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Poster Session Biological; Earth; Education; Engineering; Environmental; Physical; Social 10:00 - 11:00am Kerns Chapel.

Board 1 COMPARISON OF DECAY OF RED MAPLE (ACER RUBRUM L.) AND RED PINE (PINUS RESINOSA AIT.) BOLES AFTER ELEVEN YEARS IN A CENTRAL MASSACHUSETTS FOREST. Adam S. Zorn, zorna@muc.edu (Charles McClaugherty, mcclauca@muc.edu) Mount Union College, 1972 Clark Avenue, Alliance OH 44601.

The purpose of this study is to compare the rate of decomposition of Acer rubrum L. and Pinus resinosa Ait. boles after a period of eleven years. The study began in 1990 when felled trees of each species were cut into 1-meter sections. The sections were placed in the Harvard Forest, MA with 80 red maple and 87 red pine sections placed in a red maple stand and red pine stand, respectively. The diameter of each bole varies from 15 to 100 cm. The boles were placed so that the entire length of each section was in complete contact with the ground. The logs were left to incubate undisturbed, and sampling from each site was done at 0, 5, and 11 years, with 5 boles being removed at years 0 and 5, and 10 boles being removed at year 11. Using density as a measure of decomposition, the rate of decomposition of each species was measured. The density data from year 5 showed that only 55.4% of the initial density of red maple remained compared to 73.3% of the initial density of the red pine, indicating that red maple decomposes at a much faster rate than red pine. Visual analysis of the year 11 samples supports the hypothesis that the red maple boles decompose at a faster rate than the red pine boles. A few of the smaller diameter samples from the red maple were very decomposed, with some being barely more than a mass of roots and organic material, whereas most of the red pine samples were relatively solid. The densities of the year 11 samples will be determined using displacement. The expectations of the density results are that they, like the year 5 data and visual analysis, will support the hypothesis by indicating that the red maple samples are much more decomposed than the red pine samples.

Board 2 THE IMPACT OF A METROPOLITAN AREA ON THE GROWTH OF DREISSENA POLYMORPHA. Courtney R. Lay, snort75@yahoo.com (Alan Stam, astam@capital.edu) Dept of Biological Sciences, Capital University, 2199 E Main St., Columbus OH43209.

The zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) is an invasive species that has significant impacts on freshwater ecosystems in the Great Lakes region of North America. These effects include altering food chains, water quality, and habitat substrate. The objective of this research is to determine what kinds of effects a large metropolitan area poses on the growth of zebra mussels. Shells from 50 individuals were collected from sites upstream and downstream in Alum Creek from the metropolitan area of Columbus, Ohio. The Velmex Tree-Ring Measurement System was used to measure the widths of the concentric growth ridges of the shell. The mean growth of the mussels from the two sites will be compared statistically.

Board 3 COPPER UPTAKE IN ROOTS FROM HYDROPONICALLY GROWN TREE SEEDLINGS. Brandy N. Jones, (Cadance Lowell Ph.D., clowell@csu.ces.edu and KrishnaKumar Nedunuri, Ph.D., knedunuri@csu.ces.edu) Dept Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Central State University, PO Box 1004, Wilberforce OH 45384-1004.

Heavy metals such as copper, cobalt, nickel and zinc from industrial processes can be major soil pollutants. Phytoremediation is a novel method of using natural vegetation to extract pollutants from contaminated soils and sequester them as plant biomass. The objective of this ongoing study was to model copper uptake into four tree species, green ash, white ash, red oak, and sycamore. These tree species are grown on coal reclamation sites in Ohio in poor growing conditions and may be candidates to use for phytoremediation. Copper levels in the nutrient solution for this hydroponic study were 50 to 500 times higher than typical soil extractable copper concentrations (0.4 ppm) found in Ohio. A flood and drain hydroponic system was set up in the Central State University greenhouse. Deionized water was added/drained weekly for one month followed with biweekly treatments of complete nutrient solutions with increasing concentrations of copper. The system consisted of 20 large, 124 L plastic containers filled with perlite. Thirty-three green ash, 33 red oak, 27 sycamore, and 27 white ash one-year seedlings were randomly planted with six trees per container. The trees were al lowed to grow for five months in the hydroponic system. The roots were removed from the trees, frozen at 0 [degrees] C until use. Feeder roots less than 1.0 mm in diameter were dried at 55-60 [degrees] for 24 h. Dried roots were hand ground in a mortar and pestle, and 0.05g of the dried material per sample was ashed in porcelain crucibles in a muffle furnace for 4h at 450 [degrees] C. Ashes were placed in medium (10-15 [micro]m) glass Buchner funnel with sealed fritted disk and copper was eluted with 10ml of 2M HCL/1M HN[O.sub.3]. Samples were diluted with type I water and copper concentrations were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. To evaluate growth and survival, tree height, basal diameter, leaf chlorophyll content, and aboveground biomass were measured.

Board 4 DETERMINATION OF RICE CULTIVAR ROOT EXUDATE VARIATION EXAMINED THROUGH NITRIC OXIDE INHIBITION OF METHANOGENESIS. Christopher P. Beekman, (Rebecca S. Bilek, rbilek@muskingum.edu) Muskingum College, 163 Stormont St., New Concord OH 43762.

Rice is the primary food crop in many areas of the world where population growth is highest. Rice is traditionally grown in fields that are flooded with water shortly after the plants begin to grow. Water cover deters oxygen from reaching the soil, thereby allowing anoxic bacterial metabolic processes to occur. De-methylization of acetate and other organic acids begins shortly after the field is flooded, producing methane, a greenhouse gas. As global dependence on rice increases, identifying mitigation options becomes desirable. Cultivar type has been shown to dramatically influence methane emissions. The primary source of methane precursors (i.e. organic acids) is the rice plant itself in the form of root exudates. This study examines why production of methane varies with cultivar and the effects of the concentrations of root exudates in the soil with depth and cultivar type. Nitric oxide will be used to inhibit methanogenesis, allowing organic acids to accumulate for subsequent analysis by high performance liquid chromatography. Samples of soil pore water and emitted gases will be analyzed by gas chromatography to determine the concentrations of methane and carbon dioxide. In addition, measurements of stable isotope ratios of carbon will be used to calculate the contribution of each methane production pathway and the percent of produced methane that is oxidized. Results will be used to understand why methane emissions differ widely between cultivars grown under identical conditions. Unlike previous soil incubation studies, this investigation will be conducted using actual rice producing plots allowing for a more accurate analysis that includes plant/soil inter-relationships.

Board 6 GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF USERS OF A WEBSITE ON THE ROLE OF WOMEN IN THE ART OF ANCIENT GREECE, Frederick John Kluth, fjk@fjkluth.com 1060 De Leone Drive, Kent OH 44240-2026.

Most media target local users because of logistical problems. Governmental agencies and advertisers provide funding for local users for similar reasons. The emphasis of the Internet may change this. In Nov. 30, 1997 an educational web site was set up on the Role of Women in the Art of Ancient Greece to explore the use of the web. The site allows investigation of the geographic distribution of Internet users. The question is whether Internet uses follow usage patterns demanded by other media. On the menu page of the site users are given the option of registering as a user. As of October 30, 2001, two hundred and nine users have registered with 163 of those users indicating that their residence is the United States of America. Though the site is physically in Ohio only 9 of the registrants indicate Ohio as their location. New York State is the most common location with New York City being the most common city. Forty-six registrants indicated a location in one of 25 foreign countries. The country with the second most registrants was the United Kingdom with 10. The tremendous geographic diversity found requires serious adjustment of funding directions. A national sponsor might be acceptable while an international sponsor might be preferred.

Board 7 SURVEY OF ECONIMIC VALUE OF A CHANNEL RESTORATION PROJECT. Dawn A. Farver, farver.1@osu.edu, The Ohio State University, 590 Woody Hayes Drive, Columbus OH 43210.

An agricultural drainage ditch on Waterman Farm at The Ohio State University (OSU) was the potential site for a channel restoration project. To determine the public support from two different groups of stakeholders, a questionnaire was created to survey their "willingness to pay" (WTP) for channel restoration projects. The channel drains directly into the Olentangy River and, consequently, the focus of the economic surveys was the Olentangy River. The first group of stakeholders, residents living within the watershed, was asked to value channel restoration if the restored channel would reduce the flux of contaminants into the Olentangy River (22 respondents). The second group of stakeholders, members of the OSU community, was asked to value the university's participation in programs incorporating environmental best management practices (52 respondents). It was hypothesized that respondents who frequently participated in recreational activities on or near the Olentangy River would be interested in preserving the area and would, therefore, be willing to pay for measures to protect the water quality of the river. The data collected were summarized in an Access database and a regression analysis was performed. The average number of visits to the Olentangy River per respondent was 11 and the average WTP per respondent was $23 -24. From these results, it appears that maintaining the integrity of recreation areas is important to the surrounding community, and that it is important to the OSU community that more environmentally sound practices are implemented on campus.

Board 8 EXCAVATION AND CONSERVATION OF THE HARTLEY MASTODON, COLUMBIANA COUNTY, OHIO. Cheryl P. Mattevi (1), mattevi@salem.kent.edu and Brian G. Redmond (2). (1) Kent State University Salem Regional Campus, 2491 SR 45 S, Salem OH 44460, and (2) Cleveland Museum of Natural History, Cleveland OH.

The Hartley Mastodon was salvaged July 31, 2001 from a commercial lake excavation in Butler Township, Columbiana County, Ohio. The excavated lake lies within an alluvium area along the headwaters of the Upper Mahoning River, and is associated with a kettle lake within Wood fordian tills. The specimen appears to be a young healthy female, and consists of a total of 87 complete or nearly complete bones, including a nearly intact cranium, mandibles, both tusks, partial pelvic structure, 34 ribs, 29 vertebrae, and 18 foot bones. Although the original material, including the cranium, was not recovered in place, a large vertebral section from C2 through T5 was articulated and associated with ribs and one tusk. Immediately following excavation, the tusks and bone material were wrapped in plastic and stored in a cool place before being washed with a water spray and allowed to dry slowly. The remains, which are stable and generally intact, were found at the surface of a shelly marl layer containing abundant freshwater snails and clams indicating a shallow lake environment. Twigs and beaver-chewed maple branches are closely associated with the mammal, which was covered with only 110 cm of peat deposits. Conservation of the material is a joint project of the Cleveland Museum of Natural History and Kent State University Salem Campus. The specimen is being used as a focus for research at Kent Salem and the Cleveland Museum of Natural History as well as for hands-on scientific investigations in local secondary schools.

Board 9 GEOGRAPHIC PATTERNS OF HOME COMPUTER OWNERSHIP IN THE UNITED STATES. Brace W. Smith, bsmith4@bgnet.bgsu.edu YuZhou, yzhou@bgnet.bgsu.edu Bowling Green State University, Dept of Geography, Bowling Green OH 43403.

Although personal computers have become a fixture in the workplace and the home, not all Americans have equal access to computers. The purpose of this paper is to describe geographic patterns in the ownership of home computers. State-level data from the Current Population Survey for 1994 and 1998 are utilized. In 1994, the states with the highest percentages of ownership of home computers were located primarily in the West and Northeast, with Alaska, Utah and New Hampshire leading the nation. In contrast, states in the Southeast were characterized by lower rates. Between 1994 and 1998, the national rate of home computer ownership more than doubled, rising from 24.3% in 1994 to 51.1% in 1998. Despite high growth rates between 1994 and 1998, the states in the Southeast continued to lag the rest of the nation. Simultaneously, high rates of ownership had expanded from the original three states to several other states, including Washington, Oregon, Wyoming, Colorado, and Delaware. National averages in 1997 showed that the rate of home computer ownership tends to rise as income levels and educational levels increase. For example, nationwide 75.9% of the families with incomes of $75,000 and greater owned a computer in contrast to only 38.8% of those families with incomes in the $25,000 to $49,999 range. In the 1998 Current Population Survey data for states, however, income and educational attainment variables were only modestly correlated with state-to-state variations in computer ownership, having correlation coefficients of 0.505 and 0.597 respectively.

Board 10 A PLUTO-CHARON CABLE SPACECRAFT. Francis G. Graham, francisgraham@rocketmail.com Kent State University, 400 E. Fourth St., East Liverpool OH 43920.

The planet Pluto and its moon Charon are mutually tidally locked bodies of near 0.0018 and 0.00018 Earth masses, respectively. Their gravitational fields are weak enough so that a steel cable of tensile strength approx. 2.9 Gpa can be strung over the approx. 17,300 km. distance between the surfaces of their mutually facing hemispheres, and a cable spacecraft could move up and down between them. Allowances on the cable spacecraft system could be made for slight librational effects, thermal differences, and a preliminary design for a small 11,500 kg loaded (9105 kg. empty) cable spacecraft is realistic, transiting between Pluto and Charon in about 15.9 hours. Electromagnetic braking on the cable from electricity generated in fuel cells would make the craft more than twice as energy efficient than a transfer using chemical rockets alone, once a cable system is in place. This is likely the only pair of worlds in our solar system where a cable spacecraft is feasible with only modest advances in materials technology.

Board 11 ILLINOIAN AND PRE-ILLINOIAN STRATIGRAPHY OF THE MILL CREEK VALLEY, HAMILTON COUNTY, OHIO. J. Michael Clinch, mclinch@ehstech.com and Michael D. Morris, EHS Technology Group, P O Box 3040, Miamisburg OH 45343-3040.

Three deep (120'- 140') Rotasonic test borings have been completed through a dissected high terrace located along the western margin of the Mill Creek valley, in the Winton Terrace neighborhood in Cincinnati, Ohio. Sediment cores from these three test borings, as well as samples from other conventional test borings were used to interpret the stratigraphy of the area. The tread of the terrace is between 150 and 100 feet above the floor of the modern Mill Creek valley, and slopes towards the valley. The terrace is underlain by four, distinct till layers, separated from each other by a thin-to-thick layer of lacustrine sediments and/or subaqueous fan deposits. Adjacent to the valley wall, the tills are overlain by colluvial sediments. The tills are massive to sheared in places, and crudely laminated in others, suggesting the presence of both lodgment tills and subaqueous flow tills. The upper surfaces of these tills are weathered, and wood fragments are occasionally found in the base of the tills. These relationships suggest that each till is the result of a separate glaciation or stage within a single glaciation, and not the result of minor marginal fluctuation. The uppermost till layer is Illinoian in age, and the deeper tills may be from earlier stages of the Illinoian Glaciation, or from older glaciations. The tills overlie at least two older episodes of lacustrine deposition, separated by an episode of free drainage, represented by the fine-grained sand deposits formerly exposed in a sand and gravel pit. The lacustrine deposits are underlain by non-glacial sediments deposited on the floor of the Deep-Stage valley, which is present beneath the Mill Creek valley. Stratigraphically-significant portions of these cores have been donated to the ODNR core repository, where they are available for study.

Board 12 DRIFT THICKNESS OF OHIO. Michael P. Angle, mike.angle@dnr.state.oh.us Paul Spahr, paul.spahr@dnr.state.oh.us Frank Fugitt, frank.fugitt@dnr.state.oh.us Mike Hallfrisch, mike.hallffisch@dnr.state.oh.us Ohio Dept of Natural Resources, Division of Water, 1939 Fountain Square Dr., Columbus OH 43224.

The Ohio Dept of Natural Resources (ODNR), Division of Water, Water Resources Section (WRS) has produced a series of statewide geographic information system (GIS) coverages for the unconsolidated (glacial) aquifers of Ohio. Well log and drilling reports, existing geologic maps, soil maps, and bedrock topography and drift thickness maps on file at the ODNR, Division of Geological Survey and the WRS were utilized to construct these coverages. Maps were drawn and digitized using 7.5 minute quadrangle topographic maps at a scale of 1:24,000. The digital coverages were then joined to produce a state coverage. This map depicts a color-ramped derivative map that combines the drift thickness and lithology themes derived from the coverage. These themes are overlayed on a digital elevation model base map of the state, derived from the National Atlas of the United States elevation data set. This map provides a unique means of summarizing Ohio's glacial deposits. This project was funded, in part, by a grant from the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency, under provisions of Section 319 of the Clean Water Act.

Board 13 MODELING OF SEDIMENT TRANSPORT IN RIO PUERCO, NEW MEXICO, USING LINEAR REGRESSION ANALYSIS. Isam E. Amin, ieamin@cc.ysu.edu Dept of Geology/Center for Environmental Studies, Youngstown State University, Youngstown OH 44555.

The Rio Puerco, in central New Mexico, is an ephemeral stream with a drainage area of 7340 square miles. Most of its flow is runoff from rainfall induced by thunderstorms. Diversion of streamflow for irrigation is uneconomical because the Rio Puerco basin has one of the highest suspended sediment concentrations in the United States. Furthermore, the sediments contain toxic heavy metals such as arsenic, mercury, and uranium. The objective of this study is to estimate the sediment load in Rio Puerco using linear regression. Specifically, sediment load, a dependent variable, is estimated as a function of water discharge, an independent variable. Sediment load is estimated on a daily, monthly, and annual basis. The regression procedure is also utilized to relate suspended sediment concentration to daily water discharge. Data used in this study are obtained from Water Resources Data for New Mexico, published by the U.S.G.S. The data cover a period of 32 years and are recorded at the gaging station near Bernardo. Results of the regression analysis are obtained using the SPSS program. The results indicate high correlation coefficients for the daily (r=0.95) and monthly (r=0.97) relationships, a relatively lower coefficient (r=0.76) for the annual relationship, and a poor correlation coefficient(r=0.50) for the sediment concentration relationship. The difference in correlation coefficients is due to the fact that sediment load is highly interrelated with water discharge whereas sediment concentration is primarily related to erosion of the watershed rather than scour of the bed of the main stream.

Board 14 THREE-DIMENSIONAL SURFICIAL-GEOLOGY MAPS OF THE CANTON AND EAST LIVERPOOL 1:100,000-SCALE QUADRANGLES. E. Mac Swinford, mac.swinford@dnr.state.oh.us Glenn E. Larsen, Richard R. Pavey, Gregory A. Schumacher, and Kim E. Vorbau, Ohio Dept of Natural Resources, Division of Geological Survey, 4383 Fountain Square Dr., Columbus OH 43224-1362. The Ohio Dept of Natural Resources, Division of Geological Survey recently completed two maps depicting the surficial geology of the Canton and the Ohio portion of the East Liverpool 1:100,000-scale quadrangles. Mapping was performed at 1:24,000 scale (48 quadrangles), compiled digitally, and converted into full-color, print-on-demand, 1:100,000-scale, three-dimensional surficial-geology maps. These maps show the thickness and stratigraphic sequence of lithologic units such as till, gravel, sand, silt, and clay from the surface down to and including the uppermost buried bedrock unit. Data sources include county soil surveys, Ohio Dept of Transportation and Ohio EPA boring logs, engineering logs, water-well logs, theses, and published and unpublished reports. New mapping discoveries caused changes in interpretation of the area' s geology. Buried valleys beneath numerous tributaries south of the glacial margin contain thick deposits of lacustrine silt down to bedrock; the silt is intermixed with debris flows and fans from the valley sides. Numerous buried valleys thought to be filled completely with sand and gravel actually contain relatively thin deposits of sand and gravel underlain by thick lacustrine silt and debris-flow deposits. Extensive revision of the bedrock topography of Wayne County depicts bedrock much closer to the surface than previously mapped. The Wisconsinan-Illinoian boundary was mapped in greater detail based on soils maps. This project was partially funded by the U.S. Geological Survey, National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program, STATEMAP component.

Board 15 REVISED BEDROCK TOPOGRAPHY OF THE MECHANICS BURG OHIO QUADRANGLE. Richard J. Wynkoop, rjwynkoo@cc.owu.edu 958 Montrose Ave, Bexley OH 43209.

Updating bedrock topography maps is one of the many functions of the Ohio Dept of Natural Resources (ODNR), Division of Geological Survey. The Mechanicsburg 7.5-minute bedrock topography map presently available was extracted by photo enlargement from the 1:62,500-scale Champaign County bedrock topography map completed in 1978. Since its publication, additional data points have become available from log and boring records of the ODNR Division of Water, the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (OEPA), and the Ohio Dept of Transportation (ODOT). Since changes could not be made to the original photographically enlarged map, old data points were transferred and verified on a new mylar base map, new data points were plotted, and bedrock topography contours were revised. Interpretation of the new data confirms the presence of the large tributary to the Teays valley system which was shown in the original map. On the new map, however, the valley is deeper and a sharp bend at the Champaign-Clark County line is removed. The map is available as an open-file map at the ODNR Division of Geological Survey, and copies are available to the public on demand. Hydrogeologists and environmental engineers will be able to use this map to make more informed decisions about location, volume and potential production of aquifers and other resources as well as to construct more accurate models of the flow of pollutants that may enter aquifers.

Board 16 FRACTURE AND MACROPOREFLOW IN NUTRIENT/PESTICIDE TRANSPORT TO GROUND AND SURFACEWATER. Julie Weatherington-Rice, weathringtn-rice.1@osu.edu Ann D. Christy, Christy.14@osu.edu Bennett & Williams Environmental Consultants, Columbus OH 43231 and The Ohio State University, Columbus OH 43210.

In glaciated Ohio, researchers have noted nutrients and pesticides can bypass grass and forested filter strips to enter surface and shallow ground water. Agrochemicals have been detected in drain tile effluent, shallow monitoring wells, and stream base flow, but the delivery mechanisms are not well understood. The Ohio Fracture Flow Working Group has identified fractures in the substratum (C horizons) of 95 soil series in Ohio (81 prime farmland soils) representing ~25 million acres in the Midwest. Macropores formed by biological and physical mechanisms within the soil can also contribute contaminants to drain tiles or fractures in minutes, bypassing the soil's ability to retain the nutrients and pesticides. Most models of chemical transport do not take the effects of fractures and macropores into account, under-predicting delivery rates by a factor o f 100 or more. The RootZone Quality Model (RZQM) can be modified to include fractures and macropores, but errors can still be introduced by the way storm events are represented. Modeling by members of the Working Group have found pesticide transport through macropores to be 2.6 (at 1.0 cm) to 1.5 (at 2.5 cm) times greater under median Midwest storms (with initially high intensity, ending as low intensity rainfall) than when modeled assuming constant rainfall intensity conditions. The difference in results between these two modeling assumptions diminishes with higher rainfall volumes, suggesting that more bypass flow is likely under the typical low volume storm more common in Ohio. These significantly higher than expected transport volumes affect ground and surface water quality in agricultural settings and need to be factored into local management and policy decisions.

Board 17 EFFECTS OF FATHERS INVOLVEMENT ON CHILD'S ADJUSTMENT TO CANCER. Stacy R. Flowers, stcrftwr@Otterbein.edu (Dr. Laura Bennett-Murphy, LBennett-Murphy@Otterbein.edu) Otterbein College, 1 Otterbein College, Westerville OH 43081.

As medical care has become more advanced, children are living longer and fuller lives than in the past. Medical personnel have begun to focus on improving quality of life for chronically ill children and their families. Research examining children's adaptation to chronic illness has clearly delineated the ways in which maternal adjustment, maternal involvement, and family functioning can promote child adjustment to disease. Research by Sawyer et al. has shown that maternal adjustment during the period after diagnosis had a significant relationship with the children's psychological adjustment 2 years after diagnosis. While the effects of mothers' adjustment on child adjustment have been established, relatively few studies have examined the role of fathers. The proposed research will examine the impact of fathers' involvement on a child's adjustment to cancer. More specifically, the research is intended to examine the effect of fathers' coping, fathers' distress, roles in childcare, and household management and how those variables may relate to a child's adjustment. Research could lead to an increase in knowledge that may benefit medical personnel in the treatment of chronically ill children and their families. It is predicted that the more time a father spends with his child(ren), and the better the father's adjustment, the better the child's adaptation to cancer will be. Twenty mother/father dyads will be asked to complete a total of 5 questionnaires that will measure coping, distress, roles in childcare, household management, and perceived child adjustment. Questionnaires will be administered to both mothers and fathers in order to gain amore comprehensive view of how household management tasks are divided when a child is being treated for cancer. In addition, 20 fathers of non-ill children will be matched by child's age, gender, and family socioeconomic status to serve as a control group.

Board 18 AN EXAMINATION OF THE ROLE OF NMDA RECEPTORS AND VDCCS IN ACQUISITION AND RETENTION OF A TIMING TASK. Anna L. Mann, a-mann@onu.edu Jennifer A. Webb, j-webb@onu.edu (Brian Woodside, boodside@onu.edu) Dept of Psychology and Sociology, Ohio Northern University, 525 South Main Street, Ada OH 45810.

Long-term potentiation (LTP), an enduring, enhanced neuronal response, is one possible mechanism underlying memory. Two forms of LTP have been identified in the rat brain. NmdaLTP, which decay s over a short period, is mediated by the M-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). VdccLTP, initiated by activation of voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs), may represent long-lasting changes at the synapse. Research has demonstrated that MK-801, a drug that blocks nmdaLTP, impairs acquisition of both spatial and non-spatial tasks. Verapmil, a drug that blocks vdccLTP, also impairs long-term retention of spatial tasks. The effects o fMK-801 and verapamil vary depending on training schedules, type of task, and timing. Here we hypothesize that MK-801 will impair early performance (short interval), and verapamil will impair later performance (long interval) and retention of bar pressing behavior reinforced on a gradually increasing Fixed Interval schedule. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, 90 days old, individually housed and on a 12/12 reverse light/dark schedule, will be mildly food deprived to 85% of ad lib weight. All animals will be taught to bar press on a continuous reinforcement schedule and then divided into three groups. Thirty minutes before each training session rats will be systemically injected with either saline, MK-801 (.10 mg/kg), or verapamil (10 mg/kg); doses previously demonstrated to b lock the respective forms of LTP and impair behavioral performance. An initial session will measure any effects of the drugs on baseline bar pressing behavior. Next, animals will be trained in successive sessions using a gradually increasing Fixed Interval schedule. Behavior will be measured as trials to criterion, bar pressing rates, and performance after a five day retention period. Saline animals should learn to delay lever-pressing until close to the end of the interval required for a reward. Impairment will be evident if the rat's lever-pressing rate becomes continuous, as opposed to delayed, or if the lever-pressing extinguishes due to the increasing length of the interval.

Board 19 THE EFFECT OF NMDA RECEPTOR ANTAGONISTS AND VDCC ANTAGONISTS ON ACQUISITION AND RETENTION OF CONTEXTUAL DISCRIMINATION CUES. Julie N. Foster, j-foster@ono.edu JoDee L. Kane, j-kane@onu.edu (Brian L. Woodside, b-woodside@onu.edu) Dept of Psychology and Sociology, Ohio Northern University, 525 S Main St, Ada OH 45810.

Two forms of long-term potentiation (LTP), a possible mechanism of memory formation, exist in the rat brain. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors mediate a transient form of LTP, nmdaLTP, and voltage-dependent calcium channels initiate a longer lasting LTP, vdccLTP. MK-801, a dose that blocks umdaLTP, impairs acquisition in spatial and non-spatial tasks. Verapamil, at a dose that blocks vdccLTP, impairs retention in spatial tasks. The extent of impairment varies depending on complexity of the task, behavioral paradigm, and timing. The current research examines the effects of MK-801 and verapamil on acquisition and retention of a contextual discrimination task. It is our hypothesis that MK-801 will block acquisition of contextual discrimination cues while verapamil will block retention of the cues. This experiment will be conducted using 90 day old male Sprague-Dawley rats, housed individually on a reverse 12h light/dark schedule. All animal s will be mildly food-deprived to 85% of their ad-lib weight during all phases of the experiment. The animals will be trained to bar press in an operant chamber on a continuous reinforcement schedule. After achieving criterion, animals will be divided into three groups: saline, MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg), and verapamil (10mg/kg). The injections will be administered intraperitoneally thirty minutes prior to training. A baseline session will be conducted to determine if the drugs affect bar-pressing behavior. Subsequent sessions will initiate bar pressing in one of two contextual environments, the standard operant chamber or a chamber altered with a black and white striped card and cedar chip odor. Measures of behavior will include bar pressing frequency rates, trials to criterion, and performance after a five-day retention period.

Board 20 RECRUTING UNDER-REPRESENTED STUDENTS INTO CAREERS IN ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY: THE VALUE OF LONG-TERM RESEARCH EXPERIENCES. Ndate Fall, fall.2@wright.edu, David L. Goldstein, david.doldstein@wright.edu Michele G. Wheatly, michele.wheatty@wright.edu Wesley Jackson, jackson.67@wright.edu Wright State University, Dept of Biological Sciences, Dayton OH 45435.

We describe a program funded since September 1999, by the UMEB (Undergraduate Mentoring in Environmental Biology) program of the National Science Foundation. Our focus is to encourage students from underrepresented populations (ethnic minorities and students with disabilities) to pursue research in environmental science. The mainstay of our effort is to provide students with long-term research experiences (>1 yr). Qualified students are placed in paid positions in funded laboratories. Additional activities include: attendance at Deptal seminars; meeting representatives from academia, industry, and governmental or non-governmental agencies; and seminars providing exposure to skills (e.g. time management, resume writing) and mentors (e.g. minority medical and graduate students) chosen to nurture careers in science. Female applicants have outnumbered males by >3:1, and about 90% of participants have been African-American. Nine students currently work in laboratories ranging from environmental toxicology to physiology of stress to experimental psychology. Early results o four program include several recent graduates who have continued on to graduate school in plant ecophysiology, parasitology/immunology, and environmental policy. The retention of some of these students at Wright State has increased minority enrolment in our graduate program by about 50%. In the future, longitudinal data will compare career trajectories, including entry to scientific professions and graduate schools, of UMEB students with their peers who did not participate in the program.

Board 21 CHARACTERIZATION OF METALLO-b-LACTAMASEL1.R. Yates, G. Periyannan, M.W. Crowder crowdemw@muohio.edu Dept of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Miami University, Oxford OH 45056.

Since the introduction of antibiotics in the early part of the last century, the problem of bacterial resistance to antibiotics has challenged physicians and medical researchers alike. Currently, some bacterial infections are unaffected by commonly prescribed antibiotics that were once used to treat patients suffering from bacterial infection. Specifically, several cases have been reported of ampicillin-resistant E. coli infections, methicillin-resistant S. aureus infections, and carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa infections. Initial research has implicated B-lactamase enzymes as integral componenets of bacteria that exhibit resistance to two major antibiotics, penicillins and cephalosporins. Metallo-b-lactamases, a subgroup of the b-lactamase family of enzymes, characteristically bind two Zn(II) ions that are integral to their tertiary structure and ability to lyse b-lactam bonds. These are integral to the functioning of both penicillins and cephalosporins. The characterization of the metallo-b-lactamase L1 was two fold: First, Co(II) substituted L1 enzyme was created under anaerobic conditions. Subsequent Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopic studies of this Co(II)-substituted enzyme were used to investigate the metal binding sites of L1. The NMR spectra showed paramagnetically shifted 1H resonances from 40 to 100 ppm relative to the resonance of solvent water; five of the peaks were attributable to His N-H protons. UV-Vis studies showed Co(II) ligand field transitions from 500 to 650 nm. Further characterization of L1 focused on the creation, overexpression, and purification of four mutant L1 enzymes: H84C, H86C, H89C, and H160C. Transformation of the plasmid into E. coli allowed for overexpression of all four mutant enzymes; however only the H84C and H89C mutants were successfully purified. The H84C and H89C both bind 1 molZn(II)/mole enzyme, and the Kcat value for H89C, 33 +/- 4s-1 is significantly different from the wild type L 1 enzyme. The H84C and H89C mutants allow for the preparation of Co(II)-Zn(II) and Zn(II)-Co(II) analogues of L1 and now allow us to investigate the role(s) of each metal ion separately.

Board 22 THE DEVELOPMENT OF A METHOD TO EXAMINE THE COMPONENTS OF THE SURFACE OF POWDERED PARTICLES. Clark Michael Rosenberry, crosenberry@jcu.edu Michael P. Setter, msetter@jcu.edu Box 100, John Carroll University, 20700 North Park Blvd., University Heights OH 44118.

This paper describes one step in developing a general procedure to detect the surface components of powdered particles without any interference from the components under the surface. This information can be used to determine how the surfaces of these powder particles affect the interactions between the particles and their environment. The complete procedure involves the controlled dissolution of just the surface layers of a particle and examining the resulting solution. The purpose of this investigation is to determine if electrochemistry would be useful in examining these solutions. The primary techniques used in these experiments were Cyclic Voltammetry and Linear Sweep Voltammetry for qualitative identifications plus Linear Sweep Stripping Voltammetry and Differential Pulse Stripping Voltammetry for quantitative determinations. The general procedure for the research was to prepare standard nitric acid solutions and then run a series of tests using a CV-50W Voltammetric Analyzer from Bio Analytical Systems. The various instrumental parameters were optimized for the CV-50W Voltammetric Analyzer through pareto analysis and simplex optimizations involving 159 trials. The working electrode used for these experiments was a glassy carbon electrode with a thin mercury film formed in situ. It has been determined that it is impossible to detect iron in dilute nitric acid solution with the procedures used in this research. However, it has al so been determined that copper in solution can be detected under these conditions with a detection limit of 1 ppm. Future work will involve quantifying the change in the copper calibration curve as a function of the concentration of the nitric acid. Once completed, this will allow the determination of solution conditions that will not dissolve copper (II) oxide powdered particles.

Board 24 PHYSICO-CHEMICAL COMPARISON OF AN OVER-THE-COUNTER SUPPLEMENT OF DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE (DHEA) TO PURIFIED DHEA. Feguens Bataille, fbataille@wilmington.edu Nicole Chamberlain, Utkarsh Acharya, (Donald Troike, don troike@wilmington.edu) Dept of Biology, Wilmington College, 251 Ludovic St., Wilmington OH 45177.

DHEA, a hormone with androgenic and estrogenic effects, is secreted by the adrenal gland, and is believed to enhance a wide range of physiological functions, including immune and nervous functions and fat metabolism. Because the secretion of DHEA declines with advancing age, a market for an over-the-counter (OTC) formulation of this hormone has developed among older adults. A previous study demonstrated that purified DHEA (Sigma Chemical) significantly elevated serum sodium concentrations in male mice. If true in humans, older adults taking OTC-DHEA could be subject to elevated blood pressure. Preliminary studies indicate that the same dosage of an OTC-DHEA preparation (derived from plant sources) does not have the same effect. These results caused us to wonder whether the two compounds are chemically the same. An OTC brand of DHEA in a base of cellulose, calcium carbonate and gelatin was dissolved in chloroform to extract the DHEA. The chloroform fraction was evaporated and the recovered solid's melting point was determined and compared to purified DHEA (Sigma Chemical). Repeated samples showed no consistency, which probably reflects the presence of impurities. Infrared spectrometric analysis of three samples demonstrated, however, much similarity between the Sigma DHEA and the OTC-DHEA extract in functional groups and their location. NMR data analysis will be completed.

Board 25 A TEST FOR AGGREGATIVE BEHAVIOR IN THE ARBOREAL ASIAN TARANTULA POECILOTHERIA REGALIS (ARANAEA, THERAPHOSIDAE, SELENOCOSMIINAE). Melissa M. Varrecchia, varrecchiamm@hiram.edu Barbara Vasquez, vasquezb@hiram.edu Samuel D. Marshall, marshallsd@hiram.edu J.H. Barrow Field Station, Dept of Biology, Hiram College, Hiram OH 44234.

We examined aggregative behavior in the arboreal tarantula Poecilotheria regalis (Aranaea, Theraphosidae, Selenocosmiinae). This experiment was designed to test for mutual attraction (or repulsion) in group-reared spiders placed in groups in experimental containers with an equal number of spiders as retreats. The test spiders were captive bred and raised in groups often. The current studies were conducted when the spiders were approximately 1 year old. Each spider was individually paint-marked and placed into a 15 cm by 15 cm by 18 cm tall plastic container, in groups of four. In each of the four corners of the container there was a vertically-oriented retreat made of a clear plastic tube 2 cm wide and 10 cm long, open on both ends. We tested a total of 20 groups of 4 spiders each. Each morning for five mornings all spiders were located and their location (retreat number) was noted. For the first morning' s census, most spiders were grouped (66 out of 80). When we tested the condition of all spiderlings (solitary, or in a group of two, three, or four) against an expectation of random retreat choice we found no significant difference (chi sq. = 5.25, 3 df). While there was no evidence for mutual attraction based on an expectation of random settlements in a retreat, there was no repulsion either. We did find that this tendency to settle in retreats randomly in regard to group size changed across the five days, with spiderlings more often solitary or in smaller groups by the fifth morning.

Board 26 THE EFFECT OF SILTATION ON DISTRIBUTION OF ZEBRA MUSSELS (DREISSENA POLYMORPHA) IN ALUM CREEK, WESTER VILLE, OHIO. Danielle L. Konfal, dnllknfl@otterbein.edu (Michael A. Hoggarth, Mhoggarth@otterbein.edu) Otterbein College, Otterbox 10806, Westerville OH 43081.

Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) were accidentally introduced into the United States in 1986. Since then, they have been classified as a nuisance species because: 1) they are introduced; 2) they form large populations; and 3) they out-compete native species. In Ohio, zebra mussels were originally found in Lake Erie. Since then, they have spread to rivers and creeks, including Alum Creek in Westerville, Ohio. This study examines the microhabitat of zebra mussels in a creek, relative to flow characteristics. Changes in flow affect the amount of silt deposited on the substrate in a creek. The distributions of zebra mussels at two sites on Alum Creek are being determined by quadrat sampling. Turbidity, sedimentation rates, depth, and flow characteristics are being measured at each of these sites. If zebra mussels are limited by high amounts of silt deposition, then we would expect them to be absent in pool habitats where silt deposition is greatest, and present in riffle and run habitats where deposition is less. Initial observations have shown that zebra mussels were not found on the tops of rocks in pool habitats where settlement rates of silt were high. However, they were found on the top surface of rocks in riffle habitats where silt deposition was less.

Board 27 MACROINVERTEBRATE COMMUNITY COMPOSITION AND ABUNDANCE IN TWO OHIO PONDS. Phirin Lorth, Lorth P@denison.edu (Dr. Jessica Rettig, Rettig@denison.edu) Slayter Box 1616, Denison University, Granville OH 43023.

Macroinvertebrates such as snails, clams, insect larvae, and worms, are common members of pond ecosystems, where they inhabit macrophytes and the pond bottom. Macroinvertebrates may be important consumers of detritus and plants and may serve as food for other invertebrates or fish. The purpose of this research was to examine the dynamics of the macroinvertebrate community in Ebaugh and Middleton ponds on Denison University's campus, Granville, Ohio. These ponds contain distinctly different macrophyte communities. While a low growing layer of Najas gracillima dominates Middleton, Ebaugh contains mixed beds of submerged macrophytes that fill the water column. Thus, the macroinvertebrates that inhabit these plants are likely to differ. From late May through late July 2001, eight macroinvertebrate collections were made in each pond, approximately every two weeks. For each collection a sweep net was used to sample invertebrates from an approximately half meter square area of the pond bottom. Each sample was sorted to separate the macroinvertebrates from plants and detritus. Invertebrates were identified, counted, and preserved in 95% ethanol. Invertebrates common to these ponds included snails (Gyraulus and Physella); Odonata, Ephemeroptera, Diptera, and Coleoptera larvae; Hemiptera and Coleoptera adults; leeches and other annelids; crustaceans; and flatworms. Results are not yet complete, however, it appears that macroinvertebrates are more abundant in Ebaugh pond than in Middleton pond, probably due to the vast difference in abundance of macrophytes that inhabit each pond. Ebaugh pond also appears to contain a wider diversity of macroinvertebrates than Middleton pond.

Board 28 HIGH TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON PHYSIOLOGICAL AGE IN THE CORIXID SIGARA MATHESONI. Elizabeth A. Kreakie, ekreakie@hotmail.com Stephen W. Chordas III, chordas.2@osu.edu Richard L. Stewart Jr., rstewart@malone.edu) Malone College, Dept of Natural Sciences, 51525th St, Canton OH 44709.

Sigara mathesoni is a cold water corixid that lives mainly in Canada and the northern United States. It has recently been found in a spring in Killbuck Marsh near Wooster, Ohio. This spring ranges from 8-11 [degrees] C throughout the year. The average temperature during the winter months is 9 [degrees] C and 10 [degrees] C in the summer months. This species appears restricted to these waters in Ohio. The purpose of this project is to explore the physiological affect of exposure to warm temperatures. We compared survival of specimens at differing temperatures under laboratory conditions and observed that at higher temperatures S. mathesoni dies more quickly. At room temperature, approximately 24 [degrees] C, mortality was only 2% after 3 days and mortality was 100 % after 5 days. This is in stark contrast to the sample placed at 10 [degrees] C. Mortality was miniscule (2%) after a three-week period. This leads us to believe that either the metabolism of these insects may increase at high temperatures far above their basal metabolic rate, resulting in starvation, or that the metabolism stops at higher temperatures because the enzymes cannot function in such a wide temperature range. In order to see if the metabolism stops or increases we will place S. mathesoni at 3 different temperatures; normal (10 [degrees] C), warm (24 [degrees] C), and median (17 [degrees] C). Every other day, a number oflive S. mathesoni will be removed from each container and frozen at -70 [degrees] C. Laterthese will be tested for both lipid and glucose levels by dissolving the lipids and glucose into solution and inducing a color change within these compounds detectible by a spectrophotometer. This should allow us to determine the decline rate in different temperature groups. If these compound levels in the higher temperature groups show a faster decline this may indicate that the water temperature causes the metabolic rates of S. mathesoni to increase well above their basal rate. If there is no change in their metabolic reserves their metabolism likely shuts down due to lack of enzymatic activity.

Board 29 LOCALIZATION OF APUTATIVE NA-K-2CL COTRANSPORTER IN MANDUCASEXTA TISSUES. Neal Heilman, heilmann@kenyon.edu Christopher M. Gillen, Gillenc@kenyon.edu Dept of Biology, Kenyon College, Gambier OH 43022.

The Na-K-2Cl cotransporter(NKCC) is a membrane bound protein(~200 kDa) found in a variety of plant and animal tissues. It has 12 membrane spanning domains, cytoplasmic N and C termini, and is well conserved among species. NKCCs are known to play a role in transepithelial ion movement, cell volume regulation, and intracellular chloride ion concentration. Two isoforms have been identified in vertebrates. NKCC1 is a widely-distributed isoform found on the basolateral membrane of secretory tissues. NKCC2 is found in absorptive cells of the kidney. This study examined the pattern of tissue expression of a putative NKCC in the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, testing the hypothesis that NKCC is restricted to the Malpighian tubule. Malpighian tubule, midgut, nerve, fat, and salivary gland tissues were examined for the presence of NKCC by denaturing gel electrophoresis and western blotting, using a polyclonal antibody that we have developed against a C-terminal region of the M. sexta NKCC. The antibody strongly recognized proteins from Malpighian tubule and midgut membrane preparations that migrated at ~90 kDa and ~200 kDa. Based on densitometry, antibody reactivity was 36 [+ or -] 23% (mean [+ or -] S.E., N=3) greater in the midgut than in the Malpighian tubule. A similar pattern was observed in salivary gland membranes at much lower intensity. The expression pattern of the putative NKCC in several tissues of M. sexta is similar to the pattern of vertebrate NKCC 1 expression.

Board 30 ZOOPLANKTON ASSEMBLAGE DYNAMICS IN TWO OHIO PONDS. Linda S. Schuman, schuma l@denison.edu (Jessica Rettig, rettig@denison.edu) Slayter Box2405, Denison University, Granville OH 43023. Zooplankton, tiny crustaceans and insects that live in ponds and lakes, are a vital link between producers and consumers in the food web of aquatic ecosystems. This study compared zooplankton composition and species abundance in two Ohio ponds, sampled throughout the early summer. Ebaugh Pond and Middleton Pond are located on the campus of Denison University, Granville, Ohio. Ebaugh is stream-fed and also receives runoff that may contain fertilizers. It contains abundant macrophyte beds and has little open water. Middleton is a spring-fed pond. The surrounding land is fallow and runoff does not contain fertilizers. There are very few macrophytes in Middleton and most of the pond is open water. Because these ponds differ in their level of macrophyte coverage and nutrient input, it was proposed that the zooplankton assemblage in each would differ during the sampling period. Zooplankton were collected once a week from May 29, 2001 to July 23, 2001. Three zooplankton samples were collected via a vertical tow using an 80-micron net from the deepest point in each pond. Zooplankton samples were preserved using Lugol's solution. In the lab, zooplankton were processed by identifying and counting individuals of each taxa present in a sub-sample of the original sample. Each pond contained a diverse assemblage of zooplankton taxa with a high degree of species overlap between the ponds. Nine species were found in Ebaugh, and seven of these species were also found in Middleton. Total zooplankton density in the two ponds did not differ during the study.
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Publication:The Ohio Journal of Science
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Date:Mar 1, 2002
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