Postoperative atrial fibrillation prophylaxis and lung resection --our experience with 608 consecutive patients.
Key words: Diltiazem; Atrial fibrillation; Thoracic surgery
According to the literature, postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) (or equivalent supraventricular arrhythmia) is a common complication after pulmonary and esophageal surgery, with the incidence between 12% and 44% (1,2). Some risk factors have been identified, correlation with perioperative mortality and morbidity has been demonstrated, and prophylactic and therapeutic guidelines have been developed (1,2). POAF is associated with hemodynamic instability, heart failure, thromboembolic events, higher resource utilization and, possibly, increased mortality (1). The precise mechanism of POAF development is not well understood (1). The risk factors include history of smoking, obesity, advancing age, atrial dilatation, myocardial ischemia, volume overload, history of heart failure, increased adrenergic and vagal tone, and surgical procedures associated with local or systemic inflammation (1,2). The extent of pulmonary resection is of importance as a risk factor, with the highest rates of incidence noted after pneumonectomies, extrapleural pneumonectomies and lung transplantations (2). Lobectomies and pneumonectomies are recognized as high risk procedures with POAF incidence above 15% (1). Among drugs recommended for the prophylaxis of POAF and equivalent postoperative arrhythmias is diltiazem, a calcium antagonist (2,3). It has few side effects and, with respect to known contraindications, it is well tolerated, especially in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (2).
Patients and Methods
This observational study was performed at Jordanovac Department of Thoracic Surgery, Zagreb University Hospital Centre, Zagreb, Croatia. Data from medical records of all patients having undergone pulmonary resection procedures with a high risk of POAF (1) (lobectomies, bilobectomies and pneumonectomies) between November 2012 and May 2015 were included in the study. It was the time of introducing diltiazem for atrial fibrillation (AF) prophylaxis in our patients, thus including patient data before and during the introduction of diltiazem prophylaxis. The following data were collected: patient age, sex, the American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status (ASA status), comorbidity (coronary disease, arterial hypertension, other cardiac diseases and arrhythmias, preoperative chemotherapy, preoperative irradiation, hypo-/hyperthyroidism, diabetes mellitus, renal insufficiency, alcoholic cirrhosis, concomitant malignancy), relevant preoperative drug therapy, lung resection type (extent, intrapericardial, extrapleural), use/no use of thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA), use/no use of POAF prophylaxis (and if, what kind), presence/absence of postoperative fibrillation and equivalent arrhythmia, and the highest ventricular response recorded during POAF. The choice of risk factors and collected data was determined by the data available from medical records. All patients had spent at least one night, most of them two or more nights, in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) before they were admitted to thoracic surgery ward. Patients were divided into three groups: group A included patients with no POAF prophylaxis; group B included patients with diltiazem prophylaxis; and group C included patients with preoperative antiarrhythmic therapy (mostly beta-blockers, a few propafenone or amiodarone) that was continued postoperatively. Diltiazem was included in therapy, if there were no contraindications, on the day of surgery or the first postoperative day (according to clinical circumstances) and continued after transfer from ICU to surgical ward. A patient was included in group B if the 24-hour diltiazem dose was at least 60 mg (usually it was between 60 mg and 240 mg per os divided in 2-4 doses). All patients were treated equally according to the ICU and surgical ward perioperative treatment protocol. All patients gave their informed consent for participation in the study. Statistical analysis and data analysis were done by the licensed STATISTICA 6.1 StatSoft Inc. 1983-2003 (serial number AGA304B211928E61) software. The sample was presented by descriptive statistics and frequency tables. Correlation between the highest recorded ventricular frequency of AF and other parameters was tested by the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and t-test for independent samples. Correlation between the incidence of AF and other parameters was presented in contingency tables and tested by [chi square]-test. Results of statistical analysis were presented graphically and numerically (in tables). Statistical testing was performed at the level of significance of 95% ([alpha]=0.05).
There were 608 patients undergoing lung resection greater or equal to lobectomy during the period of 31 months. As 15 patients with chronic AF and four patients with some kind of pacemaker were excluded, there remained 589 patients with lung resection for further analysis (Table 1). Seventy-seven of these 589 patients developed POAF (13.1%) (Table 2). There were 82 pneumonectomies with 19 (23.17%) cases of POAF. According to their AF prophylaxis, these 589 patients were divided into 3 groups: group A, 236 patients without prophylaxis; group B, 221 patients with diltiazem prophylaxis; and group C, 132 patients with continued preoperative antiarrhythmic therapy (Table 3). POAF was recorded in 34 (14.41%) group A patients, 27 (12.22%) group B patients and 16 (12.12%) group C patients. The highest ventricular response in AF was recorded in each patient, with median 160 (range 91-230) in group A, 150 (range 110-210) in group B and 148 (range 125-170) in group C.The [chi square]-test showed no statistically significant difference in the incidence of AF among patients with different AF prophylaxis (p>0.05) (Tables 4 and 5, Fig. 1). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) yielded no statistically significant difference among patients with different AF prophylaxis with respect to the highest ventricular frequency. Patients without prophylactic antiarrhythmic drugs had higher ventricular frequency during AF but this difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05) (Table 6, Fig. 2). Analysis of correlation of particular risk factors with POAF yielded statistically significant correlation (p<0,05) for age (Tables 7, 8 and 9), sex (Tables 10, 11 and 12), pneumonectomy versus other resections (Tables 13, 14, 15 and 16), generalized atherosclerotic disease (in our study, it was defined as comorbidity including history of myocardial infarction or cerebrovascular insult, diagnosis of coronary disease and peripheral vascular disease) (Tables 17, 18 and 19), and ASA status (Tables 20, 21 and 22). Considering other states and comorbidities, statistical analysis did not show statistical significance, e.g., thoracic epidural analgesia (Tables 23, 24 and 25), arterial hypertension (Tables 26, 27 and 28) and prior chemotherapy (Tables 29, 30 and 31), or the entities were too rare in our patients to be included in the analysis, e.g., diabetes mellitus, renal insufficiency and Teolin therapy.
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The search for the ideal antiarrhythmic for POAF prophylaxis is far from finished. Avoidance of [beta] blockade withdrawal in patients on chronic therapy with these medications is the simple and most effective preventive measure (1,2,4). As with AF therapy, there is no ideal drug or method for POAF prevention in other patients. Magnesium supplementation is usually rec-ommended (1) and regularly administered in our patients. Some of the established antiarrhythmics such as amio-darone have questionable safety, especially in patients with pneumonectomy and COPD (1,2,5). Diltiazem has been established as a prophylactic antiarrhythmic drug with moderate success (1,2). It is recommended early postoperatively, especially in COPD patients, and is usually well tolerated (3). Diltiazem is a nondihydropyridine calcium channel antagonist (class IV Vaughan Williams agent) (6). As AF prophylaxis, we administer it in oral form. In our study, we found no statistically significant difference between patient groups with and without diltiazem prophylaxis, suggesting that in our patients, POAF occurred as a complication of lung resection comparably often with and without diltiazem prophylaxis. So, we could not confirm the report by Amar et al. on diltiazem therapy and its significant POAF rate reduction (3). Our speculation that patients with diltiazem prophylaxis generally have somewhat slower ventricular response during POAF (median 150; without any prophylaxis, median 160), which could have some protective properties per se, was not confirmed by statistical analysis. Maybe the most problematic part of the study was the uneven dosage of diltiazem postoperatively, especially on day 0; also, underdosing was probably quite common due to hemodynamic instability of patients at that time. However, Hiran et al. (2) in their guidelines suggest that diltiazem prophylaxis per os be initiated in recovery room at a dose of 30-60 mg every 6 hours, depending on the patient related factors and with "hold parameters", and we did so accordingly. There is also the issue of the oral route of taking the drug and its gastrointestinal resorption in the early postoperative course. In our study, the incidence of POAF was 13.1%, which is consistent with literature data (2), where it is reported to be 12%-44%. If we exclude pneumonectomies, then our POAF incidence was 11.4%. As most of our patients were transferred from the ICU on postoperative day 2, we can speculate that there were much more unnoticed and asymptomatic POAF episodes on surgical ward. We confirmed literature reports on patient age, sex, pneumonectomy (especially intrapericardial and extrapleural extensions) and generalized atherosclerotic disease (i.e. coronary disease) as risk factors (1,2) (statistically significant results). Some other risk factors could not be confirmed due to the relatively low number of affected patients in our sample (hyperthyroidism, cardiac diseases other than coronary disease, arrhythmias, diabetes mellitus, etc.) (1,2). We believe that there were more patients with these risk factors, but it was not recorded in their medical documentation. It should be noted that we found a statistically significant correlation between ASA status and POAF, but not between epidural analgesia/anesthesia and POAF. ASA status, as stated in the literature, correlates with perioperative mortality "even better than other classifications of mortality and morbidity" (7,8). TEA is considered to exert some protective effect against POAF (9). Arterial hypertension was not confirmed as a risk factor for POAF, in contrast to the 2014 American Heart Association Atrial Fibrillation Guidelines and relevant literature (1,2,4). Preoperative chemotherapy, indicated as a risk factor for postoperative cardiovascular events (10), does not seem to increase the risk of POAF. To establish more definitive conclusions, additional study in a bigger sample and including more and better defined risk factors is needed.
(1.) Frendel G, Sodickson AC, Chung MK, et al. 2014 AATS guidelines for the prevention and management of perioperative atrial fibrillation and flutter for thoracic surgery procedures. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2014;148:153-93, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcvs.2014.06.036
(2.) Hiran CF, Jaklitsch MT, Walsh GL, et al. The Society of Thoracic Surgeons practice guideline on the prophylaxis and management of atrial fibrillation associated with general thoracic surgery: executive summary. Ann Thorac Surg. 2011;92: 1144-52. http://dx.doi.Org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2011.06.104
(3.) Amar D, Roistacher N, Rusch VW, et al. Effects of diltiazem prophylaxis on the incidence and clinical outcome of atrial arrhythmias after thoracic surgery. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2000;120:790-8 http://dx.doi.org/10.1067/mtc.2000.109538
(4.) January CT, Wann LS, Alpert JS, et al. 2014 AHAACC/HRS Guideline for the Management of Patients with Atrial Fibrillation: Executive Summary. A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and the Heart Rhythm Society. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014;64(21):2246-80, https://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIR.0000000000000040
(5.) Van Mieghem W, Coolen L, Malysse I, Lacquet LM, Deneffe GJ, Demedts MG Amiodarone and the development of ARDS after lung surgery. Chest. 1994;105:1642-5, http://dx.doi.org/10.1378/chest.l05.6.1642
(6.) Echizen H, Eichelbaum M. Clinical pharmacokinetics of verapamil, nifedipine and diltiazem. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1986; 11:425-49, https://dx.doi.org/10.2165/00003088-198611060-00002
(7.) Sidi A, Lobato EB, Cohen JA. The American Society of Anesthesiologists' Physical Status: category V revisited. J Clin Anesth. 2000;12(4):328-34, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S09S2-8180 (00)00168-9
(8.) Wolters U, Wolf T, Stutzer H, Schroder T. ASA classification and perioperative variables as predictors of postoperative outcome. Br J Anesth. 1996;77:217-22, https://doi.org/10.1093/bja/77.2.217
(9.) Hanna MN, Murphy JD, Kumar K, Wu CI. Regional techniques and outcome: what is the evidence? Curr Opin Anaes-thesiol. 2009;22(5):672-7, https://dx.doi.org/ 10.1097/ACO. 0b013e32832f330a
(10.) Ferguson MK, Saha-Chaudhuri P, Mitchel JD, Varela G, Brunelli A. Prediction of major cardiovascular events after lung resection using a Modified Scoring System. Ann Thorac Surg. 2014;97:113S-41,http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2013. 12.032
PROFILAKSA POSLIJEOPERACIJSKE ATRJJSKE FIBRJLACIJE I RESEKCIJA PLUCA --NASA ISKUSTVA SA 608 UZASTOPNIH BOLESNIKA
V. Karadza, D. Stancic--Rokotov, J. Spicek Macan, N. Hodoba, N. Kolaric i S. Sakan
Poslijeoperacijska atrijska fibrilacija je cesta komplikacija resekcije pluca. Ona dovodi do povisenog pobola i smrtnosti, produljenog bolnickog lijecenja i povecane potrosnje sredstava u torakokirurskih bolesnika. U skladu s tim, savjetuje se neki oblik farmakoloske profilakse. U nasih bolesnika odabrani lijek je kalcijev antagonist diltiazem. Skupili smo podatke o svih 608 bolesnika podvrgnutih resekciji pluca (ne manjoj od lobektomije) u razdoblju izmedu studenog 2012. i svibnja 2015. Ovo razdoblje ukljucuje bolesnike koji su primali diltiazem tijekom njihova poslijeoperacijskog boravka u Jedinici intenzivnog lijecenja i na kirurskom odjelu te bolesnike koji ga nisu primali. Bolesnici s atrijskom fibrilacijom prije operacije i bolesnici s elektrostimulatorom srca iskljuceni su iz obrade. Ostali bolesnici podijeljeni su u tri skupine: skupinu lijecenu nekim anti-aritmikom prije operacije koji su nastavili svoju terapiju i nakon operativnog zahvata, skupinu na profilaksi diltiazemom i skupinu bez profilakse. Skupljeni podaci su statisticki analizirani. Nismo nasli statisticki znacajnu razliku izmedu skupina u incidenciji poslijeoperacijske atrijske fibrilacije (p<0,05).
Kljucne rijeci: Diltiazem; Atrijska fibrilacija; Torakalna kirurgija.
Vjekoslav Karadza, Dinko Stancic-Rokotov, Jasna Spicek Macan, Nevenka Hodoba, Nevenka Kolaric and Sanja Sakan Jordanovac Department of Thoracic Surgery, Zagreb University Hospital Center, Zagreb, Croatia
Correspondence to: Vjekoslav Karadza, MD, Jordanovac Department of Thoracic Surgery, Zagreb University Hospital Center, Jordanovac 104, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
Received November 10, 2015, accepted September 28, 2016
Table 1. Extent of lung resection Frequency table Lung resection n % PD 26 4.4 PS 56 9.5 BID 27 4.6 BSD 16 2.7 LID 77 13.1 LSS 121 20.5 LIS 82 13.9 LSD 149 25.3 LMD 35 5.9 Total 589 100.0 PD = right pneumonectomy; PS = left pneumonectomy; BID = right inferior bilobectomy; BSD = right superior bilobectomy; LID = right inferior lobectomy; LSS = left superior lobectomy; LIS = left inferior lobectomy; LSD = right superior lobectomy; LMD = right middle lobe resection Table 2. Incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) Frequency table AF n % Yes 77 13.1 No 512 86.9 Total 589 100.0 Table 3. Prophylaxis groups Frequency table Atrial fibrillation prophylaxis n % Diltiazem 221 37.5 Preoperative antiarrhythmic therapy 132 22.4 None 236 40.1 Total 589 100.0 Table 4. Postoperative atrial fibrillation prophylaxis and incidence 2-way summary table: frequencies observed AF AF prophylaxis: AF prophylaxis: preoperative diltiazem antiarrhythmic therapy Yes 27 16 % 35.06% 20.78% No 194 116 % 37.89% 22.66% Total 221 132 2-way summary table: frequencies observed AF AF prophylaxis: Total none Yes 34 77 % 44.16% No 202 512 % 39.45% Total 236 589 AF = atrial fibrillation Table 5. Statistics: POAF and POAF prophylaxis (AF) Statistics: AF(2) x AF prophylaxis(3) [chi square]-test df P Pearson [chi square]-test 0.617 2 0.734 POAF = postoperative atrial fibrillation; AF = atrial fibrillation Table 6. POAF prophylaxis and POAF as the highest ventricular response recorded (here: AF frequency) N AF frequency AF frequency Mean SD Total 77 149.6234 22.79430 Diltiazem 27 148.1481 20.48208 Preoperative antiarrhythmic 16 146.2500 14.24313 therapy None 34 152.3824 27.54502 AF frequency AF frequency AF frequency SE -95% CI +95% CI Total 2.597651 144.4497 154.7970 Diltiazem 3.941778 140.0457 156.2506 Preoperative antiarrhythmic 3.560782 138.6604 153.8396 therapy None 4.723932 142.7714 161.9933 POAF = postoperative atrial fibrillation; AF = atrial fibrillation; SD = standard deviation; SE = standard error Table 7. Age groups Frequency table Age group n % (yrs) [less than or equal to]55 110 18.7 65-74 190 32.3 56-64 248 42.1 [greater than or equal to]75 41 7.0 Total 589 100.0 Table 8. Age groups and POAF (AF) 2-way summary table: frequencies observed Age group AF AF Total (yrs) yes no [less than or equal to]55 9 101 110 % 8.18% 91.82% 56-64 27 221 248 % 10.89% 89.11% 65-74 30 160 190 % 15.79% 84.21% [greater than or equal to]75 11 30 41 % 26.83% 73.17% Total 77 512 589 Table 9. Statistics: age groups and POAF (AF) Statistics: age group(4) x AF(2) [chi square]-test df P Pearson [chi square]-test 11.41967 3 0.00966 Table 10. Sex distribution of study patients Frequency table Sex n % Male 389 66.0 Female 200 34.0 Total 589 100.0 Table 11. Sex and POAF incidence (AF) 2-way summary table: frequencies observed Sex AF AF Total yes no Male 60 329 389 % 15.42% 84.58% Female 17 183 200 % 8.50% 91.50% Total 77 512 589 Table 12. Statistics: sex and POAF (AF) Statistics: sex(2) x AF(2) [chi square]-test df P Pearson [chi square]-test 5.573 1 0.018 POAF = postoperative atrial fibrillation; AF = atrial fibrillation Table 13. Lung resection extent and POAF (AF) 2-way summary table: frequencies observed Lung AF yes AF no Total resection PD 3 23 26 % 11.54% 88.46% PS 16 40 56 % 28.57% 71.43% BID 2 25 27 % 7.41% 92.59% BSD 3 13 16 % 18.75% 81.25% LID 8 69 77 % 10.39% 89.61% LSS 16 105 121 % 13.22% 86.78% LIS 9 73 82 % 10.98% 89.02% LSD 16 133 149 % 10.74% 89.26% LMD 4 31 35 % 11.43% 88.57% Total 77 512 589 POAF = postoperative atrial fibrillation; AF = atrial fibrillation; PD = right pneumonectomy; PS = left pneumonectomy; BID = right inferior bilobectomy; BSD = right superior bilobectomy; LID = right inferior lobectomy; LSS = left superior lobectomy; LIS = left inferior lobectomy; LSD = right superior lobectomy; LMD = right middle lobe resection Table 14. Statistics: lung resection extent and POAF (AF) Statistics: lung resection(9) x AF(2) [chi square]-test df P Pearson [chi square]-test 14.71278 8 0.06499 POAF = postoperative atrial fibrillation; AF = atrial fibrillation Table 15. Pneumonectomies and POAF (AF) 2-way summary table: frequencies observed AF AF Totol yes no PD + PS 19 63 82 % 23.17% 76.83% Other 58 449 507 % 11.44% 88.56% Total 77 512 589 POAF = postoperative atrial fibrillation; AF = atrial fibrillation; PD = right pneumonectomy; PS = left pneumonectomy Table 16. Statistics:pneumonectomies and POAF Statistics: PD + PS(2) x AF(2) [chi square]-test df P Pearson [chi square]-test 8.547484 1 0.00346 POAF = postoperative atrial fibrillation; AF = atrial fibrillation; PD = right pneumonectomy; PS = left pneumonectomy Table 17. Generalized atherosclerotic disease (GAD) Frequency table: GAD n % Yes 78 13.2 No 511 86.8 Total 589 100.0 Table 18. Generalized atherosclerotic disease and POAF 2-way summary table: frequencies observed GAD AF AF Total yes no Yes 16 62 78 Row % 20.51% 79.49% No 61 450 511 Row % 11.94% 88.06% Total 77 512 589 GAD = generalized atherosclerotic disease; POAF = postoperative atrial fibrillation; AF = atrial fibrillation Table 19. Statistics: generalized atherosclerotic disease and POAF Statistics: GAD(2) x AF(2) [chi square]-test df P Pearson [chi square]-test 4.379084 1 0.03639 GAD = generalized atherosclerotic disease; POAF = postoperative atrial fibrillation; AF = atrial fibrillation Table 20. ASA status Frequency table ASA status n % <ASA III 237 40.2 [less than or equal to]ASA III 352 59.8 Total 589 100.0 ASA status = American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status Table 21. ASA status and POAF incidence (FA) 2-way summary table: frequencies observed; marked cells had counts > 10 AF AF Row <ASA III 18 219 237 Row % 7.59% 92.41% [less than or equal to]ASA III 59 293 352 Row % 16.76% 83.24% Total 77 512 589 ASA status = American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status; POAF = postoperative atrial fibrillation; AF = atrial fibrillation Table 22. Statistics: ASA status and POAF incidence (FA) Statistics: ASA status(2) x AF(2) [chi square]-test df P Pearson [chi square]-test 10.47239 1 0.00121 ASA status = American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status; POAF = postoperative atrial fibrillation; AF = atrial fibrillation Table 23. Thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA) Frequency table TEA n % Yes 286 48.6 No 303 51.4 Total 589 100.0 Table 24. TEA and POAF (FA) 2-way summary table: frequencies observed TEA AF AF Total yes no Yes 36 250 286 % 12.59% 87.41% No 41 262 303 % 13.53% 86.47% Total 77 512 589 TEA = thoracic epidural analgesia; POAF = postoperative atrial fibrillation; AF = atrial fibrillation Table 25. Statistics: TEA and POAF (FA) Statistics: TEA(2) x FA(2) [chi square]-test df P Pearson [chi square]-test 0.1153593 1 0.73412 TEA = thoracic epidural analgesia; POAF = postoperative atrial fibrillation; AF = atrial fibrillation Table 26. Arterial hypertension Frequency table Arterial hypertension n % Yes 272 46.2 No 317 53.8 Total 589 100.0 Table 27. Arterial hypertension and POAF incidence 2-way summary table: frequencies observed AH AF AF Total yes no Yes 40 232 272 % 14.71% 85.29% No 37 280 317 % 11.67% 88.33% Total 77 512 589 AH = arterial hypertension; POAF = postoperative atrial fibrillation; AF = atrial fibrillation Table 28. Statistics: arterial hypertension and POAF Statistics: AH(2) x AF(2) [chi square]-test df P Pearson [chi square]-test 1.185774 1 0.27619 AH = arterial hypertension; POAF = postoperative atrial fibrillation; AF = atrial fibrillation Table 29. Prior chemotherapy Frequency table CHT n % Yes 127 21.6 No 462 78.4 Total 589 100.0 CHT = chemotherapy Table 30. Prior chemotherapy and POAF incidence 2-way summary table: frequencies observed; marked cells had counts > 10 CHT AF AF Total yes no Yes 14 113 127 % 11.02% 88.98% No 63 399 462 % 13.64% 86.36% Total 77 512 589 POAF = postoperative atrial fibrillation; AF = atrial fibrillation; CHT = chemotherapy Table 31. Statistics:prior chemotherapy and POAF incidence Statistics: CHT(2) x AF(2) [chi square]-test df P Pearson [chi square]-test 0.5984023 1 0.43919 POAF = postoperative atrial fibrillation; CHT = chemotherapy
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|Title Annotation:||Original Scientific Paper|
|Author:||Karadza, Vjekoslav; Stancic-Rokotov, Dinko; Macan, Jasna Spicek; Hodoba, Nevenka; Kolaric, Nevenka;|
|Publication:||Acta Clinica Croatica|
|Date:||Mar 1, 2017|
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