryi Rolfe              Yes       5
Dendrobium aduncum Wall et Lindl.     No        1
Dendrobium aphyllum (Roxb) C. E. C.   No        2
  Fisch
Dendrobium aurantiacum Rchb. f.       No        3
  Var. devonanum (kerr) Z. H. Tsi.
Dendrobium chrysanthum Lindl.         No        1
Dendrobium devonianum Paxt            No        4
Dendrobium fimbriatum Hook.           No        3
Dendrobium hancockii Rolle            Yes       4
Dendrobium henryi Schltr.             No        3
Dendrobium hercoglossum Rchb. f.      No        2
Dendrobium lindleyi Stendel           No        1
Dendrobium loddigesii Rolfe           No        3
Dendrobium lohohense T. Tang &        Yes       4
  F. T. Wang
Dendrobium nobile Lindl.              No        4
Dendrobium ofcinale Kimura et Migo    Yes       4
Dendrobium williamsonii Day &         No        4
  Rchb. f.
Epipactis helleborine (L.) Crantz.    No        3
Eria clausa King et Pand.             No        4
Eria Corneri Rchb. f.                 No        1
Eria coronaria (Lindl.) Rchb. f.      No        3

Eria lasiopetala (Willd.) Ormerod     No        3
Eria obvia W.WSmith                   No        4
Eria rhombodalis T. Tang et F. T.     No        3
  Wang
Eria spicata (D. Don) Hand.-Mazz.     No        3
Eulophia bracteosa Lindl.             No        3
Eulophia pava (Lindl.) Hook. F.       No        2
Eulophia zollingeri (Rchb. f.)        No        3
  J. J. Smith
Flickingeria albopurea Seidenf        No        2
Flickingeria angustifolia (BI.)       No        3
  Hawkes
Flickingeria calocephala Z. H. Tsi    No        3
  et S. C. Chen
Galeola lindleyana (Hook. f. et       Yes       3
  Thorns.) Rchb. f.
Gastrodia eleta Bl.                   Yes       3
Geodorum densiforum (Lam.) Schltr.    No        1
Geodorum eulophioides Schltr.         No        3
Geodorum recurvum (Roxb.) Alston      No        1
Goodyera henryi Rolfe                 No        1
Goodyera schlechtendaliana Rchb. f.   No        2
Habenaria ciliolaris Kraenzl.         No        2
Habenaria davidii Franch.             Yes       4
Habenaria dentata (Sw.) Schltr        No        2
Habenaria fordii Rolfe                No        3
Habenaria petelodi Gagnep.            No        2
Herminium bulleyi (Rote) Tang et      Yes       5
  Wang
Herminium lanceum (THunb.) Vuijk      No        2
Kingidium braceanum (Hook. f.)        No        3
  Seidenf.
Lecanorchis multii lora J. J. Smith   No        2
Liparis bootanensis Griff.            No        2
Liparis cordifolia Hook. f.           Yes       3
Liparis distans C. B. Clarke          No        3
Liparis esquirolu Schltr.             Yes       5
Liparis inaperta Finet                No        2
Liparis japonica (Miq.)Maxim.         Yes       1
Liparis nervosa (Thunb.ex A.          No        3
  Murray) Lindl.
Liparis nigra Seidenf                 No        2
Liparis stricklandiana Rchb. f.       No        1
Liparis viridiora (B1.) Lindl.        No        2
Luisia teres (Thunb. ex A. Murray.)   No        2
  Bl.
Malaxis acuminata D. Don              No        2
Malaxis biaurita (Lindl.) Kuntze      No        2
Malaxis latifolia J. E. Smith         No        2
Malaxis monophyllos (L.) Sw.          Yes       3
Malaxis purpurea (Lindl.) Kuntze      No        1
Nervilia fordii (Hance) Smitin        No        1
Nervilia plicatao (Indr.) Schltr.     No        2
Oberonia ensiformis (J. E. Smith)     No        2
  Lindl.
Oberonia myosurus (Forst. f) Lindl.   No        2
Pachystoma pubescens Bl.              No        3
Panisea cavalerei Schltr.             No        4
Paphiopedilum dianthum T. Tang et     No        4
  F.T. Wang
Paphiopedilum hirsutissimum           No        4
  (Lindl. et Hook.) Stein
Paphiopedilum micranthum T. Tang      No        6
  et F. T. Wang
Peristylus affinis (D.Don) Seidenf    No        2
Peristylus fagellifer (Makino) Ohwi   Yes       4
Peristylus mannii (Rolfe) Makerjee    No        2
Phaius favos (BI.) Lindl.             No        2
Phaius tankervilleae (Banks ex        No        3
  L'herit.) Bl.
Pholidota cantonensis Rolfe           No        3
Pholidota levedleana Schltr.          No        4
Pholidota missionariorum Gagnep.      No        3
Pholidota yunnanensis Rolfe           No        2
Pleione yunnanensis (Rolfe) Rolfe     No        3
Pogonia japonica R.                   Yes       3
Robiquetia succisa (Lindl) Seidenf    No        1
Spathoglottis pubesceras Lind.        No        3
Spiranthes sinensis (Pers.) Ames      No        3
Tainia angustifolia (Lindl.) Benth.   No        3
  et Hook. f.
Tainia macrantha Hook. f.             No        3
Thelasis pygmaea Hook. f.             No        4
Vanda concolor Bl.                    No        1
Vandopsis gigantea (Lindl.) Pfitz     No        1
Vanilla siamensis Rdfe ex Downie      No        3
Zeuxine goodyeroides Lindl.           No        3
Zeuxine strateumatica                 No        4
Number of species (%)                 34        33 (23.7%
                                      (24.5%)     with a score
                                                  [greater than
                                                  or equal to] 4)

Species                               Genus mean
                                      score

Acanthephippium sylhetense Lindl.     3
Anoectochilus elwesii (Clarke ex      3.3
  Hook. f.) King & Pnatl.
Anoectochilus moulmeinensis (Par.
  et Rchb. f.) Seidenf.
Anoectochilus roxburghii (Wall.)
  Lindl.
Aphyllorchis montana Rchb. f.         2
Bletilla formosana (Hayata.)          4.3
  Schltr.
Bletilla ochracea Schltr
Bletilla striata (Thunb. ex A.
  Murray) Rchb. f.
Bulbophyllum ambrosia (Hance)         3
  Schltr.
Bulbophyllum andersonii (Hook. f.)
  J. J. Smith
Bulbophyllum kwangtungense Schltr.
Bulbophyllum longibrachiatum Z. H.
  Tsi
Bulbophyllum odoratissimum (J. E.
  Smith) Lindl.
Bulbophyllum tianguii k. Y. Lang et
  D. Luo
Calanthe argentro-striata C. Z.       3.5
  Tang et S. S. Ying
Calanthe davidii Franch
Calanthe hancockii Rolfe
Calanthe reflexa (Kuntze) Maxim
Calanthe sylvatica (Thouars) Lindl.
Calanthe triplicata (Willem.) Ames
Cephalanthera longifolia (L.)         4
  Fritsch
Cheirostylis chinensis Rolfe          2.5
Cheirostylis yunnanensis R.
Cleisostoma menghaiense ZH.Tsi        2
Cleisostoma nangongense Z. H. Tsi
Cleisostoma paniculatum (Ker-Gawl.)
  Garay
Cleisostoma williamsonii (Rchb. f.)
  Garay
Coelogyne fimbriata Lindl.            3
Coelogyne faccida Lindl.
Cremastra appendiculate (D. Don)      3
  Makino
Cymbidium bicolor subsp. obtusum Du   3.3
  Puy & Cribb
Cymbidium cyperifolium Wall. et
  Lindl.
Cymbidium aloifolium (L.) Sw.
Cymbidium ensifolium (L.) Sw.
Cymbidium faberi Rolfe
Cymbidium foribundum Lindl.
Cymbidium goeringii (Rchb. f.)
  Rchb. f.
Cymbidium goeringii var. serratum
  (Schltr.) Y.S. Wu et S.C.Chen
Cymbidium kanran Makino
Cymbidium lancifolium Hook.
Cymbidium macrorhizon Lindl.
Cymbidium nanulum Y. S. Wu et S. C.
  Chen
Cymbidium giubeiensis K. M. Feng et
  H. Li
Cymbidium sinense (Jackson ex
  Andr.) Willd.
Cymbidium tortisepalum var.
  longibracteatum (Y S. Wu & S. C.
  Chen) S. C. Chen & Z. J. Liu
Cymbidium tracyanum L. Castle
Cypripedium henryi Rolfe              5
Dendrobium aduncum Wall et Lindl.     2.9
Dendrobium aphyllum (Roxb) C. E. C.
  Fisch
Dendrobium aurantiacum Rchb. f.
  Var. devonanum (kerr) Z. H. Tsi.
Dendrobium chrysanthum Lindl.
Dendrobium devonianum Paxt
Dendrobium fimbriatum Hook.
Dendrobium hancockii Rolle
Dendrobium henryi Schltr.
Dendrobium hercoglossum Rchb. f.
Dendrobium lindleyi Stendel
Dendrobium loddigesii Rolfe
Dendrobium lohohense T. Tang &
  F. T. Wang
Dendrobium nobile Lindl.
Dendrobium ofcinale Kimura et Migo
Dendrobium williamsonii Day &
  Rchb. f.
Epipactis helleborine (L.) Crantz.    3
Eria clausa King et Pand.             3
Eria Corneri Rchb. f.
Eria coronaria (Lindl.) Rchb. f.

Eria lasiopetala (Willd.) Ormerod
Eria obvia W.WSmith
Eria rhombodalis T. Tang et F. T.
  Wang
Eria spicata (D. Don) Hand.-Mazz.
Eulophia bracteosa Lindl.             2.7
Eulophia pava (Lindl.) Hook. F.
Eulophia zollingeri (Rchb. f.)
  J. J. Smith
Flickingeria albopurea Seidenf        2.7
Flickingeria angustifolia (BI.)
  Hawkes
Flickingeria calocephala Z. H. Tsi
  et S. C. Chen
Galeola lindleyana (Hook. f. et       3
  Thorns.) Rchb. f.
Gastrodia eleta Bl.                   3
Geodorum densiforum (Lam.) Schltr.    1.7
Geodorum eulophioides Schltr.
Geodorum recurvum (Roxb.) Alston
Goodyera henryi Rolfe                 1.5
Goodyera schlechtendaliana Rchb. f.
Habenaria ciliolaris Kraenzl.         2.6
Habenaria davidii Franch.
Habenaria dentata (Sw.) Schltr
Habenaria fordii Rolfe
Habenaria petelodi Gagnep.
Herminium bulleyi (Rote) Tang et      3.5
  Wang
Herminium lanceum (THunb.) Vuijk
Kingidium braceanum (Hook. f.)        3
  Seidenf.
Lecanorchis multii lora J. J. Smith   2
Liparis bootanensis Griff.            2.2
Liparis cordifolia Hook. f.
Liparis distans C. B. Clarke
Liparis esquirolu Schltr.
Liparis inaperta Finet
Liparis japonica (Miq.)Maxim.
Liparis nervosa (Thunb.ex A.
  Murray) Lindl.
Liparis nigra Seidenf
Liparis stricklandiana Rchb. f.
Liparis viridiora (B1.) Lindl.
Luisia teres (Thunb. ex A. Murray.)   2
  Bl.
Malaxis acuminata D. Don              2
Malaxis biaurita (Lindl.) Kuntze
Malaxis latifolia J. E. Smith
Malaxis monophyllos (L.) Sw.
Malaxis purpurea (Lindl.) Kuntze
Nervilia fordii (Hance) Smitin        1.5
Nervilia plicatao (Indr.) Schltr.
Oberonia ensiformis (J. E. Smith)     2
  Lindl.
Oberonia myosurus (Forst. f) Lindl.
Pachystoma pubescens Bl.              3
Panisea cavalerei Schltr.             4
Paphiopedilum dianthum T. Tang et     4.3
  F.T. Wang
Paphiopedilum hirsutissimum
  (Lindl. et Hook.) Stein
Paphiopedilum micranthum T. Tang
  et F. T. Wang
Peristylus affinis (D.Don) Seidenf    2.7
Peristylus fagellifer (Makino) Ohwi
Peristylus mannii (Rolfe) Makerjee
Phaius favos (BI.) Lindl.             2.5
Phaius tankervilleae (Banks ex
  L'herit.) Bl.
Pholidota cantonensis Rolfe           3
Pholidota levedleana Schltr.
Pholidota missionariorum Gagnep.
Pholidota yunnanensis Rolfe
Pleione yunnanensis (Rolfe) Rolfe     3
Pogonia japonica R.                   3
Robiquetia succisa (Lindl) Seidenf    1
Spathoglottis pubesceras Lind.        3
Spiranthes sinensis (Pers.) Ames      3
Tainia angustifolia (Lindl.) Benth.   3
  et Hook. f.
Tainia macrantha Hook. f.
Thelasis pygmaea Hook. f.             4
Vanda concolor Bl.                    1
Vandopsis gigantea (Lindl.) Pfitz     1
Vanilla siamensis Rdfe ex Downie      3
Zeuxine goodyeroides Lindl.           3.5
Zeuxine strateumatica
Number of species (%)                 7 (14.9% with a score
                                        [greater than or equal to] 4)

(a) Species list were complied based on "The Comprehensive
Investigation Report of Guangxi Yachang Orchids Natural Reserve" by
The Comprehensive Scientific Investigation Team of Guangxi Yachang
Orchid Nature Reserve (2007), "Picture book of Wild Orchids in Guangxi
Yachang" by Luo et al. (2008), and Feng et al. unpublished data

(b) Information on global distribution is derived from "Flora of
China, Orchidaceae" by Chen et al. (2009b)

(c) Saprophytes are considered terrestrial. (S) indicates Saprophytes,
and (semi) indicate populations in Yachang are found to be both
terrestrial and epiphytic

(d) A species is considered a narrow endemic if its current range
include only Guangxi, Guizhou, Yunnan and northern Vietnam or fewer
areas because these areas are adjacent to one another and share
similar limestone and climatic characteristics

(e) Spring flower species are those whose flowering periods include
any month from January to April

(f) Populations found at 1,200 m or above is considered mountain top
populations because the geographical feature of Yachang Reserve, i.e.
the area is composed of many low-and mid-elevation mountains

(g) Species with cliff populations are those grow on steep rocky
surfaces in Yachang Reserve

(h) Species are found in less than 3 locations within the Yachang
Reserve and each has less than 100 reproducing plants
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Author:Liu, Hong; Feng, Chang-Lin; Luo, Yi-Bo; Chen, Bao-Shan; Wang, Zhong-Sheng; Gu, Hong-Ya
Publication:The Botanical Review
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9CHIN
Date:Jun 1, 2010
Words:10721
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