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Postmodernism and the culture of values brief radiography regarding the axiological education of teenagers.

Introduction

The term "postmodernism" is used for the first time in 1870, in an artistic context, when the English painter John Watkins Chapman employs the syntagm "postmodernist painting" to name the European plastic phenomenon that followed the impressionist painting. Towards the middle of the 20th century, the term gets even more spectacular, expanding into different fields and setting up a new stage for the culture and civilization. The frequent use of the concept after the 7th decade of the last century is owed to Jean-Francois Lyotard, who publishes in 1979, the essay "La condition postmoderne ". In other words, postmodernism is not a philosophical movement: it can also be found in architecture, graphics, the art of dance, music, art and literary theory and at present it becomes the favorite subject of many authors (psychologists, sociologists, pedagogues, philosophers, literati), because all areas of the socio- economic are influenced by its effects.

In the current world, postmodernism brings new hierarchies, theories, new orders and preferences. Some authors (Lyon, 1999) consider that postmodernism's characteristics of the cultural and intellectual life are the following: giving up the theory according to which science is built on a solid basis of noticeable facts as well as questioning the illuminist ideas; eliminating all hierarchies regarding knowledge, opinions and preferences; orienting towards local aspects rather than general, universal ones; replacing written, printed text with images offered by the TV screen or monitor, in other words, passing from logocentrism to iconocentrism. The values of the modern era are parodied, reconsidered and revalued from a new perspective. Postmodernism proclaims diversity, eclecticism, mixture of styles, shapes, manifestations, contradictory states. The relations between people change, the power of money is amplified and it triggers the pursuit of personal interest, diminishing self-respect and respect for others (Lipovetsky, 1992). Multiculturalism, interculturalism and transculturalism become directions proclaimed by postmodernism, aiming at cultural holism, globalization, geomodernism. The book (as Lyon also noticed) is no longer seen as an absolute, therefore losing its value as the singular driving force of culture in/over time, since the postmodern man is attracted by the live and colored image, provided by the TV, or especially by the virtual world of the computer. The TV and mass media, in general, create a world of "simulacra", a "hyperreal" (Baudrillard, 1981), illusionary and lively colored world that incites senses.

We must not understand that all these changes have necessarily a negative aspect or negative effects. What must be underlined is the fact that flexibility within each department and between all areas of axiology leads to a greater freedom of movement inside individuals--which is a positive thing--but this freedom offers also the possibility to slide easily between different axiological codes, even antagonistic ones, as a way for subterfuge--and in this respect, negative effects are obvious.

The postmodern juvenile can embrace easily (even enthusiastically), in the name of postmodern principles, the (sub)urban subculture, slipping many times, without realizing and irremediably, into the area of drugs, alcoholism, juvenile violence, street fighting, electronic games or video art. Many times, the juvenile himself, caught up in the traps of such a world that he believes in firmly, cannot realize why he is wrong and why people disapprove of his behavior. In this case, he feels trapped even more in his own axiological disorientation, seeing it as a way for cultural being, at the same time, creating himself own axiological, altered codes, of whose existence the educational tutorial factors know nothing about (Malita, 1998: 93-108; Cucos., 2000: 74-78). Synthesizing the concepts of several theoreticians of this current (Harvey, Bauman, Hassan, Williams, Bell, Graff, Lyotard, Calinescu etc.), Elena Macavei (2001: 16-19) sets up a comparison between the characteristics of postmodernism and those of modernism:

* Modern: rationality, logical rigor, rigorous delimitation, determination, certitude, framing into a style, conformism, fixity, permanent, imitation, continuity, centralized, unitary, convenience, certitude, cultural.

* Postmodern: playful behavior, alternative, variants, giving up limits, borders, indetermination, ambivalence, mixture of styles, denial, rebellion, mobility, ephemeral, immediate, originality, discontinuity, decentralized, fragmentary, tolerance, incertitude, intercultural, indeterminacy (a concept which, in Ihab Hassan's opinion, is composed of indetermination and immanence).

Other authors (Taylor, 2005) consider that modernity has the following essential characteristics:

* Development of new mechanical and electrical technologies in the context of accelerated industrialization of production;

* Theoretical revolutions in the field of physics and social sciences, based on the positivist paradigm of objective knowledge of the problems;

* Large scale demographic dysfunctionalities regarding migration towards the urban areas with drastic consequences on rural, agricultural and communal traditions;

* Increase in consumption capitalism;

* Increase in the number of multinational corporations and internationalization of markets;

* Birocratization of social life;

* Development of strong mass-media systems, which allow the control of the audience and its fragmentation depending on interests and expectations;

* Intensification of the influence of strong states in the field of ideology and military field ;

* A fluctuant world economy because of trade and national loans managed by the strong states.

In some authors' opinions (Lyotard, 1984; Jameson, 1991; Foster, in Taylor, 2005; Crouse, 2008), she mentions a few characteristics regarding postmodern education and culture:

* Increase in global mass media, whose activities transcend the traditional borders of space and time. The programs broadcast by these systems eliminate important distinctions built traditionally on modern cultural identities. Therefore, dichotomies emerge between "high art" and "popular culture", "public" and "private", "surface" and "depth".

* Diversification of new creative and artistic practices that reject linearity, coherence, unity and realism of artistic modernism, and recycle old cultural forms, using as well parody. Hence, combinations of diverse elements from the mass media culture are put together and intertwine in new and unexpected ways, the essential characteristics being discontinuity, fragmentarism, but also intertextuality.

* There is a growing suspicion regarding the credibility of the fundamental narrations that have supported the dominant institutions of modern culture.

* There are promoted small, local cultures and "stories", temporal experiences, produced sometimes by marginalized cultures; there is no longer any metanarration, no objective basis for critique, we can no longer talk about a vision on the world that explains the whole life; there are only "tales" or "stories" which are viable only within a community; knowledge is completely subjective and it comes as a result of culture and language; there isn't only a single universe but multiuniverses.

* Societies depend on inclusion, tolerance, fragmentarism, multiculturalism; the accent falls on differences; people are social constructions determined socially;

* If modernists laid accent on the "group", postmodernists emphasize the individual;

* Erosion of traditional identity, based on stability and essence. For instance, the concept oh "individual" has dominated the modern philosophy and psychology. At present, the models are atypical and are characterized by ambiguity, fluidity, defragmentation, partiality and simultaneity.

At present, in the specialized literature (Leicester, 2000; Smith, Wexler, 2005; Rudaityte, 2008), the syntagm post-postmodernism or after-postmodernism is also used as a distinguished phase that emphasizes the main traits or characteristics of postmodernism. The essential traits of postmodernism are reflected not only in the field of culture, art but also in the field of education. A comparative analysis of the modernism/postmodernism essential notes (for the educational field) is carried out by E. Joita (2009: 190-191):
Table 1 Comparative analysis between modernism and postmodernism

Modernism                           Postmodernism

* Relation to causality,            * Relation to differences
  determination, cause-effect         and contrasts.
  relation. Diachrony.              * Pointing out roles,
  Determination                       functionality of relative,
                                      particular aspects
                                      and synchrony.
                                    * Interdetermination

* Relation to large contexts        * Relation to particular
                                      situations and concrete cases,
                                      contexts.

* Relation to la typical            * Relation to change

* Syntheses, systems, structures    * Critical analyses, antitheses,
                                      role of dichotomy and divergence
                                    * Destructuring
                                    * Skepticism on the great
                                      theoretical perspectives

* Value of criterial,               * Value of free, spiritual,
  structuralist, logical,             relativistic interpretation
  objective interpretation            beyond models, through own
                                      reflections, without turning to
                                      the value of consensus based on
                                      own experience

* Creation, construction            * Deconstruction through the
                                      critique of texts, relations,
                                      hierarchies, ideas, systems and
                                      structures.
                                    * Knowledge through
                                      problematization, subjective
                                      understanding of errors,
                                      through the selection, critical
                                      analysis of information and
                                      arguments, and not through
                                      metaphysical reason.

* Value of quantitative research    * Value of quantitative
                                      research. It is impossible to
                                      put into practice the classical
                                      scientific method.
                                    * Knowledge is subjective.

* Role of rigorous selection        * Role of varied combinations.


According to some authors (Cucos., 2000; Siebert, 2001; Stan, 2004; Joita, 2006; Ulrich, 2007; Joita, 2009; Maciuc, Ilie, Frasineanu, Mogonea, Bunaiasu, Mogonea, Stefan, 2011) the main tendencies and directions in the postmodern education are the following:

* Searching and promoting alternatives for teaching and learning as well as educational alternatives;

* Eliminating the border between sciences;

* Discontinuity, decentralization, tolerance, incertitude, interculturality, globalism, individualism, deconstruction, humanization of technology, promotion of new values, diversification of communication;

* Promoting new educations;

* Realization of thorough curricular reforms; realization of managerial decentralization; personalized approach of strategies;

* Use of alternative sources of information;

* Multiple correlation between different fields of instruction and reality;

* Openness towards community through the transfer of educational roles and towards other factors;

* Preference for educational finalities form the category of goals, to the detriment of normative, referential objectives;

* Accepting and capitalizing on the multiple ways and modalities of instruction, learning;

* Capitalizing both on the theoretical and applicative knowledge;

* Appreciating the importance held by the contextual learning, that is, learning by doing;

* Promotion of non-cognitive, socio-emotional and self-reflectiveness factors;

* Capitalizing on the "intra-", "inter-" transdisciplinary correlations ;

* Promotion of study, predominantly critical and constructive, and also of educational practice;

* Capitalizing on the subject and social;

* Promotion of flexible approaches, multiple interpretations and reflections, complex and complementary explanations.

These traits characterize to a great extent the constructivist paradigm, which acts as an actional-methodological alternative in the educational practice, being based on deconstruction and "building" of knowledge through the own activity of the one learning (DeVries, 2003; Danforth, Smith, 2005; DeVries, Zan, 2005, Diallo, 2005; Joita, 2006). In such an era of profound changes, in an "open" and democratic society that creates and recreates continuously new axiological codes born or not from the axiological codes of a preceding "closed" society (Bergson, in Albu, 1998), the role of education is very difficult, and the axiological orientation of teenagers is hampered by many obstacles. That is why, first of all, the school and family, but also the other cultural and educational institutions, must teach youngsters to truly live their youth, but a youth without the illusions or hallucinations offered by drugs and alcoholism or by the ephemeral pleasures of a virtual world.

Methodology

In a postmodern world, eclectic and preoccupied by the quotidian and by hedonistic pleasures, teenagers are the most "vulnerable" to the effects of the rapid changes that take place in the world of values. Thus, new axiological exigencies emerge in the reconsideration of moral values (Glava, 2000: 211-215), so that teenagers can form a culture of authentic values and make a distinction between these values and the non- values (treated often as values).

In this respect, we have conducted an action research in the 2011/2012 academic year, whose main goal was to notice the way in which adolescents (high school pupils) relate to moral and material values and to the way they project a moral profile within a continuously changing society. The action research considers form a different perspective some of our older preoccupations (Mogonea, 2004).

Throughout our research, our objectives have been the following:

1. Knowing the moral-axiological, material and pragmatic options oh high school pupils, with repercussions on the choice of a future profession;

2. Identifying teenagers' professional options (when the investigation took place they were sure of pursuing higher education courses), by relating to the own axiological system;

3. Pointing out possibilities for support in the axiological orientation of adolescents

The general hypothesis of the research was the following one: We consider that the educational paradigms of the postmodern pedagogy, in their functional-actional dimension, influence fundamentally the formation of the psycho-moral profile of teenagers, in an axiological universe continuously changing and accelerating, with a direct impact on the social desirability of professional options.

In close relation with the general hypothesis, we have pursued two derivative particular hypotheses:

1. The psycho-moral profile of teenagers is strongly determined by non-formal and informal postmodern educational factors, which often counterbalance the educational influences of the formal;

2. The material-financial expectations of young graduates influence directly the choice of the future profession.

The pursued variables have been the following:

a) As for the general hypothesis, we have aimed at establishing a correlation between the educational paradigms of postmodern pedagogy and the formation of the psycho-moral profile of teenagers as well as the social desirability of the professional option.

b) As for the particular hypothesis 1, we tried to establish a correlation between the axiological preferences of pupils and the persons or environments considered to be reference points or axiological models.

c) As for the particular hypothesis 2, the pursued correlation was the one between the teenagers' preferences for certain values and the professional option.

The focus group of subjects

The focus group of subjects consisted of 204 subjects (ten 12th grades) in the region of South-West Oltenia (the counties of Dolj and Mehedinti), from different specializations (specializations: pedagogy, modern languages, mathematics, computer science, physics, history, social sciences, chemistry and biology). The chosen subjects are high school pupils, adolescents, with the age between 18 and 19 years old. On the other hand, the surveyed subjects declared their intention to pursue higher education courses, which is an important aspect in noticing the pertinence of the established correlations.

The research instruments and the way of their capitalization The research set of instruments was based on:

* an assessment test of moral values--it comprises an inventory of 20 values and non-values respectively, that the subjects marked with "+" (those considered to be values) and with "- (those considered to be non-values), depending on their own axiological options. The positioning in two columns of values/non-values eased the understanding of the way in which pupils observed the existence of a relation of synonyms as well as the fact that both synonyms had the same notional content (for instance, "friendship"="companionship" or "arrogance"="infatuation"), although some are only partial synonyms.

* an assessment test of material values--it comprises 20 material values, that is, 20 hypostases in which pupils were invited to imagine and choose between an ordinary, modest life and a pecuniary, luxurious and extravagant life (Mogonea, 2004). Their marking was done with points from 1 to 5.

* a confidence questionnaire--aims at noticing the possible sources/environments of provenance that determined the choice of moral and material values/ non-values (mass-media, parents, teachers/school, group of friends, own opinions) that teenagers believe in and consider to be reference points and moral-axiological models (Mogonea, 2004). They have also been marked with points from 1 to 5. Also, this questionnaire takes into consideration the professional option of adolescents, materialized in the choice of a faculty/specialization in accordance with the educational offer of the University of Craiova.

The three tests aimed at pointing out the teenagers' orientation in terms of values, their own axiological system, the sources and axiological models that they relate to, the relation between all this and their professional option. We turned our attention on the pupils in the 12th grade, first of all because of the importance of this phase, on one hand, on the formation of a behavior in accordance with the system of values which is functionable at social level, and on the other hand, on the professional orientation of teenagers.

Results

Following the above mentioned three tests, we obtained the following results:

a) The assessment test of moral values

By interpreting the data presented in table no. 1 regarding the scoring of values/non- values by the surveyed subjects, we can assess the following:

* just two values have received from pupils a maximum score ("friendship" and "justice");

* there have been values included in the sphere of non-values, as there have been non-values included in the sphere of values (notice table no. 3);

* the assessment of values/non-values in the first column is not the same with the synonyms in the second column, significant differences existing between some of them; for instance, "greed"- 17.2% marked with "+", 82.8% marked with"-", but "desire for gain"-52% marked with "+" and 48% marked with "hos?i%"-38.2% marked with "+" and 61.8% marked with but, "animosity"-5.4% marked with "+" and 94.6% marked with "equity"-22.1% marked with "-" and 77.9% marked with "+", but "justice"-0% marked with "-" and 100% marked with "+"; "servilism"-22.5% marked with "+" and 77.5% marked with but "servility" 7.4% marked with "+" and 92.6% marked with "-".

The above data can also be represented graphically (histogram no. 1 and no. 2) as it follows:

b) The assessment test of material values demonstrates that adolescents are also inclined to axiological options that would provide them with a rich, exaggerated life (notice Table no. 4):

c) The confidence questionnaire applied to pupils in the 12th grade pointed out the following results:

The subjects' professional options (students-to-be) are as follows:

The results obtained in this research have pointed out a series of characteristics such as: an axiological disorientation of teenagers, negative assessments of certain values, positive assessments of certain non-values, tendency for the desire of immediate gain, extravagance, luxury, indifference, disbelief regarding certain values, but faith in certain non-values.

Discussions

For the statistical interpretation of the results obtained following the research, we have used the Pearson (r) correlation coefficient in order to establish the correlations between the variables within the hypotheses.

a) In order to establish the correlation between the psycho-moral profile of teenagers and the educational environments or the factors influencing their axiological formation, we shall exemplify by presenting the obtained values: parents: r =.297 (significant correlation at 0.01 level); mass-media: r =.226 (significant correlation at 0.01 level); teachers: r =.372 (significant correlation at 0.01 level); group of friends r =.549 (significant correlation at 0.01 level).

From the data obtained we can notice that the group of friends has a major influence. We substantiate this option through the fact that the surveyed subjects are (still) adolescents, (still) looking up to groups with a strong influence on them. On the other hand, teenagers' tendencies towards eccentricity, originality, extravagance lead them towards extreme acts, sometimes socially undesirable.

Mass media also exerts a great influence on teenagers, and this fact is measured by the correlation coefficient who has indicated a link between the models imposed by mass media and teenagers' preferences for certain material values (which show expectations of a luxury life, great financial gains, important positions etc.).

The study points out the importance of the influence of factors from the non-formal and informal environments, seen as a disloyal "competitor" for the formal environments represented here by teachers. The formal educational environment (r = .372) represents nevertheless a positive indicator in the educational orientation of teenagers.

The parents (r = .297) can be education's fundamental representatives, influencing to a great extent the orientation, direction and content of children's education. The parental education (as goal, contents and strategies) must be in line with both the education promoted by school and the non-formal environments, for the harmonious development of the child's personality.

b) for the establishment of correlations between the teenagers' options for certain material values and their professional options, we have used the same Pearson correlation coefficient. The results obtained show correlations (significant at 0.01 level) for certain faculties that, in general, are alluring because of the material and financial advantages that the practice of a certain profession would bring.

We present the greatest values obtained: Faculty of Economics and Business Administration: r =.348 (significant correlation at 0.01 level); Faculty of Law: r =.227 (significant correlation at 0.01 level); Faculty of Automatics: r =.183 (significant correlation at 0.01 level); Faculty of Physical Education and Sports: r =.184 (significant correlation at 0.01 level).

As for the Faculty of Letters, the correlation is significant (for the same level of significance) but only in the case of moral values and not of material values, a fact which confirms once again the hypothesis according to which there is a correlation between the teenagers' material expectations and options and their professional option.

Conclusions

The 3rd millennium started under the auspices of the postmodern constructivist paradigm, which apparently brings incertitude, denial, nihilism, and the reassessment of metanarrations and modern paradigms. The modern values, considered immutable and eternal become in postmodernism reasons for incertitude critique and opposition.

The goal of our study is to outline this incertitude surrounding the values of the postmodern education continuously reforming itself and even in crisis, as Ph Combs first announced in 1968. But it may be possible that this crisis that education is confronted with is nevertheless an element of normality, given that the world is in a continuous rapid pace modernizing, changing and adapting itself.

In the present study, we have tried to identify eventual schisises between the theoretical-normative dimension of pedagogy and its methodical-applicative part. Hence, we have tested adolescents' moral-axiological conscience and behavior (pupils in the 12th grade) as well as their professional expectations in relation to this psycho-moral profile. The conclusions we have come to, point out that:

* high school pupils (students-to-be) are oriented towards practical, materialistic dimensions, materialized into important financial gains; holding public positions; having very profitable businesses, luxury cars etc.;

* they prefer well paid professions;

* they want immediate gains from the practice of some apparently easy professions.

The results we have come to and which confirm the established hypotheses create at the same time, the premises for some theoretical and especially actional-methodological openings regarding teenagers' education for values and the formation of a culture of values, in line with the exigencies and expectations of a postmodern world that is changing fast, but surrounded by permanent incertitude. We underline the necessity of the Romanian School of implementing the new instructive-educational paradigms that assure the training of graduates for the real life and world. Teenagers' pragmatism is revealed by the need to form those capacities and competences that can allow them to find their way in real social, professional and life situations.

In this context, we consider necessary to underline the importance of the instructive and educational alternatives, and in this respect, the socio-constructivist paradigm (beyond its limitations inconveniences and critics) is a possibility for the satisfaction of these exigencies. Hence, we believe that teenagers will be better prepared for school as well as for the geomodernity of the 21st century, being surrounded by "thousands of cultures and a single civilization" (Mali/a).

References

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Joita, E. (2009). Stiinta educatiei prin paradigme. Pedagogia "vazuta cu alti ochi", Iasi: Editura Institutul European

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Maciuc, I., Ilie, V., Frasineanu E.S., Mogonea, Bunaiasu, C.M., Mogonea, F., Stefan M.A., (2011). Some Post-modern educational aspects. An anthology, Germany: Academica Greifswald

Malita, M., (1998). Zece mii de culturi, o singura civilizatie. Spre geomodernitatea secolului XXI, Bucuresti: Editura Nemira

Mogonea, F. R., (2004). Valori morale. Postmodernitate. Educatie. O radiografie axiological a inceputului de mileniu. Analele Universitatii din Craiova, Seria Psihologie-Pedagogie, III (5-6), Craiova: Editura Universitaria

Rudaityte, R., (editor) (2008). Postmodernism and After: Visions and Revisions, Cambridge Scholars Publishing

Siebert, H., (2001). Pedagogie constructivista. Bilant asupra dezbaterii constructiviste asupra educatiei, Iasi: Editura Institutul European

Smith, R., Wexler, P., (ed.). (2005). After Postmodernism: education, Politics and Identity, London Washinton D. C: The Falmer Press

Stan, E. (2004). Pedagogie postmoderna, Iasi: Editura Institutul European

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Florentin-Remus Mogonea, Senior Lecturer, Ph.D, University of Craiova, Department of Teachers Training, Phone: 0040251422567, Email: fmogonea@yahoo.com

Florentina Mogonea, "Senior Lecturer, Ph.D, University of Craiova, Department of Teachers Training, Phone: 0040251422567, Email: mogoneaf@yahoo.com
Table 2. Teenagers' options regarding the scoring
of values/non-values in postmodernity

     Value/ non-value             Total

                             "+"%    "-"%

1. Frienship                  100      0
2. Sociability               95.1     4.9
3. Impulsiveness             20.1    79.9
4. Honesty                   90.6     7.4
5. Impertinence               9.8    90.2
6. Sincerity                 79.9    20.6
7. Servilism                 22.5    77.5
8. Perseverence              79.9    20.6
9. Equity                    77.9    22.1
10. Hostility                38.2    61.8
11. Moderation               77.5    22.5
12. Duplicity                 25      75
13. Extravagance             44.1    55.9
14. Parsimony                20.1    79.9
15. Tolerance                65.2    34.8
16. Self-sufficiency         17.6    82.4
17. Indiference              36.8    63.2
18. Virtue                   77.9    22.1
19. Greed                    17.2    82.8

20. Moral integrity          87.3    12.7

     Value/ non-value             Total

                             "+"%    "-"%

21. Eccentricity             29.4    70.6
22. Justice                   100     --
23. Hypocrisy                27.9    72.1
24. Frankness                70.6    29.9
25. Arrogance                25.5    74.5
26. Lack of self-control     15.2    84.8
27. Honesty                  87.7    12.3
28. Servility                 7.4    92.6
29. Consistency              72.5    27.5
30. Avarice                   7.4    92.6
31. Modesty                  79.9    20.1
32. Animosity                 5.4    94.6
33. Infatuation              10.3    83.7
34. Generosity               95.1     4.9
35. Dexterity                89.7    10.3
36. Indolence                22.1    77.9
37. Desire for gain           52      48
38. Dignity                  95.1     4.9
39. Amicability              92.6     7.4
40. Spirit for mutual aid    92.2     7.8

Table 3. Teenagers' options regarding values/non-values

Positive assessments of some non-values

        Non-values             %

1. Impulsivity                20.1
2. Impertinence               9.8
3. Servilism                  22.5
4. Hostility                  38.2
5. Duplicity                   25
6. Extravagance               44.1
7. Parsimony                  20.1
8. Self-sufficiency           17.6
9. Indiference                36.8
10. Greed                     17.2
11. Eccentricity              29.4
12. Hypocrisy                 27.9
13. Arrogance                 25.5
14. Lack of self-control      15.2
15. Servility                 7.4
16. Avarice                   7.4
17. Animosity                 5.4
18. Infatuation               10.3
19. Indolence                 22.1
20. Desire for gain            52

Negative assessments of some values

          Values               %

1. Sociability                4.9
2. Honesty                    7.4
3. Sincerity                  20.6
4. Perseverence               29.1
5. Equity                     22.1
6. Moderation                 22.5
7. Tolerance                  34.8
8. Virtue                     22.1
9. Moral integrity            12.7
10. Honesty                   12.3
11. Consistency               27.5
12. Modesty                   20.1
13. Generosity                4.9
14. Dexterity                 10.3
15. Dignity                   4.9
16. Amicability               7.4
17. Spirit for mutual aid     7.8
--                             --
--                             --
--                             --

Table 4. Teenagers' options regarding material values

            Material values                    Assessment scale (%)

                                           Very    Little   Sufficient
                                          little

--a luxury home                             --       --         --
--a financial situation well                --       --         --
  above average
--ordinary communication means              --      2.5        34.8
  for an efficient communication
--small, but safe and                       --       --        19.6
  profitable businesses
--a bank account that would                 --       --        19.6
  cover usual needs
--having the most modern                    --       --         --
  technical audiovisual means
--one or more luxury cars                   --       --         --
--becoming the manager of an                --       --         --
  important firm
--holding a high and important              --       --        2.5
  public position
--possibilities to spend                    --      7.4        12.2
  vacations in different places,
  domestically or abroad
--a comfortable home                        --      13.2       24.5
--enough money for an ordinary              --      20.1        25
  life
--state-of-the-art                          --       --         --
  communication means
--lucrative businesses                      --       --         --
--a bank account with a sum as
  large as possible
--having at one's disposal                  --      7.4        29.9
  ordinary technical means for
  one's needs
--an ordinary car                           --      39.7       45.1
--being a business associate                --      39.7       45.1
--a modest job                             7.4      42.1       43.1
--having an own vacation house              --       --        2.4
  in an exotic destination

            Material values               Assessment scale (%)

                                          A lot    Very much

--a luxury home                            17.6       82.4
--a financial situation well               22.5       77.5
  above average
--ordinary communication means             50.5       12.2
  for an efficient communication
--small, but safe and                      70.6        9.8
  profitable businesses
--a bank account that would                67.6       12.8
  cover usual needs
--having the most modern                   22.1       77.9
  technical audiovisual means
--one or more luxury cars                  25.5       74.5
--becoming the manager of an                27         73
  important firm
--holding a high and important             18.1       79.4
  public position
--possibilities to spend                   69.6       10.8
  vacations in different places,
  domestically or abroad
--a comfortable home                       57.4        4.9
--enough money for an ordinary             45.1        9.8
  life
--state-of-the-art                         12.3       87.7
communication means
--lucrative businesses                     17.2       82.8
--a bank account with a sum as             16.3       83.7
  large as possible
--having at one's disposal                 57.8        4.9
  ordinary technical means for
  one's needs
--an ordinary car                          15.2        --
--being a business associate               15.2        --
--a modest job                             7.4         --
--having an own vacation house             37.3       60.3
  in an exotic destination

Table 5. The results of the confidence questionnaire

Educational factors                 Assessment scale (%)

                       Very    Little   Sufficient   A lot   Very much
                      little

Own opinions            --       --         --       17.6      82.4
Parents                 --       --         --       22.5      77.5
Mass-media              --      2.5        34.8      50.5      12.2
Teachers                --       --        19.6      70.6       9.8
Group of friends        --       --        19.6      67.6      12.8

Table 6. The subjects' professional options

              Faculties                      Assessment scale (%)

                                         Very    Little   Sufficient
                                        little

Faculty of Letters                        --       --         --
Social Sciences (Geography, History,      --      7.4        12.2
Philosophy, Sociology, Political
Sciences)

Exact Sciences (Mathematics,              --       --        2.5
Computer Science, Physics, Chemistry)

Economics and Business                    --
Administration

Law and Public Administration             --

Automatics, Computers, Electronics        --

Mechanics                                 --       --         --

Electrical Engineering                    --      13.2       24.5

Physical Education and Sports             --       --        5.4

Agriculture, Horticulture, Biology        --      7.4        29.9

              Faculties                 Assessment scale (%)

                                        A lot   Very much

Faculty of Letters                      25.5      74.5
Social Sciences (Geography, History,    69.6      10.8
Philosophy, Sociology, Political
Sciences)

Exact Sciences (Mathematics,            18.1      79.4
Computer Science, Physics, Chemistry)

Economics and Business                   27        73
Administration

Law and Public Administration           12.3      87.7

Automatics, Computers, Electronics      17.2      82.8

Mechanics                               12.3      87.7

Electrical Engineering                  57.4       4.9

Physical Education and Sports           15.2      79.4

Agriculture, Horticulture, Biology      57.8       4.9

Graphic 1. Teenagers' positive assessments of non-values

Positive assessments of some non-values %

l. Impulsivity           20.1
2. Impertine ...          9.8
3. Servilism             22.5
4. Hostility             38.2
5. Duplicity             25.
6. Extravaga ...         44.1
7. Parsimony             20.1
8. Self-...              17.6
9. Indiference           36.8
10. Greed                17.2
11. Eccentric ...        29.4
12. Hypocrisy            27.9
13. Arrogance            25.5
14. Lack of ...          15.2
15. Servility             7.4
16. Avarice               7.4
17. Animosity             5.4
18. Infatuati ...        10.3
19. Indolence            22.1
20. Desire ...           52

Note: Table made from bar graph.

Graphic (histogram) 2. Teenagers' negative
assessments of values

Negative assessments of some values %

1. Sociability        4.9
2. Honesty            7.4
3. Sincerity         20.6
4. Perseverence      29.1
5. Equity            22.1
6. Moderation        22.5
7. Tolerance         34.8
8. Virtue            22.1
9. Moral ...         12.7
10. Honesty          12.3
11. Consistency      27.5
12. Modesty          20.1
13. Generosity        4.9
14. Dexterity        10.3
15. Dignity           4.9
16. Americability     7.4
17. Spirit for ...    7.8

Note: Table made from bar graph.

Graphic 3. The role of educational factors in the
axiological education of teenagers

The role of educational factors in the axiological
education of teenagers

              Own       Parents  Mass-media  Teachers  Group
              opinions                                 of
                                                       friends

Very little      0        0           0         0        0
Little           0        0          2.5        0        0
Sufficient       0        0         34.8       19      169.6
A lot          17.6      22.5       50.5      706       67.6
Very much      82.74      7.5       12.2      9.8       12.8

Note: Table made from bar graph.
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Title Annotation:Original Paper
Author:Mogonea, Florentin-Remus; Mogonea, Florentina
Publication:Revista de Stiinte Politice
Date:Jan 1, 2014
Words:5479
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