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Poster Session Pre-College Students 1:30- 3:00 pm Kerns Chapel.

Board 1 THE EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENT ON PIG CORPSES. Jessica E. Hall, Jazzbo4255@AOL.com 2655 46th St., Canton OH 44705 (St. Thomas Aquinas High School, Louisville).

This project is based upon research at the University of Tennessee Anthropological Research Facilities founded by Bill Bass. If a pig corpse is protected from elemental and animal disturbances then it will decompose at a slower rate. Research and advice from the Stark County Coroner's office determined that Sus scrofa (domestic farm pig) should be used because its skin has sparse hair and its fat-muscle ratios are close to a human's. This allows these observations to be applied loosely to humans. Cow tongues were used to study effects on exposed muscle. Three shoulder/hip to hoof sections of the Sus scrofa and three cow tongues were obtained from The Bevington Meat Market in Canton, OH. A wire cage was constructed to protect one pig leg and one cow tongue from large animal interference during exposure to elements. One pig leg and one cow tongue were placed in a shallow grave three feet deep. The remaining pig leg and cow tongue were exposed to animal and elemental disturbances. Each specimen was observed and weighed weekly for five months (from Oct. 6- Mar.23). Specific stages were observed in the specimens. Rigor mortis, bloating, insect eggs and larva, and liquefied tissues exuding from the remains were observed in the protected and exposed pig corpses. Rigor mortis, bloating, and adipocere were observed in the buried pig corpse. The exposed pig corpse was completely skeletonized and the bones were scattered by animals within a 10-week period. The final mass of the protected corpse was 13 pounds (a total loss of 12 pounds). Final mass in the buried pig corpse was 30 pounds probably due to water retention. All of the tongue specimens disappeared, probably carried off by animals, most likely opossum and fox due to tracks and other evidence observed. The pig corpse that is protected from elemental and animal disturbances will decay at a slower rate than the pig corpse that is left unprotected. This research is applicable to criminology and the forensic sciences.

Board 2 THE EFFECTS OF PREVIOUSLY EXPRESSED STRESS PROTEINS ON THE OXIDATIVE STRESS RESPONSE OF SAC CHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. Adam D. Clark-Joseph, AdamCJ1@aol.com 2341 McCoy Rd., Columbus OH 43220 (Upper Arlington High School).

The stress responses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to many different kinds of stress are similar, particularly with regard to the formation of stress proteins. To test if stress proteins synthesized in response to non-oxidative stresses provide protection against oxidative stress, high and low temperature shocks (39 [degrees] C for 60 min and 4 [degrees] C for 30 min) and high and low pH shocks (pH 9.7 and pH 3.3, both for 30 min) were applied to S. cerevisiae cells. To provide a secondary, oxidative shock, 0.5ml of 1.0% hydrogen peroxide was added to half the cells from each of these single-stress environments. Ten plates of S. cerevisiae were exposed to each set of conditions; 10 plates had only high temperature shocks, 10 plates had high temperature shocks and oxidative stress, and so on. The double shock results were then compared with the corresponding single-shock results. Oxidative stress corresponded to a statistically significant change, a decrease, only in S. cerevisiae which had been previously exposed to a low pH shock, where a T-test yielded a p-value of .0300. The controls and other cells exposed to non-oxidative stresses did not change in a statistically significant manner in response to oxidative stress; all the corresponding p-values were between .4 and. 7. Thus, the results of the experiment were inconclusive, though they suggest that low pH shocks may not induce stress protein synthesis.

Board 3 ROAD MORTALITY OF SNAKES IN THE KILLDEER PLAINS WILDLIFE AREA. Nathan J. Yaussy, nyaussy@yahoo.com 5051 N. Galena Road, Sunbury OH 43074 (Buckeye Valley High School).

The eastern plains garters (Thamnophis radix radix) and eastern massasauga (Sisturus catenatus catenatus) are listed as endangered on Ohio's threatened and endangered species list and found in Killdeer Plains Wildlife Area in Wyandot County, Ohio, USA. Killdeer Plains also provides habitat for the Kirtland's snake (Clonophis Kirtlandii), listed as threatened, and the smooth green snake (Liochorophis vernalis), status unknown. Serious concerns exist regarding a decline in numbers of threatened and endangered snakes at Killdeer Plains. Observations during fieldwork at Killdeer Plains have indicated that virtually all species of snakes native to the area are frequently killed by vehicular traffic. A systematic survey of road kills had not been conducted at Killdeer Plains. Thus knowledge of population distributions is incomplete and actual impact that vehicular traffic may have upon snakes, such as seasonal effects, was unknown. This study was conducted in cooperation with the Ohio Department of Natural Resources in three surveys: late August to early November 2000, late March to early June 2001, and late August to early November 2001. All roads in the Killdeer Plains Wildlife area were driven twice a week. Dead snakes were collected, identified, and location recorded by Global Positioning System (GPS). Live snakes were identified, location recorded by GPS, and assisted off the road. The number of snakes found on the roads on each collection day in each collection period was not uniformly distributed. The days of the greatest activity were not the same for all species of snakes and may be linked to temperature shifts in all periods of collection. More snakes were found on specific sections of road than on others. In the fall of 2000, 199 snakes were found. There were 84 brown snakes (Storeia dekayi dekayi), 84 eastern garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis sirtalis), one milk snake (Lampropeltis triangulum triangulum), five eastern plains garters, two eastern massasauga, three Kirtland's snakes, 13 northern water snakes (Nerodia sipedon sipedon), and seven redbelly snakes (Storeia occipitomaculata). In the spring of 2001 there were ten brown snakes, 20 eastern garter snakes, one eastern plains garter, six northern water snakes, one black rat snake (Elaphe obsoleta obsoleta) and one redbelly snake for a total of 39 snakes. The fall 2001 survey produced 150 snakes, with 58 brown snakes, 57 eastern garter snakes, one Kirtland's snake, one milk snake, six eastern plains garters, three redbellys, and 24 northern water snakes. Road survey results were compared with a tile survey also conducted at Killdeer Plains. A tile survey is where metal corrugated roof tiles are put in fields to attract snakes. The tiles are periodically checked for snakes. In the tile survey of 2000, there were 12 brown snakes, 766 eastern garters, three milk snakes, two Kirtland's snakes, 27 massasaugas, 6 northern water snakes, and three smooth green snakes. This illustrates the differences in habits of species of snakes. The fall 2000 road survey data led to the discovery of new populations of eastern plains garter snakes.

Board 4 HOW DO COMMERCIAL DE-ICER PRODUCTS AFFECT THE PHYSIOLOGY OF DAPHNIA MAGNA? Tricia M. Yerardi, triciayerardi@myownemail.com 124 Rinkliff Ln, Chillicothe OH 45601 (Unioto High School).

Ice removal from roads is difficult and leads to the use of de-icer products. However, there may be adverse effects on the physiology of animals. This study explored the effects of various concentrations of commercial de-icer products on the heart rate and swimming motions of the freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna. Freshwater was the control. Hypotheses were: (1) Daphnia magna, that are exposed to weak (1%) solutions of commercial de-icer products, will have no observable changes in heart rate or swimming motions; (2) Daphnia magna, that are exposed to medium (5%) solutions of commercial de-icer products, will have an increase in heart rate and swimming motions, and (3) Daphnia magna, that are exposed to strong (10%) solutions of commercial de-icer products, will have a decrease in heart rate and swimming motions, and possibly die. Solutions were freshwater, Prestone Windshield De-Icer Washer Fluid[TM](Prestone De-Icer), Prestone Driveway Heat[TM](Prestone Heat), Road Runner Ice Melt (Ice Melt), and Diamond Crystal Salt[TM](Salt). Three different specimens were used for each solution. Results were: (1) The heart rate of the Daphnia magna in 1% Prestone De-Icer was not affected. All other solutions decreased the heart rate and caused erratic swimming movements in the Daphnia magna; (2) None of the Daphnia magna in 5% solutions had an increase in heart rate. The swimming movements in all solutions were affected, first with erratic movements and then a decrease in movement; (3) All Daphnia magna in 10% solutions had decreased heart rates. All specimens died in 10% solutions of Prestone Heat and Ice Melt; one specimen died in 10% salt solution. Small disturbances in the Daphnia magna's environments may have profound consequences on their populations. De-icer products should be used in the least amount possible for limited time to decrease stress on the Daphnia magna's life cycle.

Board 5 THE POTENTIAL FOR THE USE OF RADISH IN SOIL PHYTOREMEDIATION. Ericka K. Johnson, shorty hopes@hotmail.com 9884 Foundry St, East Liberty OH 43319, Anna R. Stormer, 03stora@benlogan.k12.oh.us (Benjamin Logan High School).

Phytoremediation is an alternative solution for cleaning toxic soils and waters. Hyperaccumulators remove contaminantes from toxic sites. Plants degrading, containing or stabilizing pollutants act as filters or traps. Contaminantes remediated in this manner include: heavy metals, solvents, pesticides and nuclear wastes. Hyperaccumulators, including Thlaspi goesingense, Alyssum lesbiacum, and Cardaminopsis halleri, are grown and often harvested at a low cost providing an environmentally friendly remediation method. This research involved examining the common radish (Raphanus sativus) for possible use as a hyeraccumulator in phytoremediation. Radishes were grown in soils contaminated with copper and zinc. The copper was at levels of 0 to 800 parts per million. Zinc was at levels of 0 to 3200 parts per million. Metal content within the radish was analyzed by dry ash oxidation, diethydithiocarbamate was added to develop a color reaction and read in a Spec20D. Results were compared to standard solutions. The control plants were found to contain 5 parts per million copper in the leaves and experimental leaves contained between 5-8 parts per million. The control roots 14 parts per million of copper, while the experimental roots contained 16 and 52 parts per million. The control for zinc roots was found to have 13 parts per million and experimental roots levels were between 12-21 parts per million. Controls plants were found to have 2 parts per million for zinc while testing levels were 4-7 parts per million. It was concluded that zinc does not look to be a promising candidate to be remediated by radishes and further testing will be necessary to draw conclusions regarding copper.

Board 6 TOTAL PLATE COUNT OF HETEROTROPHIC MESOPHILIC BACTERIA FOUND IN GROUND BEEF HAMBURGERS USING CONDIMENTS AS A VARIABLE IN COMMERCIAL OUTLETS IN COSHOCTON, OHIO. Amy C. Schlegel, dschlegel@coshocton.com 1900 Atwood Terrace, Coshocton OH 43812 (Coshocton High School).

The objective of this study was to see if hamburger samples with condiments from Burger King and Wendy's fast food restaurants in Coshocton, Ohio, would demonstrate marked differences in their total plate counts of heterotrophic mesophilic bacteria. Four cooked hamburger samples from Coshocton, Ohio, Burger King and Wendy's fast food restaurants (one plain, one with only mustard, one with only lettuce, and one with all of the toppings) were all diluted using sterilized water to a 10:-3 dilution. After their inoculation, the trypticase soy agar plates were placed under a 60 WATT lamp at 37 [degrees] C and read at 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours once a month for eight months. All samples had more than 250,000 CFU's (colony forming units) per ml. In the months of June, September, and October samples were too numerous to count (TNTC). Samples from July and August had the lowest number of CFU's per ml. During November, December, and January the total plate counts rose considerably at 96 hours. This project demonstrates the need to maintain a healthy food supply so that food borne illnesses may be reduced.

Board 7 WHICH MATERIAL GENERATES A SPARK THE QUICKEST? Elizabeth K. Stirbens, kstirbens@neo.rr.com 12280 Beeson St., Alliance OH 44601 (Marlington Middle School).

In this experiment, a static electricity generator was built to figure out "what material generates a spark the quickest?" Twenty materials including alpaca wool, faux fur, towels with and without fabric softener, and carpet were tested five times each, to see which could generate a spark in the quickest amount of time, by creating friction between the materials and the machine. The amount of time it took for a fabric to spark was recorded when or if a material sparked. Through this research, the hypothesis was that the cotton towel dried without fabric softener would create a spark most quickly. Standard for all trials were the maximum amount of time for trial, speed and direction of drum rotation, pressure of material against the drum, and size of material tested. The variable was the different materials used. This experiment showed that the material which generated a spark most quickly was the 100% cotton wash cloth. Sixteen other materials took varying longer amounts of time. Three materials that never sparked were the 100% polyester fabric, the nylon netting, and "Swiffer"[TM] dusting sheet. This experiment rejected the hypothesis. The 100% cotton washcloth sparked in the quickest amount of time, not the towel without anti-static fabric softener. This might be because the washcloth has more protruding threads of fabric than the towel, therefore giving off more of a charge in the process than the towel. This experiment is important to society because it demonstrates how to contain electricity, illustrates just how powerful static electricity can be, and shows which materials are effective and ineffective at preventing static electricity for the carpet and clothing industries.

Board 8 EFFECT OF NERVE GROWTH FACTOR ON NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE PROMOTERS IN GENES OF RATS AND HUMANS IN PC 12 CELLS. Zeeshan A. Qureshi, zeeshan q14@hotmail.com 2993 Brandon Rd., Upper Arlington OH 43221 (Upper Arlington High School).

Nitric Oxide (NO) is a neurotransmitter with significant influence on the Central Nervous System (CNS). The enzyme Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS) forms NO and is regulated by gene NOS 1 or nNOS in neurons. Rats and humans are thought to bear strong DNA sequence similarities in exons of the NOS 1 gene. The objective of this project was to find similarities in mechanism between human and rat NOS 1 using model rat pheochromacytoma (PC 12) cells. When induced by the protein Nerve Growth Factor (NGF), PC 12 cells morphologically differentiate into neurons. In this experiment, endogeneous rat NOS 1 gene was an internal control, human NOS 1 without NGF was the control, and human NOS 1 with NGF was the experimental. PC 12 cells transfected with human NOS 1 promoter region via retroviral vector were obtained from the lab. Cells received NGF treatment for eight days and were then harvested. Total RNA was isolated and cDNA templates were obtained from mRNA through Reverse Transcriptase (RT) reaction. The cDNA templates were amplified under PCR and placed under agarose gel electrophoresis. PCR product formation of rat NOS 1 of size 282 bp with NGF was greater than that of rat NOS 1 without NGF. PCR product formation for human NOS 1 transgene of size 450 bp with NGF was also greater than that of NOS 1 transgene without NGF. Data suggested that NGF induced an up-regulation in NOS 1 gene expression in humans. Results from this experiment can be used to provide a greater understanding of nitric oxide regulation in the CNS.

Board 9 UTILIZING DNA FINGERPRINT ANALYSIS IN FORENSIC ENTOMOLOGY. Jacob Bryan, JacobBryan@adelphia.net 10153 Regatta Trail, Aurora OH 44202 (Twinsburg High School) and Britt A. Bunyard, Ursuline College.

Forensic pathologists are often required to determine time and cause of death during autopsy. The most precise method to date for identifying postmortem interval is by determining the specific species of insect larvae found on a corpse. Within hours (or even minutes) of death, necrophilic flies ("blowflies" and "flesh flies") lay eggs on the corpse. Certain species lay their eggs at different times within the decay cycle. In the past, fly larvae had to be reared to maturity before it was possible to determine the species because of similar larval appearance. To identify the species of larvae more quickly, we have utilized DNA analysis techniques. Between the fall of 2001 and spring of 2002 mitochondrial DNA was isolated from at least 12 adults from three species of necrophilic flies from the family Calliphoridae (Calliphora vicina, C. vomitoria, and Phaenicia sericata). Then using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) we amplified the cytochrome b oxidase subunit 1. Restriction enzyme analysis was carried out on mtDNA PCR products. Based on RFLP differences between species, we were able to unambiguously identify the adult (and larval) stages of necrophilic flies.

Board 10 THE EFFECTS OF IN VITRO STRESS ON THE MORPHOLOGY AND SUSCEPTIBILITY OF CANDIDA ALBICANS. Timothy A. Cook, TimCook2002@aol.com 8671 SR 7, Proctorville OH 45669 (Fairland High School).

Many organisms are known to exhibit morphological changes when subjected to stress. Candida albicans, a member of the Fungi Imperfecti and a common human parasite, is known to have two forms. The blastospore is the more common and is prevalent at temperatures below 37 [degrees] C; the germinated form is usually seen only above 37 [degrees] C. The main goal of this study was to determine morphological changes brought about from starvation, pH, and povidone iodine (PVP-I) stress in C. albicans. Cells were incubated at pH levels 6.3, 7.3, and 8.3 at both 25 [degrees] C and 37 [degrees] C. A minimal salts broth was used to subject the fungi to starvation. Weekly plate counts were made to determine how cell numbers changed over a seven-week period. Weekly minimal inhibitory concentration tests were performed using 5% PVP-I. Cells from the tube representing the highest tolerated concentration of PVP-I were stained with FUN-1 and Calcofluor White M2R, then viewed using laser scanning confocal microscopy. Data from the viable plate count tests concurred with the viability data from the FUN-1 stain. Morphological analyses showed that the cells tended to become more resistant as cell surface area increased due to lower intracellular antimicrobial concentrations. Viable plate counts showed that the cells become more tolerant because they are exposed to a lower amount of the antimicrobial agent as the C. albicans population increases in size. The effect of starvation on the maximum tolerated pressure is currently being investigated by using atomic force microscopy.

Board 11 A COMPARISON OF SOURCE AND WATERSHED QUALITY: MIAMI-ERIE CANAL AND GREAT MIAMI RIVER. Erin E. Sauer, dead possum107@yahoo.com 5185 Red Bird Ln., Hamilton OH 45011-2018 (Ursuline Academy High School).

The Miami-Erie canal stretches across Ohio from Lake Erie to Cincinnati. A portion of this canal branches from the Great Miami River, runs for approximately 1.7 miles past a power plant, and flows back into the river. It is possible that pollution could enter the river, or water quality could be improved from this canal diversion. I hypothesized that the water quality would improve from the diversion due to protected parks and wildlife preserves along the canal. To test whether the quality of the water changes from the beginning of the canal to the end, several factors were measured. Water samples were taken from 6 sites along the canal, two sites at the river upstream from the canal, and two sites at the river downstream from the canal, including a site just downstream from where the canal enters the river. Habitat, invertebrates, depth measurements, air and water temperatures, dissolved oxygen, pH, conductivity, turbidity, flow rate, zooplankton and phytoplankton were measured at each site. The tests were repeated at each site three times on different dates. The data was then compared statistically using ANOVA with an alpha value of 0.05 and Tukey's method of multiple comparisons to find potential variation between sites. Although there was not significant variation among sites for stream quality, there did seem to be a rising trend where the river downstream had higher quality compared to the canal. The results reject my hypothesis that the water would be higher quality in the canal than the river.

Board 12 DEVELOPING A MICROSENSOR ARRAY FOR THE MONITORING OF GLUCOSE AND KETONE LEVELS IN DIABETICS. Kristin Butler, 821 Nela View Rd. Cleveland Heights OH 44112 (Hathaway Brown School).

This research focused on the development of an array of micro sensors to aid diabetics in caring for themselves. For diabetic management it is desirable to monitor both blood glucose and ketone levels. The first phase of the project involves the fabrication and testing of a cost-effective, accurate glucose sensor, followed by a ketone sensor in the second phase, and concluded by an insulin infusion system in the third phase. The glucose sensor was fabricated using thick film printing technology. The sensor was designed using AutoCAD and was printed onto an alumina substrate by the silk-screening method. The sensor contained three electrodes: an anode, a cathode, and a reference electrode. Both anode and cathode were platinum, and the reference electrode was silver-silver chloride. Glucose oxidase was immobilized onto the surface of the sensor using protein cross-linking with glutaraldehyde. This enzyme catalyst sensor measures glucose by detecting the amount of hydrogen peroxide produced in the following reaction: Glucose Oxidase [C.sub.6][H.sub.12][O.sub.6] + [O.sub.2][R][eth][C.sub.5][H.sub.11][O.sub.5]COOH + [H.sub.2][O.sub.2]. Testing of the sensor has been conducted at five concentrations: 50 mg/dl, 100 mg/dl, 150 mg/dl, 200 mg/dl, and 250 mg/dl. The collected data was analyzed on a trendline, and correlation coefficients for sensors tested at both three point and a five concentrations have been between 0.9 and 1. These results would indicate that the existing methods of detecting glucose do work. Further analysis of the results reveals an ideal sensor design, and more comprehensive testing to determine how temperature, calibration, and organic substances known to be in blood affect the sensor's accuracy.

Board 13 TO RISE OR NOT TO RISE: YEAST IS THE ANSWER. Natalia D. Haftkowycz, UkieNat@aol.com 4450 Perry Circle, Seven Hills OH 44131 (Incarnate Word Academy).

The purpose of this project was to find out whether changing or varying the amounts of the ingredients in a particular recipe for a loaf of babka (Ukrainian bread) will affect the rise, taste and appearance of the ultimate finished product. This experiment involved baking eighteen different loaves of bread including a control bread and variables including: 3x salt, no salt, hot milk (130 [degrees] F), cold milk (35 [degrees] F), 2x yeast, 50% yeast, no sugar, 2x sugar, addition of 1 tsp. baking powder, addition of 3 tsp. baking powder, distilled water, tap water, incubated yeast, frozen yeast, expired yeast, 50% more flour, and baking at 325 [degrees] F. Each loaf was baked for 55 minutes in an oven preheated to 350 [degrees] F. Largest hole size in the bread, yeast fermentation time, growth of yeast (bread) in the oven, and color of the bread were measured and recorded for each variable. The baked bread was taste-tested by five observers. Every ingredient affected the finished product in one-way or another. The greatest rise occurred when no salt and expired yeast were used, and the least rise occurred when tap water and 325 [degrees] F temperature were used. The best tasting bread was the control, and the worst tasting were when triple salt and cold milk were used. The darkest breads were produced when triple salt and cold milk were used, and the lightest breads when 50% yeast, 325 [degrees] F temperature and baking powder were used. Fermentation time was shortest when hot milk was used, and longest when cold milk was used.

Board 15 IS THAT HAMBURGER YOU'RE EATING E. COLI FREE? Peter A. Haftkowycz, Rajkoff@aol.com 4450 Perry Circle, Seven Hills OH 44131 (Incarnate Word Academy).

The purpose of this project was to find out if harmful E. Coli (Type 0157:H7) can be found in local hamburger meat and to see if leaving meat in the refrigerator or out on the counter will cause more bacteria to grow, and to see at what temperature it is safe to assume that the meat is safe from the growth of E. Coli and other bacteria. The hypotheses included: E. Coli (Type 0157-H7) would be found in local hamburger; the meat that is left out the longest will have the most E. Coli and bacteria; and the meat that is thoroughly cooked will have the least amount of bacteria. Meat was cultured onto tripticase soy agar and MacConkey agar plates, which were incubated. There were three different tests for the three different sources of hamburger meat (i.e. Tops, Giant Eagle, and Thayer's Meats in Cleveland Ohio in December 2000): refrigerator test, counter test, and cooking test. 22 MacConkey plates were tested for the presence of E. Coli using special API strips that were incubated. No E. Coli (Type 0157-H7) was found in local hamburger meat Hamburger meat left out the longest either on the counter or in the refrigerator had the most bacteria. And it is safe to assume that the meat is E. Coli flee at about 120 degrees Fahrenheit (i.e cooked to medium).

Board 16 LEVELS OF NITRATE IN COMMERCIAL BRAND AND HOMEMADE BABYFOOD Christine A. Lewis, 03Clewis@beaumontschool.org 7451 Briar Hill Drive Kirtland OH 44094 (Beaumont School).

High levels of nitrates may be harmful to infants, especially those less than six months old. Infants' stomachs, because of their lower acidity, convert more nitrates to nitrites than an adult's stomach. High levels of nitrates and nitrites may result in difficulty breathing, dizziness, headaches, nausea and vomiting. The purpose of this project was to determine whether homemade baby food or Gerber baby food contain a higher amount of nitrate-N and nitrate. The vegetables and fruits used in homemade baby food are not as closely regulated as commercial baby foods, and therefore homemade baby food may contain a higher amount of nitrates than Gerber baby food. Nitrate-N and nitrate parts per million (ppm) were determined using a spectrophotometer and a standard curve for nitrates in four types of Gerber and homemade baby food. Results showed Gerber to be more consistent in nitrate ppm between the four trials. Homemade baby food varied in amount of nitrates, sometimes lower than Gerber baby foods and sometimes higher. For both types of baby food, green beans showed the highest levels of nitrates and apple sauce the lowest level of nitrates. The findings of this project suggest that parents should be cautioned when feeding homemade baby foods to infants less than six months of age as the levels of nitrates may vary depending on the produce used.

Board 17 THE POWER OF UV LIGHT. Kelly D. Knapp, chica4286@aol.com 7478 Greenfield Trail, Chesterland OH 44026 (Beaumont School).

In this experiment, Serratia marcescens was tested against UV light to find out how UV light affects S. marcescens. To find out the answer to the question, "Will it be mutated, making it susceptible to antibiotics, or will it be killed?" To do this experiment, the bacteria was exposed to UV light at different intervals of time. The intervals were 0 hr., 2.5 min., 5 min., 7.5 min., 10 min., 12 min., 15 min., 30 min., 1 hr., 2 hr., 4 hr., 6 hr., and 8 hr. The UV light used was part of a hood in a lab. The different intervals were the changing variable. Then the plates were incubated overnight to enhance the bacterial growth. The next day, the surviving bacterial colonies were inoculated into the MIC (Minimal Inhibition Concentration) Ways. Those were then incubated overnight. The next day, the results were read using a magnifying mirror reader. This experiment was done twice to ensure the results. It was thought that the UV light would basically kill the S. marcescens and make the surviving colonies more susceptible to antibiotics. This was expected from the background research done on how UV light affects DNA. The UV light did kill most of the S. marcescens but mutated the surviving colonies making them more resistant to the antibiotics. This is most likely a mutation because of the pigment change and changes in susceptibility seen in the S. marcescens after their exposure to the UV light. It turned them a cream color from their original red pigment. This supports Darwin's theory of survival of the fittest. The colonies that survived became more resistant, therefore, would have a longer survival rate.

Board 18 MICROMACHINED NANOMEMBRANES FOR ARTIFICIAL PANCREAS AND KIDNEY. Elena Udovina. lena u 1999@yahoo.com (Shuvo Roy, roys@bme.ri.ccf.org) Hathaway Brown School, 19600 North Park Boulevard, Shaker Heights OH 44122.

In the technology of BioMEMS (Biological Microelectromechanical Systems), there exists a need for the development of an artificial membrane for use in many applications within the human body. The goal of this research is to advance the development of such a membrane using a unique technology that allows for creation of pores tens of nanometers wide, as opposed to the standard several microns. In this case, the membrane is intended to be used as a semi-permeable encapsulating vehicle for pancreatic cells to be carried throughout the body for the treatment of diabetes or in the dialysis tubing used in artificial kidney systems. Based on prior research and modern materials literature, polysilicon was selected as the material to be used for the membrane. This research investigates the permeability and transport properties of polysilicon in order to evaluate its use as an artificial membrane. The testing device used is an "ussing chamber" in which the membrane is placed and tested for permeability and other properties. Prior successful results using carbon dioxide as the transport medium were obtained: at pressures ranging from 0.42psi to 0.66psi, the flow rate of carbon dioxide was reported to exponentially increase directly with pressure and to range from 0.60ul/min at 0.42psito 9.50ul/min at 0.66psi. Current testing is investigating liquid flow across the membrane. The results obtained thus far indicate that polysilicon is a viable potential candidate to be used in a BioMEMS artificial membrane.

Board 19 EFFECT OF STICK TWIST ON THE VELOCITY OF A HOCKEY SLAP SHOT. William C. Musat, Rider3516@aol.com 3516 Darlington NW, Canton OH 44708 (Glenoak High School).

A hockey slap shot consists of a long, fast swing and hitting the playing surface behind the puck, which makes the stick flex and un-flex into the puck, which gives the puck additional velocity. This study was conducted to see if the addition of twist to the stick bend can increase the velocity of the hockey slap shot. It was believed that the combination of bending and twisting of the stick would increase puck velocity. In order to achieve twist in the stick, the toe of the blade on the stick must strike the ground first. This result is a simultaneous bending and twisting of the stick. Using a gravity-powered machine to consistently shoot the slap shots, there were several different types of tests run. There were over one thousand tests run with just the stick bend including seven puck positions and six stick paths. Tests with only the stick bend varied puck position, stick path, stick weight, and stick flexibility. The over one hundred tests with stick bend and twist varied six puck positions and six stick paths. Adding the stick twist caused an increase in puck velocity of 19% (42 KPH to 50 KPH) compared to a swing without the twist. Maximum puck velocity occurred when the puck was placed 175mm behind the axis of rotation, and the stick hit the ground 325mm behind the axis of rotation. This is 225mm further than when no attempt is made to utilize stick twist. Field tests with out the machine showed that the authors' maximum puck velocity went up 15%; from 60 KPH to 69 KPH when the swing was changed to maximize stick twist. It was concluded that stick twist can increase the puck velocity if the swing is modified to have the toe of the blade hit the ground first, and the ground must be hit further behind the axis of rotation than would be done otherwise.

Board 20 WINTER HYDROLOGY OF CLOUGH CREEK: DO THE AQUEOUS SOURCES DIFFER? A COMPARISON OF CREEK WATER, RUNOFF, ICE AND SNOW. Jill E. Neagle, jillneagle@fuse.net 6711 Linder Lane, Cincinnati OH 45244 (Turpin High School).

Do the winter aqueous sources of a creek have similar water quality characteristics to each other? The initial hypothesis stated that creek water, runoff, ice, and snow from Clough Creek, Hamilton County, Ohio would yield similar water quality results. Eight measurable water characteristics were taken from two sites on the Clough Creek three different times, each a week apart in January of 2001. Test kits were used to test the collected water for pH, hardness, carbon dioxide, nitrite-nitrate nitrogen, dissolved oxygen, chlorine, and acidity. These tests are considered standard water quality measurements. The results from the three samples taken were averaged together into Site A and Site B results. The results were graphed by specific characteristics tested at each source site. The graphs indicated significant measurable differences from the same test. For example, the pH of the creek water was 7.7 while the snow was only 6.5. The hardness of the runoff was 22 gpg while the hardness of the ice was 8 gpg. There was also a difference between Site A and Site B in nitrite concentration as Site A was .22 ppm while in Site B it was only .05 ppm. Each source tested came from a different place. The ice had a low hardness concentration because the minerals or hardness are found in the rocks and on the bottom of the creek and the ice sample taken was at the top of the water away from hardness sources. In site A there was more runoff causing the nitrite concentration to be higher. These results supported the conclusion that the winter sources of Clough Creek do differ from one another consequently not supporting the original hypothesis

Board 21 THE EFFECT OF SIDE DOMINANCE ON THE VISUO-SPATIAL FUNCTION OF THE BRAIN: Tasha D. Manoranjan, tasha@columbus.rr.com 2240 Sedgwick Dr., Columbus OH 43220 (Upper Arlington High School).

The purpose of this research project was to determine whether right brain functions were more developed in left-handed people, more specifically, whether there was a correlation between handedness and visuo-spatialness. Visuo-spatialness is a right-brain function, and is described as how someone interprets their environment, and one's ability to see the "bigger picture." This ability describes how someone perceives their surroundings and how well they can focus on more than one object at a time. The visuo-spatial ability of 31 high school students was judged by their performance on four tasks, after determining the side-dominance of each student. The tasks included a pencil and paper maze, constructing a surgeon's knot, creating a star, and a memory test (subjects were shown 8 objects for 15 seconds and were then asked to recite the objects). Findings from this study suggest that side-dominance has no affect on visuo-spatial tasks. When the statistical analysis (which involved using a T-Test and a Chi Squared Test with the data) was completed with the data, the researcher found that any correlation between handedness and visuo-spatialness was too small to be considered significant (0.79, 0.64, 0.23, 0.036), and was due only to chance. This discovery is important because it supports the theory that left-handed people are not stronger in performing right-brain dominated functions. This research project also provides reason that left-handed persons are not right-brained.

Board 22 THE PERFECT WAVE. Andrew J. Loza, ajloza@columbus.rr.com 6337 Manteo Dr., Dublin OH 43016 (Karrer Middle School).

People often wonder why ocean waves break on shore and why some waves are more spectacular than others. The goal of this project was to identify factors affecting wave height. A 4-foot wave tank was built to simulate production of ocean waves. The wave tank was made using Plexiglas and an erector set. A paper grid was attached to the side of the tank to aid in the measurement of wave height (amplitude). A plastic paddle, moved manually at a constant speed, was used to generate the waves. The wave motion was recorded using a video camera and the tape played back at slow speed to facilitate the measurement of wave height. The resulting wave-height data were analyzed using a spreadsheet. An average often waves was used to generate each data point. Four variables were examined: distance traveled by the paddle, frequency of wave generation, distance from the paddle that the measurement was made and the presence/absence of a barrier simulating the slope of a beach. The distance that the paddle was moved appeared to have the largest affect on the amplitude of the waves. On average, a 51% increase in amplitude was observed when the distance the paddle was moved increased from one to five inches. The short length of the tank led to significant wave reflection and constructive/destructive interference. In all eight tests waves lost amplitude as they traveled away from the paddle. The presence of a barrier(shore) caused the waves to break reducing their amplitude. The results of these experiments could be applied to the problem of beach erosion caused by very large waves. Future projects would test structures capable of preventing large waves from hitting the shore. Since interference and resistance on the bottom of a wave play a large role in the wave height, one could fund a way to cancel out or decrease the energy waves have and thus reduce erosion.
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Publication:The Ohio Journal of Science
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Mar 1, 2002
Words:6328
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